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  • Creative Writing
    Published 19 minutes ago
    Arcesilaus

    Arcesilaus

    Arcesilaus was an Ancient Hellenic scholar. He was the founder of scholarly scepticism, the Academy era in which academic scepticism was accepted in what is called the Second or Middle or Modern Academy. About 264 BC Arcesilaus as sixth scholar of the Academy succeeded Crates of Athens. He has not retained his observations in prose and his opinions can only be gleaned from what later writers hold in second hand. In Athens Arcesilaus met with the Pyrrhonist philosopher, Timon of Phlius, whose philosophy seems to have influenced Arcesilaus to become the first thinker to develop an attitude of philosophical cynicism, that is, he doubted the power of the senses to reveal the reality of the universe, although he may have preferred to believe in the very existence of nature. This has led to the pessimistic environment at the Academy. The chief opponent was the predecessor, the founder of Stoicism, Zeno of Citium, of whom Arcesilaus opposed the doctrine of catalepsy. Arcesilaus was born at Pitane, in Aeolis. He received his early education from Autolycus, the mathematician with whom he travelled to Sardis. He later studied rhetoric in Athens. He later studied philosophy, first becoming a follower of Theophrastus, and later Crantor. He also attended college at Pyrrho, whose philosophy he retained but in name. He was also acquainted with Athens 'Polemo and Crates, who nominated his counterpart to Arcesilaus as scholar of the Platonic Academy. Diogenes Laërtius claims that Arcesilaus died of drinking excessively, much like his successor Lacydes, but the accounts of some and his own precepts refute the storey. He is well known to have received a high esteem from the Athenians. Arcesilaus has not contributed something to the prose. His opinions among his contemporaries were imperfectly known, and can still be inferred only from the comments of his critics. It makes the evaluation of his hypothesis unlikely, albeit somewhat contrary. It has led scholars to see various facets of his cynicism. Some also considered his ideology inherently derogatory or detrimental to all political beliefs. Others consider him holding the opinion that his philosophical theories require nothing to be learnt. Others thought he had no constructive views on any philosophical subject, including the possibility of comprehension. Sextus Empiricus said Arcesilaus 'theory was essentially the same as the Pyrrhonism theory, but acknowledged it may have been superficial. In the one hand, Arcesilaus is said to have resurrected Plato's teachings in an uncorrupted form; while on the other hand, according to Cicero, he summarised his thoughts in the formula, "that he knew little, not even his own ignorance. There are two ways to understand the difficulty: either we may have supposed him to have thrown such aphorisms out as an exercise for his pupils, as Sextus Empiricus, who considers him a sceptic, would have us believe; or he may have just rejected Plato's metaphysical meaning, and supposed himself to have stripped his works of the figments of the Dogmatists, when he simply took it from Plato. The chief opponents of Arcesilaus were Citium Zeno and other Stoics. He opposed their catalêptikê phantasy theory as being interpreted to be a mean between knowledge and religion. He concluded it should not have been too bad. In words it involved a fallacy, as the very essence of phantasy indicated the possibility of the same event being represented both false and true. As such, it was merely the interpolation of a word. The Pyrrhonist scholar and friend of Arcesilaus, Timon of Phlius, ridiculed Arcesilaus in his Silloi but also praised him at the Funeral Banquet in Arcesilaus. In his Pensées, Blaise Pascal wrote about Arcesilaus where it states that I saw changes in all nations and women, and even after many changes in judgement on true justice, I realised that our society was still in perpetual flux, and since then I have not changed; even if I did, I would affirm my position.
  • Creative Writing
    Published 26 minutes ago
    Ammonius Saccas

    Ammonius Saccas

    Ammonius Saccas was an Egyptian philosopher from Alexandria who was at times regarded as one of the founders of Neoplatonism. He is best known as teacher Plotinus, whom he instructed for 11 years from 232 to 243. His adoption of Neoplatonism was probably the greatest influence on Plotinus, although his own theological views are less established. Christian scholars later said Ammonius was a Pagan, but it is now generally known that another Alexandrian Ammonius who composed biblical texts was there. Although several scholars have interpreted the cognomen Sakkas as suggesting that he was a porter in his youth, others have argued that this is Sakka's misreading of sakkophoros, which is grammatically incorrect and/or has connected the nickname to the Šākyas, an ancient Indian ruling tribe, and thus suggested that Ammonius Saccas was of Indian descent. Subsequently this latter interpretation was challenged and endorsed by more modern scholarship. Some scholars who advocate the view of Ammonius Saccas 'Indian heritage have argued that the aforementioned ethnicity is compatible with his chief student, Plotinus' love for India, and that it helps understand the philosophical parallels between Vedanta and Neoplatonism that are increasingly attributed to Indian influence. Any knowledge of his history derives from fragments left from the writings of Porphyry. The most influential pupil of Ammonius Saccas was Plotinus who had trained under Ammonius for 11 years. Plotinus had gone to Alexandria to study philosophy, at the age of 28, according to Porphyry. Ammonius 'parents were Christians according to Porphyry, but after learning Greek mythology, Ammonius abandoned his parents' religion for paganism. The Christian historians Jerome and Eusebius deny this conversion, stating that Ammonius remained a Christian throughout his lifetime: Longinus, however, tells us that Ammonius did not write anything, and if Ammonius is the dominant influence on Plotinus, then it is unlikely that Ammonius will have been a Christian. One way to explain much of Ammonius 'confusion is to say there were two men called Ammonius, Ammonius Saccas teaching Plotinus, and Christian Ammonius writing biblical texts. Another explanation may be that there was only one Ammonius but Origen, who found the Neo-Platonist beliefs of his teacher incompatible with his own belief in the fundamental life of Christianity, chose to deny Ammonius 'preference for Paganism over Christianity. This would be easier for Christians to accept the argument of Eusebius, Origen's student, and Jerome, all of whom were established Christian Church Fathers, that Ammonius Saccas had not rejected his Christian heritage than the assertion of Pagan's Prophyry that Ammonius had preferred Paganism over Christianity. To add to the intrigue, it seems that Ammonius has two students called Origen: Origen the Christian, and Origen the Pagan. This is pretty definitely Ammonius Saccas taught all Origens. And because two Figures were known as ancestors, it was convenient for later Christians to identify two people named Ammonius, one being a Christian and one being a Pagan. Herennius among Cassius Longinus, and other Ammonius pupils, were present. Writing in the 5th century, Hierocles states that Ammonius 'central philosophy was that Plato and Aristotle were in complete agreement with one another. A Neoplatonist and a Bishop c. According to 400 Ammonius Nemesius assumed that the soul was immaterial. Nothing is known regarding Ammonius 'role in the development of Neoplatonism. Porphyry appears to suggest that Ammonius had made Plotinus think about philosophy in various ways. Two of Ammonius 'students appear to have held philosophical opinions closer to Middle Platonism than Neoplatonism, which may suggest that Ammonius' doctrines were possibly close to those of Middle Platonism than Plotinus 'founded Neoplatonism, but Plotinus does not seem to have believed that he differed significantly from the philosophy of his mentor.
  • Creative Writing
    Published 28 minutes ago
    Anaxagoras

    Anaxagoras

    Anaxagoras was a Pre-Socratic-day Greek philosopher. Anaxagoras came to Athens, a native of Clazomenae at a period when Asia Minor was under Persian control. He was accused of impiety in later life, and went into exile in Lampsacus, according to Diogenes Laërtius and Plutarch; the allegations may have been political, owing to his association with Pericles, as they were made by later ancient biographers. In answer to the objections of Parmenides concerning the absence of transformation, Anaxagoras characterised the cosmos as a mixture of primary imperishable ingredients in which material distinction was never caused by the real presence of a single ingredient, but by its relative preponderance over the other ingredients. He developed the Nous concept as a driving force which transferred and separated from it the original, or almost homogeneous, mixture. He has also provided several pioneering interpretations of natural phenomena. He deduced a proper explanation for eclipses and described the Sun as a greater fiery disc than the Peloponnese, and even attempted to describe rainbows and meteors. It is believed that Anaxagoras in his home town of Clazomenae enjoyed a certain wealth and political power. However, he apparently discarded this out of fear that his search for truth would be impeded. Anaxagoras was a Greek resident of the Persian Empire who served in the Persian army; he may have been a member of the Persian regiments that conquered Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars. Although that remains vague, it will certainly explain why he came to Salamis in Athens year. Anaxagoras reportedly lived in Athens for 30 years. Pericles grew to love and admire him, and from the poet Euripides came a passion for knowledge and culture. Anaxagoras brought science to Greece from Ionia, and the philosophy of rational study. His observations of the celestial bodies and the meteorite collapse inspired him to develop new divine order theories and predict the meteorite effect. Plutarch notes that it is said that Anaxagoras had predicted that if any fall or jerk were to release the celestial bodies, one of them would be torn apart and crashed to earth. 'He had been credited with predicting the meteorite disaster in 467, according to Pliny. He tried to provide a scientific account of the eclipses, meteors, rainbows and the Sun he described as a master. He was the first to show that the Moon absorbs light from the Sun. He said that the World still had walls, and believed that it was populated. He believed the heavenly bodies were masses of stone torn from the planet and ignited by accelerated spin. He was the first to provide a straightforward explanation of eclipses, and was renowned as well as famed for his astronomy theories, including claims that the Sun is a lump of red-hot gold, that the Earth is earthy, and that the stars are fiery stones. He claimed the planet was flat and rotated under it, surrounded by 'strong' dust, and earthquakes were regularly caused by disturbances in the climate. Such speculations left him in Athens vulnerable to a accusation of impiety. Diogenes Laërtius relates the storey of Cleon being punished for impiety, but Plutarch states Pericles sent his former tutor, Anaxagoras, to Lampsacus for his own safety after the Peloponnesian war started to condemn him. According to Anaxagoras, all objects appeared in a manner from the outset, but initially they appeared in infinitesimally tiny pieces of themselves, limitless in dimension and inextricably entangled in the universe. Everything life within this mass continued but in a blurred and indistinguishable shape. There is an infinite number of homogeneous parts as well as an infinite number (but also heterogeneous parts).
  • Azazel Theiconofsin
    Published about 5 hours ago
    The Dark Chronicles

    The Dark Chronicles

    "Well then... Here we are, once again."
  • Steven Shinder
    Published about 7 hours ago
    Would We Have Watched 'Star Trek: Picard' If Picard Were Not In It?

    Would We Have Watched 'Star Trek: Picard' If Picard Were Not In It?

    The first season of the CBS All Access TV series Star Trek: Picard has wrapped up, stirring a lot of online fan discussion. Throughout the season, fans conversed back and forth about what they liked and disliked about the series, as is to be expected. In various online threads, people sometimes asked whether or not anyone would be watching the show if it were not focused on Picard. This question has been asked seemingly as a way to evaluate whether the story of this series would have been good enough to carry itself without a familiar character like Picard. My answer to this question is, "No," but for reasons that might not be what one might expect.
  • Q-ell Betton
    Published about 8 hours ago
    Altered Carbon: Resleeved

    Altered Carbon: Resleeved

    Brief synopsis: In a future where a person's consciousness and personality can be transferred to a new body - a sleeve - their life is housed in a small disc that is implanted into the spine at the neck called a stack. Takeshi Kovac (Ray Chase), the last envoy - an exceptional soldier with empathic abilities -, is re-sleeved in order to use his particular skillset to protect a young Yakuza tattooist, Holly (Brittany Cox) from a dangerous cabal of red-clad ninja assassins. He is also tasked with finding the killer of the Mizimoto clan’s leader.