Zhang Zhongjing, a male, of Han nationality, was born in Nanyang, Henan Province in about 150 AD. He was educated in the Eastern Han Dynasty and served as prefect of Changsha city during the time of Emperor Ling of the Han Dynasty.
Zhang Zhongjing was praised as the "sage of medicine" by later generations. His medical skills were superb. He cured many patients suffering from difficult diseases with the skills obtained from hard study and practice. He had noble medical ethics. When he saw the epidemic of diseases in Henan, he abandoned his official position and returned to his hometown to treat diseases for the masses of people. He was brilliant in medicine, and wrote the famous medical book "Treatise on Typhoid and Miscellaneous Diseases", which was the first time in the history of Chinese medicine to propose dialectical treatment, and formed a unique Chinese medical ideology system. It is not only respected by the domestic medical scientists in the past dynasties but also imitated by the Japanese, Korean, European, and American medical scientists, known as "the emperor of the Dharma, the ancestor of the group, the sage of the medical door."
Zhang Zhongjing was born in a bureaucratic family in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. His father, Zhang Zonghan, was an official with an intellectual background. Since he was a child, he read the story of Bian Que visiting Duke Huan of Qi from the history books. He admired Bian Que's superb medical skills very much and was determined to be a doctor who healed the wounded and saved the dying when he grew up.
In 161 AD, Zhang Zhongjing, at the age of 11, became a teacher of Zhang Bozu in the same county and learned the art of medicine. Zhang Bozu was a famous medical scientist at that time. He had a calm personality. Every time he treated patients and prescribed prescriptions, he was very careful and thoughtful. Nine out of ten patients he treated were able to recover, so Zhang was respected by the people. Another fellow, He Yi, who was older than him, studied medicine with Zhang Zhongjing. He admired Zhang Zhongjing's hard work in medicine. He once said: "You use thought Jing and rhyme are not high after will be a good doctor." It means that Zhang Zhongjing was brilliant, thoughtful and studious, intelligent, and prudent, but he did not have the temperament and style to be an official, so he was unfit to be an official. As long as you concentrate on studying medicine, you will become a famous doctor in the future. The miraculous healing story of the doctor
Break superstition and treat mental illness
In the ancient feudal society, superstition and witchcraft prevailed, and witches and demons took advantage of the trend to deceive people and obtain money. Zhang Zhongjing hated these witch doctors and demons very much.
One day, he met a woman who laughed and cried, always suspicious. The patient's family members listen to the witch's deception, that he is "haunted by ghosts", to ask the witch for her "exorcism". Zhang Zhongjing observed the patient's appearance and pathological condition and inquired about the patient. Then he said to the patient's family, "She is not haunted by a ghost at all, but 'blood enters the house, which is caused by a great stimulus. Her illness is entirely curable. The real ghosts are those wicked witches, they are 'living ghosts', must not let them entangled in the patient, otherwise, the patient will be in danger of life." With the consent of the patient's family, he researched the treatment and injected the patient with several needles. After a few days, the woman slowly recovered. Zhang Zhongjing treated her for some time and she recovered. From then on, when some poor people became ill, they no longer believed in the witch doctor's nonsense but turned to Zhang Zhongjing for treatment. The earliest use of the anal suppository laxative method
Once, there is a patient with stool dry knot, who can not be discharged, can not eat food, very weak. Zhang Zhongjing made a careful examination and confirmed that it was a kind of constipation caused by a high fever. Encounter constipation at that time, it is to let the patient take the medicine that sheds fire commonly. But the patient is very weak, and if he takes laxatives, he won't be able to withstand it. But need not a laxative, defecate is impassable, heat evil cannot exclude. What to do? After careful consideration, Zhang decided to try something new: he took some honey, fried it dry, squeezed it into thin strips, made a "medicine ingot", and slowly stuffed it into the patient's anus. "Medicine ingot" into the intestine, soon dissolved, and the dry stool was dissolved open, a while on the row down. Smooth stool, heat evil discharged body, the patient's condition immediately improved. This is the earliest use of the anal suppository laxative method in the history of Chinese medicine.
The pioneer of artificial respiration
On another occasion, when Zhang Zhongjing was out, he saw many people sighing around a man lying on the ground, and several women crying miserably. As soon as he inquired, he knew that the man had hanged himself because his family was too poor to live, and was found dead when he was saved. Knowing that the time to hang himself was not long, Zhang Zhongjing quickly ordered the man to be placed on the bedboard and pulled the quilt to keep him warm. At the same time called two strong young men, squatting beside the man, massaging the chest, while picking up the arms, together landing activities. Zhang Zhongjing himself spread his feet, squatting on the bed board, with the palm of his hand against the waist and abdomen of the man, with the movement of arms down together, one release one pressure. Within an hour, the man was breathing weakly. Zhang Zhongjing told everyone not to stop the action, and to continue to do it. After a while, the man finally came to himself. This is the artificial respiration that is now widely used in first aid.
The origin of the sitting Doctor
Although Zhang Zhongjing hated officialdom and despised official career from childhood. But as his father had been an official in the imperial court, he was very important to him. Zhang Zhongjing did not want to disobey his father's orders, so in 188 AD, under the reign of Emperor Ling of the Han Dynasty, he obtained a degree in filial piety and entered the official ranks. In 196 AD, he was sent to Changsha, Hunan Province to be a prefect. But he still used his medical skills to relieve the suffering of the people. In feudal times, officials were not allowed to enter homes and approach the people. But you can't treat people without touching them. Then Zhang Zhongjing came up with an idea. On the first and fifteenth days of each month, he opened the yamen wide and let the sick people in. He sat upright in the hall and carefully treated the people one by one. He asked the yamen to put up a placard to inform the people of this news. His action produced a strong shock in the local people all clapped their hands in celebration.
Later, the doctor who sat in the medicine shop to treat people was called "sitting in the hall doctor" to commemorate Zhang Zhongjing.
Beginning with Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty in 196 AD, there were many wars. In less than 10 years, two-thirds of Zhang Zhongjing's family, which originally numbered more than 200 people, died of the plague, and seven out of ten of them died of typhoid fever.
He decided to control the epidemic of the plague and cure typhoid. From then on, he studied the ancient medical books assiduously, inherited the basic theory of the "Neijing" and other classical medical books, and widely borrowed the treatment methods of other doctors, combined with personal clinical diagnosis experience, to study the treatment of typhoid and miscellaneous diseases.
At this time, the Eastern Han Dynasty has torn apart. Zhang Zhongjing could not work as an official and could not return home. In 205 AD, he went to Lingnan to live in seclusion and began to write Treatise on Typhoid and Miscellaneous Diseases. In 210 AD, he finally wrote an epoch-making clinical medicine masterpiece "Treatise on Typhoid and Miscellaneous Diseases", a total of 16 volumes. Later generations organized into two books, Treatise on Febrilemic Diseases and Synopsis of the Golden Chamber. The theory of typhoid and miscellaneous diseases has made an important contribution to the development of traditional Chinese medicine etiology theory and prescription theory. Later, the book was regarded as the "ancestor of Fangshu", and Zhang Zhongjing was also praised as the "Master of Jingfang".
After writing this book, Zhang Zhongjing still devoted himself to the study of medicine until he died in 219 AD at the age of 69. In 285 AD, after Sima Yan unified the world, Zhang Zhongjing's body was brought back to his hometown for burial, and the Medical shrine and Zhongjing tomb were built in Nanyang, Henan Province.