The Fat Cell 12: The Birth of the Fat Cell
How to Change a Light Bulb
In the bone marrow, lurks a nursery. Blood cells blossom from a rich mix of stem cells that usually become either a myeloid progenitor or a lymphoid progenitor. The lymphoid progenitor goes on to have an illustrious career as either a T or a B cell. Exit stage left.
The myeloid progenitor commences a series of contortions common to all teenage life forms and becomes a whole host of various cells: red blood cells, platelets, a variety of useful but sometimes viciously aggressive immune cells, and adipocytes, the fat cells.
Initially, the fat cell was not considered an immune cell but lo, evidence emerges. There are over fifty adipokines/cytokines released from the fat cell. Cytokines are substances secreted from cells that affect other cells. In particular, adipokines are secreted from adipose tissue, a mass of adipocytes also known as fat cells - which leads us back to our old friend, leptin which is just one of the fifty plus molecules that the fat cell secretes. We looked at leptin briefly in its role as an appetite suppressor but leptin turns out to be multitalented.
Leptin recap: In lean individuals leptin works as an appetite suppressant by signaling fullness in the hypothalamus in the brain; but obesity yields leptin resistance. There is more leptin in the blood but less is allowed into the brain.
Research is in early stages but it appears that leptin also effects the immune system. A leptin deficit seems to impair immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils, which show less ability to dispose of invading molecules or even to dispose of itself when it is finished functioning. The immune cells also exhibit changes to the quantity of molecules they secret. Exactly what this means for obese individuals is yet to be determined but the research demonstrates the importance to immunity of a balanced quantity of leptin molecules in the blood stream.
I will be delving much more into the fat cell as an immune cell in future. There is much to cover. The fat cell, despite its appearance, is not a simple cell. In this era of rampant infections from increasingly unpleasant microorganisms, being lean may not only keep a body safer from chronic diseases like heart disease and diabetes but it looks like it may help serve as a shield to deadly infections.
Weighing in at 183.00 lbs. As a segue way to from the first half of this article, consider this. Stresses lead to a decrease in immunity. Pain is a stress. 40% of people in the United States have periodic sciatica pain.
In an effort to avoid future bone-crushing agony, I’ve done a little research and had a light bulb moment. I discovered to my horror that as an aerobics instructor fifteen years ago I did some exercises that were truly a bad idea for long-term physical fitness. In my defense, I was a certified aerobics instructor with the American Council of Exercise. To be fair to the ACE, they gave you a basis for understanding exercise and not a series of actual exercise nor was the certification a master's course in physical therapy. On the other hand, several of these exercises were standard fare among instructors which is terrible. Education on how the human body works is an ongoing process, both as an individual and as a culture.
Bob and Brad give a synopsis on what not to do and why.
But here is the short-list of the exercises NOT to do in order to keep the back functioning as long as possible:
1. Windmills (or toe touches) - I knew enough not to do those! 2. V-sits. 3.Loaded side bends 4.Jumping with knees turned in at all. They need to be directly in line with the foot. This is terrible for the knees, too . (I never did these either - just saying . . . ) 5.Quad extension machine
And here’s a fix. The explanation is valuable - even if his puppet friend is too skinny.
Yes, I am walking around the house with my arm raised above my head. How many people correcting sciatica does it take to change a light bulb?
One half; because we're already halfway there.
About the Creator
D. Thea Baldrick
By wedding two strange bedfellows, bachelor degrees in Biology and Literature, the resulting chimeric offspring are stories laced with science. I publish with thecollector.com and Underland Arcana. Unearth at dthea.com
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