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Unveiling the Mughal Mastery of Calligraphy

Taj Mahal

By afifaPublished 6 months ago 5 min read
Unveiling the Mughal Mastery of Calligraphy
Photo by Jovyn Chamb on Unsplash

The Taj Mahal, an expansive tomb constructed from white marble in Agra, India, during the years spanning from 1631 to 1648, was commissioned by the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan to commemorate his beloved wife. This architectural wonder represents the pinnacle of Muslim artistic expression on the Indian subcontinent and is celebrated as one of the universally revered treasures within the global cultural heritage.


The Taj Mahal stands in gorgeous Mughal gardens in the Taj Ganj district of Agra, a historic but noisy city of four million people on the hot, dusty plains of Uttar Pardesh in northern India.

Agra has a reputation as a hectic spot, but its historic wonders – not just the Taj, but nearby Agra Fort, and a string of other Mughal monuments – make it worth braving the touts, pollution, and persistent rickshaw drivers.

By Sylwia Bartyzel on Unsplash


While the Taj Mahal is often eloquently characterized as a supreme testament to love, its true essence lies in the poignant saga of tragedy. The demise of Mumtaz Mahal, the principal consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, during childbirth in the year 1631, left the emperor heartbroken and compelled him to dedicate a significant portion of his life and considerable resources to the creation of a sepulcher befitting the magnitude of his profound affection.

This architectural marvel was ultimately brought to completion in 1648, following years of meticulous sculpting and carving by the most accomplished artisans within the Mughal empire. The queen consort was laid to rest in a secluded chamber nestled at the core of this monumental structure, and when Shah Jahan himself passed away in 1666, he was laid to rest beside his cherished wife, thus uniting their souls for eternity.


Flawless Balance:

The Taj Mahal, with its resplendent domes and intricate marble latticework, exudes a remarkable sense of equilibrium and harmony, displaying impeccable bilateral symmetry. This precise symmetrical arrangement encompasses an axis that gracefully extends through the heart of the primary dome and the meticulously designed gardens that envelop it. However, the sole departure from this symmetrical precision is discerned within the burial chamber.

Within the sanctified confines of the burial chamber, an asymmetry surfaces, as the final resting place of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan is subtly situated to one side, in contrast to the interment of Mumtaz Mahal, his beloved wife, which occupies the geometric center of this monumental structure. This intriguing disparity adds a poignant and deeply personal touch to the overall symmetrical grandeur of the Taj Mahal.

By Shashidhar S on Unsplash

Truly Extraordinary Dome:

The graceful and intricately designed onion-shaped dome crowning the Taj Mahal serves as a remarkable exemplification of the intricate geometrical principles that typify Islamic architecture. This architectural marvel consists of a central dome, which boasts a height nearly equivalent to that of the edifice below and is symmetrically accompanied by four smaller domes that flank its sides.

The central dome derives its structural integrity from the support provided by a set of eight subtly angled ogive arches. These arches play a pivotal role in the seamless transformation of the Taj Mahal's original square floor plan into a harmonious circular structure, thus exemplifying the ingenious geometry underpinning this iconic monument's aesthetics and structural soundness.

Unparalleled craftsmanship of the stonemasonry:

Despite its appearance, which suggests that it was meticulously sculpted from lustrous white marble, the Taj Mahal is, in fact, a testament to the artistry of stone facing. Concealed behind exquisitely carved marble panels and intricate perforated screens lies a structural framework constructed from brick and lime mortar. This inner structure, though fundamental to the monument's stability, remains entirely concealed from view within the open areas of the Taj Mahal.

For a more in-depth exploration of this particular style of Mughal architecture, one can delve into the history and design of Khan-i-Khanan’s Tomb in Delhi. It is worth noting that this structure underwent a transformation in which its sandstone and marble veneer were removed to be repurposed in the construction of a tomb for a Mughal dignitary of higher rank. This fascinating example underscores the intricate and resourceful nature of Mughal architectural practices.

By Setu Chhaya on Unsplash

Splendid embellishments:

While not the sole Mughal marvel adorned with pietra dura, the Taj Mahal unquestionably shines as the paragon of this craft. From a distance, the Taj Mahal gleams brilliantly in pure white, captivating onlookers. Yet, a closer examination unveils an enchanting tapestry of meticulous details, featuring intricate filigree scrollwork, delicate leaves, and ornate Islamic motifs. Crafted with a rich array of precious materials like marble, jasper, lapis lazuli, carnelian, and malachite, this artistry epitomizes the zenith of pietra dura in Mughal architecture.

Aesthetic calligraphy:

The Taj Mahal exhibits four pishtaqs, arched recesses, distributed across its four sides. These architectural features are adorned with excerpts from the Quran, artfully inscribed in intricate calligraphy. This calligraphy is meticulously crafted from narrow strips of jasper that are seamlessly embedded within marble panels. A fascinating aspect of this design is the deliberate variation in the size of the script as it ascends the walls of the monument. Despite this size differential, when observed from ground level, the calligraphy presents an illusion of uniformity. This phenomenon attests to the profound architectural expertise and ingenuity of the artisans responsible for the Taj Mahal's construction.

By Anubhav Arora on Unsplash

Garden of delights:

The images of global dignitaries striking poses near the terminus of the decorative water bodies in front of the Taj Mahal are a well-known sight. Notably, both the primary gardens nestled within the complex and the often-referred-to "moonlight garden" situated on the northern bank of the Yamuna River are meticulously designed to replicate the concept of "charbagh," a representation of the four gardens of paradise. It's worth highlighting the evident influence of Islamic geometric principles in the garden layout – the flowerbeds are meticulously shaped in a manner reminiscent of the "rub el hizb," an Islamic star, and the presence of water features thoughtfully divides each quadrant of the gardens into precisely equal sections, offering a visually harmonious and symmetrical display.

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