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Diwali: The Festival of Lights and Feasts in India

Celebrating Diwali is not just about observing customs; it is about creating cherished memories, fostering connections, and spreading happiness and goodwill. Diwali Mubarak!

By ED CLEFF Published 2 months ago 6 min read
Diwali: The Festival of Lights and Feasts in India
Photo by Sonika Agarwal on Unsplash


Diwali, also known as Deepavali, is one of the most significant and widely celebrated festivals in India. Known as the "Festival of Lights," Diwali symbolizes the victory of light over darkness, good over evil, and knowledge over ignorance. While Diwali is celebrated by various communities across India, each with its unique customs and traditions, the common thread that binds all these celebrations is the spirit of joy, prosperity, and the sharing of sumptuous feasts.

The Significance of Diwali

Diwali's significance is rooted in various ancient stories and legends, which differ slightly across regions and religions but all share a common theme of victory and renewal.

1. Hinduism: For Hindus, Diwali marks the return of Lord Rama, his wife Sita, and his brother Lakshmana to Ayodhya after a 14-year exile and their victory over the demon king Ravana. The citizens of Ayodhya lit oil lamps to welcome them back, thus the tradition of lighting lamps and fireworks.

2. Jainism: For Jains, Diwali commemorates the attainment of nirvana by Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara, in 527 BCE.

3. Sikhism: Sikhs celebrate Diwali to mark the release of their sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind Ji, from imprisonment in 1619. The Golden Temple in Amritsar is beautifully illuminated during this time.

4. Buddhism: In some regions, Buddhists celebrate Diwali to honor the conversion of Emperor Ashoka to Buddhism.

Preparations for Diwali

The preparations for Diwali begin weeks in advance, with households engaging in thorough cleaning, renovation, and decoration. This period is considered auspicious for buying new clothes, jewelry, and household items. Markets are abuzz with people shopping for gifts, sweets, and decorative items.

1. Cleaning and Decorating: Homes are cleaned to welcome the goddess Lakshmi, the deity of wealth and prosperity. It is believed that Lakshmi visits clean and well-lit homes on Diwali night. Decorative items such as rangoli (intricate patterns made on the floor using colored powders or flower petals), torans (decorative door hangings), and fairy lights adorn homes.

2. Diwali Shopping: Shopping is a major activity during Diwali, with people buying new clothes, gifts, and sweets. The festival is also associated with Dhanteras, an auspicious day for purchasing precious metals and utensils, symbolizing good fortune.

The Five Days of Diwali

Diwali is not just a single-day celebration; it spans five days, each with its own significance and rituals.

1. Dhanteras: The first day of Diwali, known as Dhanteras, is dedicated to the worship of Dhanvantari, the god of health and medicine. People buy gold, silver, and new utensils on this day, believing it will bring good luck and prosperity.

2. Naraka Chaturdashi (Choti Diwali): The second day, also known as Choti Diwali, marks the victory of Lord Krishna over the demon Narakasura. Homes are decorated with lamps and people prepare sweets and snacks for the main Diwali day.

3. Lakshmi Puja (Main Diwali): The third day is the main Diwali festival, dedicated to the worship of Goddess Lakshmi. People perform Lakshmi Puja in the evening, lighting oil lamps and bursting fireworks to celebrate. Families exchange gifts and sweets, and a grand feast is prepared.

4. Govardhan Puja: The fourth day, Govardhan Puja, commemorates Lord Krishna's lifting of the Govardhan Hill to protect villagers from torrential rains. People in some regions build small mounds of cow dung symbolizing Govardhan Hill and decorate them with flowers.

5. Bhai Dooj: The fifth and final day of Diwali is Bhai Dooj, dedicated to the bond between brothers and sisters. Sisters pray for their brothers' long life and prosperity, and brothers give gifts in return.

The Diwali Feast

Food is an integral part of Diwali celebrations, with families preparing a wide variety of sweets and savory dishes to share with friends and neighbors. The Diwali feast reflects the rich culinary diversity of India, with each region boasting its own special recipes and delicacies.

1. Sweets (Mithai): Diwali is synonymous with sweets. Traditional Indian sweets or mithai are made from ingredients like milk, sugar, and ghee. Some popular Diwali sweets include:

Ladoo: Round sweet balls made from flour, sugar, and ghee. Varieties include besan ladoo, motichoor ladoo, and coconut ladoo.

Barfi: A dense, milk-based sweet available in flavors like pista (pistachio), kaju (cashew), and coconut.

Jalebi: Deep-fried spirals soaked in sugar syrup, known for their crispy texture and syrupy sweetness.

Rasgulla: Soft, spongy balls made from chhena (Indian cottage cheese) soaked in sugar syrup.

2. Savory Snacks: Diwali also features an array of savory snacks that complement the sweetness of mithai. Some popular snacks include:

Samosas: Deep-fried pastry filled with spicy potato filling.

Kachori: A flaky, deep-fried pastry filled with spiced lentils or peas.

Chakli: Spiral-shaped, deep-fried snacks made from rice flour and lentil flour.

Mathri: Crisp, flaky crackers made from flour and spices.

3. Main Courses: The main meal of Diwali is a lavish spread, often featuring a mix of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes depending on regional preferences. Common dishes include:

Pulao or Biryani: Fragrant rice dishes cooked with spices, vegetables, and sometimes meat.

Paneer Dishes: Paneer (Indian cottage cheese) cooked in rich gravies like paneer butter masala or palak paneer.

Dal: Lentil dishes like dal makhani or chana dal.

Chole: Spiced chickpeas cooked in a tomato-based gravy.

Roti/Naan: Various types of Indian bread like roti, naan, or puri.

4. Drinks: To complement the meal, traditional beverages are served, such as:

Thandai: A spiced milk drink made with almonds, fennel seeds, and saffron.

Lassi: A yogurt-based drink, either sweet or salty, often flavored with fruits or spices.

Cultural Activities and Celebrations

Diwali is not just about food; it is also a time for various cultural activities that bring communities together.

1. Lighting Diyas and Fireworks: Lighting oil lamps (diyas) and bursting fireworks are central to Diwali celebrations. Diyas are placed around homes, on windowsills, and along pathways to symbolize the triumph of light over darkness. Fireworks are set off to celebrate and drive away evil spirits.

2. Rangoli: Creating rangoli designs is a popular activity during Diwali. These colorful patterns are made on the floors using colored powders, rice, or flower petals. They are believed to bring good luck and are a way to welcome guests.

3. Visiting Temples: Many families visit temples during Diwali to offer prayers and seek blessings. Temples are beautifully decorated with lights and flowers, and special prayers and rituals are conducted.

4. Exchanging Gifts: Exchanging gifts is a common practice during Diwali. Gifts typically include sweets, dry fruits, decorative items, and clothing. It is a way to express love and affection and strengthen social bonds.

5. Community Events: In many communities, public Diwali events are organized, including fairs, cultural performances, and charity drives. These events foster a sense of community and allow people to celebrate together.

Modern Celebrations and Global Influence

While traditional practices remain integral to Diwali, modern influences have also shaped the way the festival is celebrated, especially in urban areas and among the Indian diaspora.

1. Eco-friendly Diwali: There is a growing awareness about the environmental impact of fireworks, leading to a trend towards eco-friendly Diwali celebrations. People are opting for green crackers, reducing the number of fireworks, and using sustainable materials for decorations.

2. Virtual Celebrations: With the advent of technology, virtual celebrations have become popular, especially during times when physical gatherings are not possible. Families and friends connect through video calls, share digital greetings, and even host virtual puja ceremonies.

3. Global Diwali: The Indian diaspora celebrates Diwali with great enthusiasm, organizing events that showcase Indian culture and traditions. Cities around the world, including New York, London, and Sydney, host Diwali festivals featuring music, dance, and food, highlighting the global appeal of this vibrant festival.


Diwali, with its rich tapestry of rituals, food, and cultural activities, is a celebration that brings people together in the spirit of joy, prosperity, and unity. Whether it is the flickering diyas, the taste of delicious mithai, or the laughter shared with loved ones, Diwali embodies the essence of community and tradition. As the Festival of Lights continues to illuminate hearts and homes across the world, it serves as a reminder of the enduring power of light, hope, and togetherness. Celebrating Diwali is not just about observing customs; it is about creating cherished memories, fostering connections, and spreading happiness and goodwill. Diwali Mubarak!

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Comments (1)

  • Dharrsheena Raja Segarran2 months ago

    I celebrate Deepavali. Samosas and paneer are my favourite!


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