Have you ever heard someone characterize someone else as choleric or melancholic? The four-temperament theory describes four main temperaments, of which there are only two. To put it simply, it informs us of their features, strengths, and weaknesses. Let's explore more about these temperaments! But what exactly are these four temperaments? Let's explore its 4 types and their importance.
The Four Temperaments
Temperament is a person's natural way of being and how they usually behave. Based on a person's temperament, there are four distinct ways to characterize their personality: four temperaments. These are:
The Choleric temperament gets its name from the word "bile" or a yellowish color. People with a Choleric temperament have the following characteristics:
Importance Of Choleric Temperaments
Extroverted And Arrogant
• Choleric individuals are very outgoing and sometimes get involved in other people's business instead of focusing on their own. They may talk a lot and at times say things that they shouldn't have thought through, all the while saying they're just being truthful.
• Cholerics are competitive by nature but have a strong aversion to losing. They are willing to do anything to maintain their dominance, even if it means lying to protect their reputation.
Aggressive And Dictatorship
• Choleric individuals are often seen as respected leaders who enjoy challenging others to help them reach their full potential, even though some people may find this intrusive.
• When faced with opposition, Cholerics tend to react in a confrontational or defensive manner. In difficult situations, they prefer to take charge rather than do nothing.
• Cholerics tend to be proud and often believe they are always right. They can be stubborn about admitting their flaws unless doing so makes them look better than others.
Liberty And The Leadership
• The bold and self-assured nature of Cholerics makes them natural leaders, but they may not always enjoy leadership positions due to negative perceptions from others.
• Sometimes, Cholerics may derive satisfaction from seeing others in pain, which reinforces their belief in their superior position.
• Cholerics value independence and view it as a symbol of superiority over others. Their strong self-esteem leads them to perceive dependence as a weakness.
The name "Sanguine" comes from the word for blood, and it refers to individuals who have certain qualities:
Importance Of Sanguine Temperament
Communicative And Artistic
• A Sanguine person is social and outgoing. They are expressive, talkative, and open with their emotions. They find social interactions interesting and have no trouble initiating conversations.
• Sanguines are not selective about who they interact with, even if they have just met someone. They enjoy being around people and feel happier when they have a lot of company. They seek attention and dislike being alone.
• Sanguines dislike being alone and easily become bored when there is no one around.
Friendly And Entertaining
• Sanguine individuals tend to talk more than they listen, and they may not be the most trustworthy when it comes to keeping secrets.
• Due to their outgoing nature, friendships with Sanguines may often remain superficial, limited to knowing faces and exchanging names.
• Describing a Sanguine, you can use words like talkative, energetic, and playful. They have a friendly and lively way of speaking and possess charisma.
Emotional And Uncertain
• Sanguine individuals are highly expressive when it comes to their emotions. They have a "live in the present" mentality.
• They openly express their affection and feelings, often through hugs, shoulder touches, and other physical gestures.
• Similar to Cholerics, Sanguines have high self-esteem and can be showy. They may boast about themselves without considering if it might offend others. Sanguines are not known for being neat or organized.
The word "phlegm," which is connected to inflammation, is where the term "phlegmatic" arises. However, despite this connection, the Phlegmatic temperament is ironically linked to a "cold" or "cool" personality. Here are the main characteristics of a Phlegmatic individual:
Importance Of Phlegmatic Temperament
Quiet And Introverted
• Those who are phlegmatic are usually quiet, reserved, and like to be by themselves. They enjoy spending time with a select few of their close friends.
• Phlegmatics prefer a calm and stable lifestyle. While they feel confident in familiar situations, they may feel anxious or overwhelmed in unfamiliar ones.
• They don't worry about getting bored. They enjoy being alone and don't expect others to entertain, make them happy, or motivate them.
Enthusiastic And Excellent Listeners
• Phlegmatic individuals may not display outward enthusiasm or passion for their activities. Their motivation comes from within, making it difficult for others to discern what drives their passion.
• They tend to keep their personal lives and achievements private, avoiding sharing their inner thoughts because they dislike being judged. They also consider talking about themselves as burdensome for others.
• Phlegmatics excel at listening and providing supportive feedback instead of harsh criticism. They are attentive listeners who offer understanding and encouragement to others.
Calm And Indecisive
• Phlegmatic individuals tend to be indecisive and easily defer to the choices of others when making decisions. They naturally feel more comfortable in follower roles rather than taking on leadership positions.
• They are not overly critical, judgmental, or concerned with perfectionism. They are easygoing and accepting, not being too picky about things.
• They have a high tolerance for frustrating situations and can suppress their anger for a long time. However, when their patience is exhausted, their outbursts can be quite messy.
• Saying "no" to requests can be difficult for Phlegmatics, especially if it might make someone else feel bad.
The Melancholic temperament gets its name from the term "black bile" (melan means black, chole means bile). Melancholics possess the following characteristics:
Importance Of Melancholic Temperament
• Melancholic individuals are highly emotional and deeply affected by failure, distress, loss, and their own emotions. They are easily hurt by the actions of others, and their moods are fragile, like delicate glass.
• Melancholics set high standards and expectations for themselves and others, which can make them critical and dissatisfied with those who cannot meet their impossibly high standards.
• They tend to hold grudges for a long time, as they believe that those who have hurt them will not easily apologize or change their ways to meet their expectations.
• Melancholic individuals take time to form friendships, but once they consider someone a friend, they are incredibly loyal and trustworthy and prefer to have a small circle of close friends rather than be friends with everyone.
• Rather than reacting with anger or aggression, they respond with sadness and may cry when faced with challenges or violence.
• Melancholic individuals pay close attention to details. They have a strong desire to understand every aspect of a topic because they believe that ignorance is a sign of imperfection.
• When a melancholic engages in an argument, it is not to hurt or dominate others. Instead, it stems from their difficulty in accepting things going wrong or what they perceive as incorrect information.
Understanding temperaments is important because it enables us to appreciate and respect the diverse ways people approach life. It enhances communication and relationships by providing insights into individual preferences, strengths, and challenges.