bird

A bird's eye view of a life in flight.

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    Published 2 months ago
    Little Tinamou

    Little Tinamou

    The diminutive tinamou (Crypturellus soui) is a species of tinamou. This occurs in Central and South America. Crypturellus consists of three words, either Latin, or Greek. Kruptos meaning concealed or obscured, our ears saying, and ellus saying diminutive. Crypturellus also means short, concealed tail. The tiny tinamou is one of 21 members in the most members-rich family, the tinamous family Crypturellus. All tinamous are in the Tinamidae family, and there are also palaeognaths in the larger class, a group of flightless ratites such as ostriches and emus that are more widely recognised. Unlike the ratites, however, tinamous can float but in general they are not fast fliers. The palaeognaths adapted as flight ancestors. It is a resident breeder at 2,000 m (6,600 ft) altitudes in tropical lowland forests, riverbank forests, lowland evergreen forests, secondary forests, and lowland shrublands. They often allow very good use of cleared forests and plantations, or farmed land. The tiny tinamou, like Trinidad Island, is found throughout central and southern Central and northern South America. The little tinamou is rarely seen with its dark, dense trees roaming slowly through the undergrowth. This can be found by its slow whistling calls (soft, downward whinny; also a series of single notes, the tempo increasing at the end), produced by both sexes. It consumes seeds, vegetables and other insects. The breeding season of the little tinamou extends from May to October. Its nest is a small depression of the forest-floor, often filled with several leaves at the base of a tree or dense brush. Usually, two bright, deep purple coloured eggs are laid, sometimes just one. The height of the eggs is about 41 to 32 mm. Larvae are incubated by male. The youngsters are precocious and can fly just as soon as they hatch. The little tinamou is about 22 to 24 cm long and weights 220 g. This character is a silent tinamou, mysterious and solitary. While it looks similar to other birds living on the ground, such as quail and grouse, it is entirely different to those groups. This is a dumpy bird noted for its small size and weak defence. It has an unbarred, sooty-brown plumage, is shaded to grey on the back, and its throat is whitish. The foreneck is brownish, and the belly is dark with cinnamon. Under its parts the female has a lighter rufous brown than the male. It may have orange, green or pink wings. The IUCN lists the little tinamou as the Least Concern, with an occurrence area of 9,500,000 km2. The Little Tinamou is a tiny, enigmatic tinamou of South America's central and northwest, the Amazon and Orinoco basins, and southeastern Brazil's Atlantic rainforest. This species defends the soil at the edges of shaded primary rainforest and dense secondary forest, continuously creeping as it forges fruit and seed. The disctinctive tremelo of the Little Tinamou is heard much more frequently than the bird is seen, and while it vocalises more at dawn and dusk, at midday it can be heard more often than the usually more sensitive and crepuscular Great Tinamou. The Little Tinamou is a greyish white, tiny and plain, without the barring patterns of most other tinamou species. Tinamous are pudgy, forest birds with small tails and wings; resembling superficially tailless quail. Little Tinamou is a plumage tinamou with a dramatic sort. Most of the plumage is dark brown, with white underpieces. The crown at the sides of the head is blackish and deep brown. The plumage has slight sexual dimorphism, usually the female has a lighter plumage than the male. Little Tinamous is historically synonymous with several other tiny tinamous Crypturellus species, but typically, Little Tinamou can be differentiated by its small size and very simple plumage.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Patagonia Tinamou

    Patagonia Tinamou

    Evidently unique, and seldom seen, is Patagonian Tinamou, the southernmost form of the genus Tinamotis. It occurs mainly at altitudes of 200–800 metres, in steppe savanna, dry meadows and protected valleys with trees, and the species tends to be most widespread in areas where overgrazing has caused woody plants to overtake the grassland. Patagonian Tinamou, as its name implies, is limited to southern Argentina and neighbouring Chile. This tinamou is usually seen in small flocks throughout the year while in winter the flocks will reach as much as 30–40 individuals. Patagonian Tinamou is distinguished by being smaller than the more northerly Puna Tinamou, with some rufous on the primary, and black on the secondaries, although in any case there is little significant distinction. In winter some migration to coastal areas has been reported but more data is needed. Patagonian Tinamou feeds primarily on vegetable matter and is confirmed to be nesting in November and December, making the ground seemingly easy to scrap. Tinamous are stormy birds with short tail and long wings in the woodlands. The two species of Tinamotis are very large tinamous with a strongly shaved head and a rufous vent; they both have a very short body, and only three toes. Rufous cinnamon remigrated from Patagonian Tinamou. The genders are identical. Patagonian Tinamou is found mostly in southern Argentina, from southern Santa Cruz to the western Negro Valley. There are still some records from Aysén and Magallanes in neighbouring Chile but there are few if any recent records from Chile and their status is unknown. The diet of Patagonian Tinamou is not yet understood. This evidently feeds mostly on the leaves and stems of Pernetyia pumila, and on the seeds of Berberis buxifolia. There is no information about the vocal repertoire of Patagonian Tinamou. Vocalizations are generally described by the Patagonian Tinamou as "flute-like sounds" produced on the ground. It is a shy bird that can fly very quickly, concealed in bushes. If approached, it tries to hide on the ground but flies if pressed; members of a covey fly off in both directions; after the potential threat has vanished, the flock regains contact with their signal, which is similar to a whistle from the police. The birds sleep together as "black spots" in winter, while it snows. We dig a small depression into the field where they'd roost after the snow has gone down. As with its encounters with the climate, Patagonian Tinamou is relatively "plastic." It occurs in "open steppe with small and scattered shrubs growing on sandy or pebble soil, with rugged cushion plants and sparse tufts of coarse, ovine-grazed tussock grass spreading here and there," as well as in grassland steppes "in sheltered valleys with dense, small brush patches and in" open areas with scattered bushes. Usually avoids open fields, where strong winds prevail. The Patagonian Tinamou breeds from October until January. The nest is a simple garbage in sandy soil. The clutch consists of eight-to-two eggs, and maybe as many as 15. From what is known about the breeding system of other species, "the general rule for tinamous is sporadic polygyny for males and serial polyandry for females. Patagonian Tinamou may be single or in groups of up to 8 birds. Larger flocks of up to 30-40 persons may occur during winter months. Pozzi observed groups of up to 50 birds but this number is no longer reported. In Argentina, the Patagonian Tinamou is usually uncommon. Anecdotal accounts say figures are declining with severe snowfall despite harsh winters. This tinamou is considered particularly rare in Chile, with no recent reports, but its Chilean habitat is not well ornithologically surveyed. In the lack of evidence for any declines or significant threats, the human population is believed to be stable, and its IUCN Red List status is rated as a least concern.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Ornate Tinamou

    Ornate Tinamou

    The ornate tinamou (Nothoprocta ornata) is a type of tinamou typically found in high altitude grassland and dry shrubland in Central South America subtropical and tropical west regions. Ornate Tinamou is a typical member of Large Andean family, Nothoprocta. From the south of central Peru through Bolivia to Argentina and Chile, these species occupy steppes of high elevation, especially hills dominated by bunch grass at 3500-4800 m. The Ornate Tinamou, if viewed from afar before it flushes, appears to be a fairly smooth blend of earth tones. However, when seen at close range, Ornate Tinamou appears to live up to her name: the female is very striking, being heavily patterned over the back and wings with white edgings and bandages. Tinamous are woodland birds with relatively short tails and long wings; they mimic shallow quails. Ornate Tinamou is a large tinamou with long crown feathers, which are often lifted, forming a bushy crest. The top pieces are mainly ochraceous grey, intricately patterned with vermiculations, bars and brownish white, brown, black, and light buffy yellow to tawny buffs. The subparts are typically grey and less marked, light on the abdomen and buffered. The southern populations appear to be bigger, lighter and more browner than the animals in northern and central Peru. Ornate Tinamou lives in open high elevation habitats from central Peru, in Ancash's western Andes, south to southern Peru, west Bolivia, northern Chile, and northwest Argentina. The diet of Ornate Tinamou includes "clover and other small leaves, beans, blooms, nuts, berries, plants of the heart, fruit and vegetables" You will repeat this call for up to three hours, at 3-20 s intervals. More widely heard is a call of unknown origin, identified as eee-arr. Most of the information on the general behaviour of Ornate Tinamou derives from. These tinamous people spend all of their time on the edge, even as they climb high positions like sunbathing, preening, or naming boulders. The head is usually left down while the tinamous feeds but the bird raises its head to look around for a few pecks. When irritated these tinamous also cover up behind a clump of grass for accurate observation. A pair of Ornate Tinamous can fly very slowly when foraging, taking up to two and a half hours to feed on an area of about 0.2 ha; solitary birds search more briskly and occupy more ground. A fast beat of wings initiates takeoff, but then the wings are kept silent and the tinamou executes a glide, landing out of sight, if possible, after covering about 50-200 metres. Nearly all flights are downhill, and at arrival, the bird always races even faster. In fact, the usual evasive action is sprinting away for up to 20 m and then squatting under a clump of grass or tola. Ornate Tinamou most commonly feeds on lush green seps, usually low on the hillsides or along the valley floors. Some people migrate downhill to 200 m to feed on seeps, and then back uphils. If a bird of either sex is agitated, it can draw the feathers into what appears to be a black crest. On the female of Ornate Tinamous the crest is most commonly seen. Courtship mainly consists of offering follow-up meals. The male forages in front of the female and displays either head or tail towards the female, raising the rump and spreading the feathers of the tiny rumps at the same time, frequently twittering and squeaking. The rising rump shows crissum feathers spotted in rust and a slight dark patch on each side of the vent. The female then normally dashes away from one to three m, generally from a position in front behind the male. The demonstration may be repeated if the female sits at the end of the dash; and if the female squats at the end of the dash, copulation immediately happens.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Pale-browed Tinamou

    Pale-browed Tinamou

    A poorly known Tumbesian tinamou, this species is endemic to a comparatively small region of western Ecuador, named for its distinctive pale ear, and is even more widespread in northwest Peru. Pale-browed Tinamou is officially classified as Near Endangered, as its population is accused of a relatively swift and gradual decline. Pale-brown Tinamou, however, remains relatively common in suitable habitat, from the lowlands up to 1500 m of tropical dry forest. This tinamou appears to have quite the high tolerance to a degree of habitat destruction while it prefers denser vegetated areas. Both sexes are generally grayer below, with a white throat, and browner over the wings and upper parts, but over the back and ear coverings, females are more heavily barred than males are. The song is an uplifting explosive wheeep. The nesting season lasts from November to February, in Ecuador at least, and Pale-browed Tinamou lay up to seven eggs at a time. Even, little much appears to be understood about the developmental past of this genus. Tinamous are stocky, with very short tails and long wings, so overall they are quite the little creatures. Pale-browed Tinamou is a medium sized tinamou with distinctive plumage style. The broad, pale supercilium is a prominent attribute in both genders that gives this species its English name. The male above is greyish to reddish brown, with lower back and some barring in the body. The breast is brunette, more or less. The female looks much like the male except that the upper parts of black and buff and ochre blue are more heavily barred. The Tarsi and the ores are reddish in both sexes. Pale-brewed Tinamou has a very limited geographical distribution, within which it overlaps with only a few other tinamou populations. Locally Light-brown Tinamou overlaps with Little Tinamou, but Little Tinamou prefers more tropical woodland, is smaller, and has a more uniform pattern, with little to no barrier and lacks the prominent violet "beard." Small Tinamou has yellowish or olive colours as well, not purple, tarsi and toes. Andean Tinamou has yellow tarsi and toes, a bent bill and the upper parts especially streaked. Both tinamou are from the Tinamidae tribe, and therefore are ratites in the greater scheme. Unlike other ratites, tinamous can float, but they aren't good fliers in general. Both ratites originated from ancient flying birds and tinamous are the nearest living relative to these birds. The tinamou, light grey, is about 28 cm tall. It is recognised by its upper greyish-brown coat, finely vermiculated with black, and a white throat, with the majority of its subparts greyish to buffy. It's got barred flanks and a very dark crown, with a bright white supercilium. The pale-brown tinamou eats fruit from the ground or low-lying plants, and less invertebrates, flower buds, delicate leaves, seeds and roots. The male incubates the eggs from as many as five different females, and then raises them up so they can be free. The nest is on the ground in dense scrub, between elevated root buttresses. Pale-browned Tinamou's song is described as "a loud, resonant whooit, usually given at intervals longer than 30 seconds;" as "a fast, heavy, ringinging ooo-eee? or ooo-ing with liquid quality;" and as "an extreme, penetrating, rising cuuEEE?" On the farm pale-brewed Tinamou forages. This can be noticed during the dry season by the rustling sound that they create while walking over dried leaf litter. Pale-brown Tinamou is fairly common, and tends to tolerate some habitat loss. Nonetheless, it has a limited geographical range, and the population is believed to be declining due to habitat loss and degradation and poaching
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    Published 2 months ago
    Puna Tinamou

    Puna Tinamou

    Puna Tinamou occupies the high Andes over Bolivia from southern Peru to northern Chile and Argentina, and grows at higher altitudes than any other tinamou. Relatively rare for a tinamou, the back has conspicuous white lines, a rufous vent, and an olive rump. Birds sometimes enter in groups, and occupy brushy or rocky puna habitats. Under extreme weather we get down to caves and other protected areas. Puna Tinamous does not build a nest or dig, but instead lays their eggs on the ground in the shade of other trees. When the chicks hatch in groups composed of young people from several broods and attended by several males, they may assemble. Tinamous are winged desert birds with very short wings, stocky and rounded. The two species of Tinamotis are very large, with a sharply shaved head and a rufous vent; these tinamous species have a very short body, and just three toes. Also Puna Tinamou has olive tops, more or less, and a sharply barred breast. The genders are identical. Because of its very large size, proudly stripped head and rufous vent within its geographical range, Puna Tinamou is readily identifiable. Puna Tinamou is somewhat similar to Patagonian Tinamou but between those two species there is no geographical similarity. By contrast, Puna Tinamou lacks the rufous remiges of the Patagonian Tinamou. Adults have a patterned, white ear. Very light, almost trimmed, with soothy brown and white buffy crown and nape. Likewise brown and whitish on the sides of head and neck, two very long, parallel streaks outline the pale areas. Upper sections are usually mottled, spotted (back and rump), dark greyish brown, and cinnamon buff barred. Heavily suffused with bright yellowish olive, back sides, rump, and rectrices. Dull brown primaries, notched on outer branches with a pinkish buff. Black or whitish, throat immaculate. Breast, neck, and flanks, and occasionally the upper abdomen, light greyish, profusely barred with a pale ochraceous buff; darker breast, occasionally rufescent. High collar, high flanks and soft rufous cinnamon shine. Puna Tinamou occurs across Northern Chile and Argentina in the High Andes from southern Peru to Bolivia. The distributional northern limit is commonly described as central Peru in Junín, though the sight record is as far north as Ancash. Puna Tinamou occurs in the south to Antofagasta, Chile and Argentina in the northwest. Puna Tinamou occurs "close to the upper limits of the forest." This species prefers tola heat but also shares with scattered cushion plants such as Larretia compacta and coarse grass tussocks, and sometimes scattered Polylepis shrub, other sandy or stony habitats. A diet of Puna Tinamou is not well known. Three contents of three Bolivian stomachs included the leaves of Adesmia, fresh roots, buds, and seeds, as well as a small amount of grass but no insects. At the field, Puna Tinamou forges. This insect glides horizontally with the wings held during flight. Puna Tinamou likes to sprint backwards, sometimes running uphill, to hide. As the head bobs walk back and forth. Usually Puna Tinamous is found in small communities, from three to nine individuals. In Peru, breeding is recorded in June-August. Adults were seen in Northern Chile in January-February and young birds followed. Breeding is also reported from Bolivia, in November. There's no nest at the field here. The clutch contains 5-8 eggs; mean size of the egg is 57.1 x 39.0 mm. The eggs are light yellowish green with whitish granulations, but Johnson thought the eggs will be bright white when fresh, and then slowly turn yellow during incubation. The male incubates the eggs alone and cares for the young. Half grown chicks, reported primarily in December.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Quebracho Crested Tinamou

    Quebracho Crested Tinamou

    Quebracho Crested-Tinamou is an endemic Chaco that is restricted to a small region in west Paraguay, southeastern Bolivia that is northern Argentina, where thick thorny woodland and surrounding savanna occur in arid regions. Biology of this species is little known but early observations on the field suggest significant distinctions between it and the more widespread and well-studied Elegant Crested-Tinamou with which it forms a superspecies. Mostly in browner dorsal colouration, bolder breast marks and less heavily coloured underparts it varies from the species. Sub-specie E. f. Mira, described for the Paraguayan population, is dubiously valid and most modern authorities consider the species monotypical. It is not currently recognised whether Quebracho Crested-Tinamou is under any threat to life, but increasing habitat loss within the species range indicates that it may qualify for an endangered status in the near future. Tinamous are stormy, with very short tails, small legs, and rounded wings. The two crested-tinamous species (Eudromia) are large tinamous with a long thin crest on the back of the crown, and just three toes (the hallux lacquer). Sprinkled with cream, Crested-Tinamou Quebracho has greyish brown to blackish upper parts. The underparts are often whitish to light buffy, lined, and vermiculated with grey. There is also a long whitish line starting at the base of the bill and continuing past the eye and down the leg of the body. Brushland Tinamou is the most potentially confusing species in the region over most of the Crested-Tinamon Quebracho range. Yet Brushland Tinamou is usually solitary (as opposed to the social Quebracho Crested), lacks a banded head pattern and has a black topknot, not a small, fluffy crest. The superficially similar Elegant Crested-Tinamou is allopatric because this species extends the range of the northern subspecies magnistriata in Santiago del Estero. Short compared the two and distinguished Quebracho Crested by being whiter ventrally, with a stronger barred upper breast bound by dark shaft streaks and with a browner dorsum exhibiting delicate vermiculations, many bands and large buff spots as opposed to grayer with smaller, more regular spots in magnistriata. Formosa's outer primaries on the inner vane are unbarred, or generally display subtle barring signals, while magnistriata are heavily barred primaries. The adult has a thin crown, like a beard, with flat, short black feathers. Grayish brown on top and vinaceous buff on the bottom, more or less heavily mottled and vermiculated black with occasional ochraceous spotting and neck-and-rump freckling. Crown, hind collar, malar, and deep ochraceous brown auriculars, streaked with black shaft stripes. Broad white lines stretch above and under the auriculars and spread to the sides of the neck. Grey-faced. External primary fuscous with external webs notched uniformly with immaculate buffy-white and internal webs, or indistinctly spotted or vermiculated with buff. Near main interior except the internal chains of scattered ochraceous vermiculation. Ochraceous to medium vinaceous, grey foreneck and chest with black sagittate marks on the breast and arms increasing in size and strength. Abdomen, crissum, creamy-white to ochraceous-buff on the sides and flanks. The diet of Quebracho Crested-Tinamou is unrecorded, but birds appear early in the morning and late in the afternoon on roads where they can be seen picking on substrates in the manner that Bohl defines for Elegant Crested-Tinamou. The items they bring are not clear to the naked eye, but it is understood that Elegant Crested drinks grit every day, and this is an analogous activity indeed. Elegant Crested-Tinamou, which grows further south in similarly arid conditions, metabolically serves its water requirements from the plant matter in their diet and the same may be true for this genus. Vocalizations take place all day, most frequently early in the morning and late in the afternoon, frequently beginning before sunrise and continuing until sunset. The animals sometimes sing all night long.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Rusty Tinamou

    Rusty Tinamou

    The rusty tinamou (Crypturellus brevirostris), or short-billed tinamou, is a type of tinamou typically found in the tropical South American swamp forest. A monotypical genus, the rusty tinamou is. Both tinamou belong to the family Tinamidae and even ratites are present in the broader scheme. Tinamous, like other ratites, can float but in general they are not fast fliers. Both ratites derived from ancient flying birds, and tinamous are the closest living relative to these birds. Crypturellus consists of three words, either Latin, or Greek. Kruptos meaning concealed or obscured, oura meaning mouth, and ellus meaning diminutive. So Crypturellus means tiny hidden tail. At altitudes up to 500 m, it is found in tropical swamp forests and lowland forests. The species derives from northeastern and northwestern Brazil, French Guyana, and eastern Peru, in South America. The rusty tinamou is about 27-29 cm tall. The upper portions of it are boldly barred rufous with gold, the chest is white, the breast is bright rufous, the back is white, and the flanks are gold. The crown is chestnut coloured with yellowish-gray paws. As with other tinamous species, the rusty tinamou consumes grass berries, or low-lying trees. We also eat small quantities of invertebrates, blossoms, delicate herbs, seeds, and roots. The male incubates the eggs which can come from as many as four different females, and then holds them up until they can be autonomous, normally 2–3 weeks. On the field the nest is in dense brush, or between high root buttresses. Often known as Short-billed Tinamou, Rusty Tinamou is primarily native to Upper Amazonia, where it occurs in western and northern Brazil, both north and south of the Amazons. This is also known from what was once considered a somewhat disjunct population in French Guyana, but now it is also recorded from the neighbouring state of Amapá in Brazil. Rusty Tinamou is noteworthy for its ferruginous-chestnut crown and breast, light rufous collar, white throat and barred flanks. This is an inhabitant of dense tropical woodland, often seasonally flooded areas, and has been recorded at 500 metres. To date, there is almost no published information on the species ' life cycle or reproduction. Rusty Tinamou Crypturellus brevirostris is an unusual forest bird terra firme living in the forests. While it is common elsewhere in Amazon Brazil, the Guyana Shield, and extreme southeast Colombia, it is uncommon. Only his signature voice also betrays his identity and so most of the experiences with this tinamou are auditive. Here we study Rusty Tinamou's vocalisations, a main and secondary song which may represent the dueting of a matted pair between male and female. In other Crypturellus communities we compare and discuss this vocal behaviour with dueting. Tinamous are dark-colored birds on the Neotropical forest floor, retired and thus untrackable for long periods of time. Their mysterious behaviour and contrasting coloration between species, heard more frequently than seen, complicates identification when seen. Just their distinctive songs usually show their identity and make them recognisable. Rusty Tinamou Crypturellus brevirostris, which inhabits the virgin Amazonian terra firme wood, is a poorly known species in which only basic biological features have virtually little to be learned. Her first recording of speech is from December 1989, when T. A. Parker recorded a singing tinamou near Manaus, in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Since Tinamou C. Bartlett of Bartlett wasn't recorded north of the Amazon, this is the location of type C. Brevirostris is Manaus, and the recorded song was believed to belong to C, and the sounds of the other tinamou species in the area were already recognised. That was sponsored by brevirostris but no visual observations in subsequent years. The usty Tinamou has a signature tune, usually beginning with a whistled note, accompanied by a series of quicker whistles that raise gradually in pitch. Occasionally, the pattern tends to exceed its full duration, with occasional notes declining in pitch and velocity.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Red-winged Tinamou

    Red-winged Tinamou

    The red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens) is a medium-sized, land-living bird from central and eastern South America. Some specific names for the genus include perdiz grande, ynambu and rufous tinamou. Both tinamou are from the family Tinamidae, and are thus ratites in the broader scheme. Unlike other ratites, tinamous can float but in general they are not good fliers. All ratites evolved from ancient flying birds, and tinamous are the closest surviving descendants of such birds. Coenraad Jacob Temminck first described the red-winged tinamou from a specimen from São Paulo state, Brazil, in 1815. The red-winged tinamou has three subspecies: Rufescens, the called race, occurs in south-eastern Peru, Bolivia, southeastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, and possibly Uruguay; Catingae occurs in central and north-eastern Brazil; Pallescens occurs in northern Argentina; east Formosa, Chaco, Santa Fé, Córdoba, La Pampa, Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos, Corrientes, and Rio Negro. The taxon maculicollis was initially considered a red-winged subspecies of tinamou, but it is now considered, after SACC, to be a species in its own right; the huayco tinamou. The common name refers to the bright rufous primaries which are often visible during flight. The red-winged tinamou is about 40 to 41 cm long and weighs about 830 g, and the female can be much larger. This has a black crown, rufous primary beneath, and light-gray to brown. It may have black bars on flanks, belly and airflow. The throat is also whitish, with cinnamon in the foreneck and the breast. The pointed bill is horn-coloured, with a blackish culmen. This covers Southeastern, Northeastern, and Southern Brazil, East Paraguay, Southeast Peru, Bolivia, and Eastern Argentina. At lower elevations this avoids marshy grasslands and edges of forest. While at higher elevations of up to 2,500 m it may visit arid shrubland, pastures, and grain fields. Generally this supports dry savanna. The red-winged tinamou has vocal males followed by shorter sad whistles, which are a continuous ringing single whistle. The woman hits not. This species is most involved during the heatiest hours of the day. The diet varies by season; it takes insects and other small objects during the summer, and it turns to vegetable matter such as berries, shoots, tubers and bulbs during the winter. It can be an agricultural pest, feeding on cereals, rice and peanuts, as well as predatory, capturing poisonous snakes and occasionally flying up into the air to capture an insect from a vineyard. The species ' male targets the female by feeding and then heading to the nest where she lays her eggs and then the chicks are born. As all tinamous, the red-winged tinamou is a common hunting destination and has declined in areas with high population density, but the species has also expanded in some areas where forest clearance has created suitable habitat. Generally it is not considered a threat, and is thus listed as the Least Concern by IUCN. It has a gross surface area of 5,700,000 km2. Red-winged Tinamou is a stocky tinamou in the east of the Andes, in central South America, with marshes, grasslands and agricultural areas. It's round-bodied, with black barring on slender brown wings and tail, a ruddy-colored head, dark crown and a thick, slightly decurved bill. There are three known subspecies: Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, southeastern Brazil, and northern Argentina nominate rufescens; central and northeastern Brazil catingae; and central and northern Argentina pallescens. While poaching pressure and habitat destruction due to burning have resulted in destruction of population, Red-winged Tinamou still usually abounds across its large geographic range. Red-winged tinamou takes longer time than other birds to reach mature weight, and steps should be taken to shorten this time period for commercial production.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Slaty-breasted Tinamou

    Slaty-breasted Tinamou

    The slaty-breasted tinamou, or tinamou of Boucard (Crypturellus boucardi), is a form of tinamou commonly found in Mexico and Central America's lowland moist forest. Both tinamou are from the Tinamidae tribe, which therefore are ratites in the greater scheme. Like other ratites, tinamous can float, but they aren't fast fliers in general. Both ratites have arisen from ancient flying birds and tinamous are such birds ' nearest living relative. There are two sub-species of the slaty-breasted tinamou In 1859, Philip Sclater described the slaty-breast tinamou from a collection in Oaxaca, Mexico. Crypturellus can be broken down into the following: kruptos meaning concealed or protected, oura sense the diminutive sense of the tail and ellus. Crypturellus thus means the thin, covering tail. Finally, boucardi is Boucard's latin form commemorating Adolphe Boucard. In subtropical and tropical regions up to 1800 m of altitude, it is usually found in lowland moist forest. This species extends from southern Mexico along the Gulf of Mexico, from southern Veracruz, and northern southern Oaxaca, to northern Costa Rica. Mexico, Belize, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. It favours dense evergreen forests with heavy undergrowth but it can also be found in shallow forests with low undergrowth, secondary forests and regenerating plantations. This also prefers damp environments. Averages 27 cm in weight, the slaty-breasted tinamou weighs around 470 g. Its neck and head are coloured black to chestnut, brown on its wings, slaty grey on its breast, white on its throat, grey-brown on the rest of its subparts with darker border on its flanks and undertail. The lady has barring on her hands. Her legs are pink to bright red, and her bill is dark above and yellow below. The dark forest floors are a shy and difficult tinamou to see. His call is a call of three notes and smaller than most other tinamous. The calls can take up to five hours at a time, in long bouts. On occasion this tinamou and the tinamou thicket can create hybrids. Unlike other tinamous, it feeds on fruit and seeds and, in particular, on some invertebrates, ants and termites. The slaty-breasted tinamou male draws 2 to 4 females to lie on the ground and in dense foliage in her nest, or between a tree's raised roots. The male incubates and the young are born. Females have more than one male partner. The IUCN has listed the slaty-breasted as Least Concern and it has a range of 330,000 km2 of occurrence. It is hunted for food but tends to be stable in size. Also known as the Tinamou Boucard, Slaty-breasted Tinamou is found only in Middle America, where it spreads from southeast Mexico south to Costa Rica. Two subspecies reflect this species which differ in overall coloration. It is recorded from sea level to at least 1800 m, and this tinamou is typically found with a relatively dense understory in a variety of forest types, but also including plantations and taller second growth. The territorial song is a three-noted ah-oowah that can be heard during the day, and throughout the year, while rain will typically interrupt the vocalising action. Hunting and habitat loss are the principal threats to its existence, and Slaty-breasted Tinamou has become increasingly uncommon in some areas of its range. The life cycle of Slaty-breasted Tinamou is fairly well studied compared with other species of tinamous, but mainly from studies at a single site within the large range of this genus. Tinamous are stocky, small birds with very short tails and rounded wings. Slaty-breasted Tinamou is a tinamou of medium size with a slate-gray head, back, mantle and breast. The plumage is dark chestnut from the rear to the uppertail tops, often with very vague scaling or barring. The underparts are ash-gray with an ochraceous tinge, especially on the belly, and black barring on the undertail coverts and sometimes on the flanks as well.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Small-billed Tinamou

    Small-billed Tinamou

    The smallest member of the Crypturellus, Small-billed Tinamou genus is a widely distributed savanna forest species, including agricultural territory, covering much of the interior of Brazil, as far as southeast Peru (where it is very local), as well as northern Bolivia, Paraguay, and northeast Argentina. Small-billed Tinamou is surprisingly similar to Tataupa Tinamou (Crypturellus tataupa), but smaller in height with a stubbier bill and a shorter tarsus, both light purple. The plumage variations between these two species are low in the field, and much less readily divined. Compared to other tinamous species, this genus is relatively well known but the only accurate breeding findings come from captive studies in which Small-billed Tinamou lays incubated eggs of 4–5 pale olive chocolate for 19 days. Small-billed tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) is a species of tinamou commonly found in Amazon South America's dry savanna. The small-billed tinamou is about 22 cm in length. The top parts are dark brown, the bottom parts are white and the skin is grey or brownish. Small-billed tinamou is a monotypical species, with purple on the bill and legs. All tinamou are of the family of Tinamidae, and are thus ratites in the broader scheme. Tinamous, like other ratites, can float but in general they are not strong fliers. All ratites derived from ancient flying birds, and tinamous are the closest living relative to these birds. The small-billed consumes fruit like other tinamous, or low-lying bushes off the ground. We do consume small amounts of invertebrates, blossoms, tender berries, seeds, and roots. The male incubates the eggs which can come from as many as four different females, and then holds them up until they can be stable, normally 2–3 weeks. The nest is on the ground in dense scrub, between raised root buttresses. The small billed tinamou has been considered an ideal candidate for domestication as the birds raise 3-4 broods each year and are resistant to diseases affecting chickens The small-billed tinamou prefers dry savanna, but may also survive in lowland shrubland. The range is Amazon South America; Brazil with the exception of the southeastern portion, northeastern Peru, eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. This tinamou is ranked as the Least Concern by the IUCN, with an occurrence size of 6,700,000 km2. The small-billed tinamou is about 22 cm in weight. The top parts are dark brown, the bottom parts are white and the skin is grey and brownish. Small-billed tinamou is a monotypical genus, with purple on the bill and paws. Both tinamou are of the family of Tinamidae, and are thus ratites in the broader scheme. Unlike other ratites, tinamous can float but in general they are not good fliers. All ratites are native to primitive flying birds and tinamous are the closest living relative to these birds. Small-billed tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) is a tinamou type usually found in dry savanna in South America of the Amazons. This plant has an extraordinarily wide range, and thus does not follow Vulnerable limitations under the criteria of habitat size. The Small-Billed Tinamou is a type of Tinamous found mainly in dry savanna in the Amazons of South America. The upper parts are dark brown while the underparts are grey to blue in colour. Small-Billed tinamous also have prominent black barring on the undertail coverings. The Small-Billed Tinamou is very similar to the Tataupa Tinamou, but is thinner with a stubbier tail, all bright red and a shorter tarsus. Compared with other tinamous species, this species is fairly well known but the only reliable breeding data comes from captive-made studies. The Small-Billed Tinamou's nest is located on the ground in dense trees, or in elevated root buttresses. The male is incubating the eggs which may come from as many as four different females for 19 days. He also uplifts the hatchlings until they can be free, usually for 2-3 weeks.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Solitary Tinamou

    Solitary Tinamou

    The solitary tinamou (Tinamus solitarius) is a genus of ground bird paleognath. The species is native to the eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Both tinamou are of the Tinamidae family, which are thus ratites in the broader scheme. Tinamous, like other ratites, can float but they aren't fast fliers in general. The ratites are the nearest living relative of these birds, coming from prehistoric aerial birds and tinamos. The bird was historically split into two subspecies: T. s. In northeast Brazil, Pernambucensis, and T. s. Solitarius found in extreme Argentina and southern Paraguay. However, the former turned out not to be distinct from the species called, but instead to be true species displaying a strange coloured morph that is now understood to occur elsewhere. The back colour ranges extensively from green to black, and the level of plumage colour of the lower neck differs as well. In those cases the black barring is more or less serious. Pernambucensis refers to the much barring yellower birds, especially on the back. The solitary tinamou is a large brownish black tinamou, which is heavily barred. Its back, breast, and flanks are brown, white in the stomach. It has a dark brown crown on its yellowish head and neck, and a white throat on the neck side which coincides with a prominent buff stripe. Its average height is 45 cm. It is present in southeast Bahia, east Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, east Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina and north Rio Grande do Sul. This is also present in the province of Misiones, in southeastern Paraguay, and in far-northeastern Argentina. It lays strange shaped eggs with a flat, light shell, and eats fruits and seeds from the forest, or low plants, unlike other tinamous ones. Males can incubate the eggs in a nest on the ground and raise the young only for a brief period of time before they are independent.]The solitary tinamou can be found in wet tropical lowland forests and montane forests up to 1,200 m. This readily inhabits secondary forests, which may not be rare in heavily degraded areas, rather tolerating selective deforestation. Large tropical cultivations are unknown. Yet the birds can be popular enough to survive any fire, e.g. in a mosaic of cabruca smallholder plantations, interspersed with secondary growth of thick Marantaceae caeté and bamboo Merostachys understore, as well as higher Guadua bamboo and full-grown palms. In the ecotone of the little-disturbed Thick Ombrophyllous Montane Forest, flowering tree-fragment colonies can occur as low as 1,000 acres. Currently it is affected by continuing deforestation caused by urbanisation, industrialization, agricultural extension and related road development. It, too, is being destroyed without yielding. Accordingly, it is classified by the IUCN as a Near Threatened Species, with an area of 990,000 km2 it can quickly become threatened. Historically, the species was known as pernambucensis, and is now very scarce or even extirpated. Historically, those northern birds have always been very rare, with no more than 6 museum collections likely. It has been acknowledged that it is not difficult to move this population to the correct habitat. Solitary tinamous continued to survive in numbers on a part of 1,500 hectares of land where they had not been able to live first. It is not known to be endangered worldwide by IUCN. A rare and hard-to-see resident of southeastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina, that large and elusive tinamou. It is located in intact, closed-canopy lowland evergreen rainforest and higher secondary forest, increasingly threatened by urbanisation, agrarian development, and industrialization within its area. Because it is elusive and not always vocal, only a combination of caution, determination, observance and serendipity allows a glimpse of a Solitary Tinamou which makes it one of the most rewarding and memorable birds to be seen within its range.
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    Published 2 months ago
    Spotted Tinamou

    Spotted Tinamou

    Spotted Nothura is a tinamou grassland with a wide distribution from the north of central Argentina over Uruguay and Paraguay to northeastern Brazil. Generally this little tinamou is cryptically patterned on a light brownish base coat with brown and black mottling, which in terrestrial grassland conditions provides camouflage. The specimen appears very similar to the one of the closely related Chaco Nothura (Nothura chacoensis) from northern Paraguay and Argentina, but overall, Spotted Nothura is darker. Eight spotted subspecies of Nothura are recognised, forming a cline from smaller, darker birds in the north to larger, brighter birds in the south. The Tinamous are earthy, pudgy birds with very short tails and long wings. Nothuras are small, short billed, tinamous tawny, inhabiting all grasslands or open brush. Spotted Nothura is very complex, but typically its upper parts are red, greyish or brown, spotted and black vermiculated. The underparts are buffy, with the back and breast more or less streaked with dusky. The genders are identical. Spotted Nothura is the most widespread species of nothura and it overlaps with the other members of the genus. White-bellied Nothura (Nothura boraquira) has bright yellow tarsi and thighs, light (whiter) subsides, sharper spotting on the sides of the breast, sharper barring on the flanks, and full black remiges ' inner webs. Lesser Nothura (Nothura minor) is smaller and more rufescent, and is confined to the campo grassland, excluding areas with shorter grass or farming lands. Spotted Nothura is somewhat similar to Darwin's Nothura (Nothura darwinii), but Spotted Nothura has longer tarsi and legs, and Darwin's outermost main inner webs are unmarked (as opposed to Spotted's). Spotted Nothura is similar to Chaco Nothura (Nothura chacoensis), but Chaco has paler upper parts (ochraceous buff instead of dusky rufescent or greyish black), dark neck and breast markings are more muted, thinner and less prominent, and the breast and belly are much lighter and translucent. Dwarf Tinamou (Taoniscus nanus) is smaller and pudgier in contrast. The red-winged Tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens) is much larger and more ochraceous. Crested tinamous (the genus of Eudromia) is slightly broader and has a long, narrow crest. Nothoprocta tinamous is taller, has a longer, more decurved bill and also has a more prominent crest. Adults of a spotted Nothura eat plant and animal food, but plant material makes up much of the diet. The most frequent type of plant was grasses, followed by beans; the diet often included a few fruits. Certain plants eaten include Solanaceae, Oxalidaceae, and Malvaceae. Dietary animals that these birds consume include bees, larvae, butterflies, orthopterans, lepidopterans, spiders, molluscs, myriapods, and crustaceans. Unlike other tinamous species, Spotted Nothura is terrestrial, and when threatened, it appears to avoid escaping. Except when dirty, they navigate perfectly and easily. The flight is low, just 2-4 m above ground level, and they usually fly only 15-20 m until they crash down to earth. The flight is direct; glides are shorter, interspersed with longer flights. Spotted Nothuras aren't particularly diligent, or when they're hunted extensively. Truly black crown, or streaked with a light grey buffy. The head parts, including the nape including hindneck, light ochraceous or greyish brown, patterned narrow to broad with black stripes. The base colouring of the upper sections is light greyish or olivaceous brown, spotted and vermiculated black, and striped yellowish white. Ochraceous, or tawny, black-barred wing feathers. Remiges rusty brown or blackish, barred evenly on all sides with buff or reddish ochre. Dark hair, and spotless. Lower foreneck and tawny or ochraceous underpieces; the belly is unmarked, while most underpieces are makred on the flanks with dark or blackish dots, stripes, and lines.