Mycoplasma Infection Has Inconceivable Impacts on Pregnancy
Mycoplasma can affect fertility
Mycoplasma is one of the simplest small prokaryotes that can live independently. There are more than a dozen kinds of mycoplasma that infect humans, including Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma ureaicyticum (UU), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) extracted from female reproductive tract.
Mycoplasma infection is closely related to female infertility.
According to statistics, about 90% of women in infertile couples are infected with UU, while only 22% of normal women are detected with UU infection.
UU infection often leads to genital tract inflammation, resulting in necrosis of mucosal cells, loss of motor function of cilia in the fallopian tube, and inhibition of fertilized egg movement.
How does mycoplasma infection affect pregnancy?
1. When mycoplasma infects women, the decomposition of urea destroys the weak acidic environment, a natural barrier, and promotes the colonization and infection of other pathogenic microorganisms, which is not conducive to sperm survival. At the same time, it can also cause necrosis of mucous cells and stagnation of tubal cilia.
2. Due to the increase of hormone levels during pregnancy, mycoplasma toxicity is enhanced, which induces immune damage, damages the maternal autoimmune tolerance mechanism, damages the metabolism and physiological functions of the endometrium, interferes with and destroys the development of embryos, and ultimately promotes tissue embryo loss, resulting in abortion and infertility.
3. Various specific antigens and antibodies have adverse effects on pregnancy after mycoplasma infection. Studies have shown that UU infection and repeated UU infection can activate various inflammatory cells to secrete cytokines such as interleukin, disrupt normal cell metabolism, and thus lead to infertility.
4. Mycoplasma infection and repeated mycoplasma infection can cause tubal inflammation and tubal scar formation, ultimately affecting the motor function and patency of the tubal and leading to tubal infertility.
These mechanisms can either act alone or in combination to cause female infertility.
Clinical studies have shown that the probability of premature delivery, fetal distress, and neonatal asphyxia in pregnant women with positive mycoplasma infection is significantly higher than that with negative infection.
At the same time, the neonatal infection rate caused by multiple mycoplasma co-infection was significantly higher than that caused by single mycoplasma infection, which may be due to the synergistic effect of mycoplasma co-infection.
Mycoplasma infection in pregnant women can be transmitted to newborns through vertical transmission and adversely affects the pregnancy process and newborns.
Does mycoplasma infection need treatment?
1. If both men and women have no symptoms related to urogenital tract infection and are only positive for UU, they are considered carriers and do not need treatment.
2. When symptoms of UU infection disappear after treatment and only the laboratory test results are positive, the carrier should be considered without continuing drug therapy.
3. Men diagnosed with UU urethritis are advised to treat their partners simultaneously and avoid unprotected intercourse during this period.
4. When male semen quality is abnormal, and there is a fertility need, both men and women suggest a course of treatment simultaneously.
5. If a test for MG is available, it should be actively performed when urethritis and cervicitis are suspected.
6. In treating pelvic inflammatory disease, mycoplasma should be considered involved in the pathogenesis of the pelvic inflammatory disease, and the antibacterial spectrum should cover mycoplasma.
Mycoplasma infection is an opportunistic infection, that is, in some cases, it doesn't cause disease and is just a carrier of microbes. Patients who are mycoplasma-positive, have no clinical symptoms, or are not accompanied by other microbial infections do not need treatment but still need to maintain hygiene.
We don't live in a sterile environment. We are exposed to bacteria and viruses all the time. Therefore, during pregnancy, both husband and wife must have a physical examination to give birth to a healthy baby smoothly.
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