Investigation the potential of nanocarriers in gene therapy
Certain cancers and related nanocarriers In all cases, tumours are primarily brought on by mutations or other defects in the tumour suppressor genes, which prevent cell growth and promote programmed cell death (apoptosis), or in the proto-oncogenes, which control cell proliferation and differentiation. The development of malignant cells with their distinct characteristics of unchecked cell growth, inability to stop excessive cell division, lack of apoptosis, and capacity to penetrate nearby and distant tissues is caused by these altered genes. Radiation, chemical agents, such as carcinogens, physical irritants, hereditary factors, and viruses are risk factors for genetic alterations. One of the most deadly diseases in the world, tumours are on the rise, with more than 10 million new cases reported each year.
Types of nanocarriers
Virus based nanoparticles: VNPs, or virus-based nanoparticles VNPs, also known as virus-like particles (VLPs), are uniformly shaped, self-assembled nanosized (about 100 nm), strong protein cages. These viruses come from a variety of sources, including plants (cowpea chlorotic mottle virus [CCMV], cowpea mosaic virus [CPMV], red clover necrotic mosaic virus [RCNMV], and tobacco mosaic virus [TMV]), insects (flock house virus), bacteria (MS2, M13, Q), and animal viruses (adenovirus, polyomavirus). VNPs, an emerging nanocarrier platform, have a number of appealing qualities, including as morphological homogeneity, biocompatibility, and simplicity in surface functionalization.
Introduction to nanocarriers: Nanocarriers are colloidal drug delivery systems with submicron particles, usually 500 nm or smaller 1. Over the past few decades, there has been a lot of research done on nanocarriers since they have shown great promise for medication delivery. Due to their high surface area to volume ratio, nanocarriers can change the fundamental characteristics and bioactivity of medicines. Some of the characteristics that nanocarriers can include in drug delivery systems include enhanced pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, lower toxicities, improved solubility and stability, controlled release, and site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents.
Polyenes, Nystatin and mode of action of different antifungal drugs.
Polyenes Nystatin and amphotericin are polyenes, which are active against some fungi but have little action on mammalian cells and no action on bacteria. They bind to cell membranes and interfere with permeability and transport functions as well as they kill fungal cells by making the fungal cell wall more porous, which makes the fungal cell prone to burst.
Investigating the potential of nanocarriers in targeted gene therapy.
Investigating the potential of nanocarriers in targeted gene therapy Introduction: Targeted gene therapy is one of the many applications that nanocarriers, which are specialized delivery systems at the nanoscale, have the potential to be extremely useful for. These nanoscale vehicles offer a platform for regulated encapsulation and delivery of therapeutic substances, such as genes, medications, or diagnostic agents, to certain cells or tissues. By utilising the special qualities of nanoparticles, nanocarriers provide a number of benefits over conventional delivery techniques, creating new opportunities for precise and effective treatment procedures.
Introduction: A pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic called an antifungal medicine, also referred to as an antimycotic medication, is used to treat and prevent mycosis, including athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), and dangerous systemic infections such cryptococcal meningitis. Fungi can be found throughout the world in all kinds of environments. Most fungi don’t cause disease in people. However, some species can infect humans and cause illness. Antifungal drugs are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. While most fungal infections affect areas such as the skin and nails, some can lead to more serious and potentially life threatening conditions like meningitis or pneumonia.
Viruses, fungi, bacteria, and parasites The term "germs" refers to pathogenic bacteria or microbes. We typically hear about three main categories of germs: bacteria, viruses, and fungus. Protozoa, the fourth category, are an example of a parasite. There are more parasite species that can spread illnesses.
Eukaryotic organisms Eukaryote creatures consist of one or more cells, each of which has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other organelles. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that they have organelles that are membrane-bound, particularly the nucleus, which is surrounded by the nuclear envelope and houses the genetic material. Other membrane-bound organelles like the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria are also present in eukaryotic cells. Chloroplasts are also found in plants and algae. Eukaryotic organisms might have one cell or many. Only eukaryotes possess a wide variety of tissues composed of several cell types.
Biosensors Introduction: Innovative tools called biosensors combine biological elements with transducers to find and quantify different biological or chemical analytes. By offering quick and sensitive detection capabilities, these analytical tools have revolutionized a number of industries, including medicine, environmental monitoring, food safety, and many others.
FILTERATION By transferring the mixture through a filter that traps the solid particles while allowing the fluid or gas to pass through, filtration is a technique used to separate solids from liquids or gases. It is a widely used method to clear liquids of contaminants, filter the air, or separate mixes in a variety of industries and daily applications.
SUBLIMATION Introduction A substance can shift from a solid to a gaseous state without first transitioning to a liquid form through a process known as sublimation. Sublimation completely avoids the liquid phase, in contrast to melting or vaporization, which require transitions between the solid and liquid, and the liquid and gas stages, respectively.