Basic information about aplastic anemia
In this article we have discussed about aplastic anemia and its symptoms and basic terms of aplastic anemia
This is a rare blood disorder that causes bone marrow failure, making it difficult for the body to produce enough red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Because of this, patients experience severe anemia and infections, and sometimes even death. There are two types of aplastic anemia - congenital and acquired. Acquired aplastic anemia occurs when the immune system attacks the bone marrow. In congenital aplastic anemia, the bone marrow does not develop normally. Most cases of aplastic anemias occur in children under 2 years old. Aplastic Anemia Treatment cost in India differ according to stages
Symptoms of Aplastic Amenia
Anemia is a condition where the body does not have enough red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. This results in fatigue, weakness, pallor (a pale color), shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and even fainting. If left untreated, it can lead to heart failure and death. Most people who suffer from anemia do not know they have it until their symptoms become unbearable.
Thrombocytopenia are conditions where platelets are low. Platelets help the body stop bleeding after injuries, cuts, or surgeries. When platelet counts drop, severe bleeding occurs. Symptoms include bruising easily, nosebleeds, gums bleeding, and heavy menstrual flow.
Leukopenia is a condition where white blood cells are low. White blood cells fight infections and disease. When leukocytes are low, infection is likely. Symptoms include fever, sore throat, cough, runny nose, muscle aches, and diarrhea.
Neutropenia is a condition where neutrophils are low. Neutrophils are immune system cells that protect the body from bacteria and viruses. Low levels of neutrophils make the body susceptible to bacterial infections. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and mouth sores.
Lymphopenia is a condition in which lymphocytes are low. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that produce antibodies to fight off foreign invaders. A person with lymphopenia may experience flu-like symptoms including fever, swollen glands, and chills.
Coagulopathies are disorders that affect the clotting cascade. Clotting factors are proteins that regulate coagulation. When clotting factors are low, clots tend to stick together and fail to dissolve. These clots can cause deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction.
7. Bone Marrow Failure
Bone marrow failure is a condition in which bone marrow stops producing blood cells. When bone marrow fails, the body cannot produce enough blood cells. This causes anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia.
Some terms of aplastic anemia
1. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT)
Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is a procedure that involves replacing the bone marrow of a patient with stem cells taken from a donor. In order to perform BMT, doctors extract stem cells from the bone marrow of the donor and then inject them back into the patient's body. Once transplanted, the stem cells develop into blood-forming cells called hematopoietic cells. These cells help produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Immunosuppressive therapy (IST)
Immunosuppressive therapy is a treatment that helps prevent rejection of the transplanted bone marrow. IST drugs work by suppressing the immune system of the recipient. They inhibit the activity of T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and antibody-producing cells.
3. Graft versus host disease (GVHD)
Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) occurs when a person receives a graft from someone else. A graft is any tissue or organ that comes from another individual. When a person receives a graft, their own immune system attacks the foreign tissue. If the immune system does not recognize the foreign tissue as its own, it may attack the grafted tissue instead of attacking the virus or bacteria that caused the infection.
4. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)
Anti thymocyte Globulin (ATG) is a drug used to suppress the immune system of patients who have received a bone marrow transplant. ATG works by blocking the function of T lymphocytes, which are white blood cells that play an important role in fighting infections.
5. Cyclosporine (CsA)
Cyclosporine (Cs) is a drug used after a bone marrow transplant to prevent the body from rejecting the new bone marrow. Cs is a powerful immunosuppressant that blocks the production of antibodies by the immune system.
Methotrexate (Met) is a chemotherapy drug that suppresses the immune system. Met inhibits DNA synthesis and decreases the number of mature white blood cells in the bloodstream.
7. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG)
Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), or intravenous immunoglobulin, is a medication that contains antibodies extracted from human plasma. IVIG is given intravenously to treat autoimmune disorders.
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