Capsicum is grown as a vegetable crop. In India, it is primarily grown in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Haryana and Jharkhand. Capsicum contains high amounts of beta carotene and vitamins A, and C, due to which the consumption of Capsicum is very beneficial for the body. It also helps keep the weight stable. Apart from consumption, Capsicum is also used in medicinal form. The capsicum crop is prepared in less time and effort, due to which farmer brothers prefer to produce Capsicum. Yellow, red, green and pink coloured Capsicum are grown from its improved varieties so that farmers can earn good profit by producing it. In this post, you are being given details about how to cultivate Capsicum and which is the best variety of Chilies.
Soil & Climate
For a good crop of Capsicum, clay loam soil is required. Apart from this, it is also essential to have soil with proper drainage for its cultivation. The pH value of the land in its cultivation should be between 6 and 7. A mild and humid climate is required for the cultivation of Capsicum. Its plants are unable to tolerate extreme heat and cold.
The high and low temperature in its cultivation affects the yield. Capsicum plants grow well at average temperatures. Its plants can withstand a max temperature of 40 degrees and a minimum of 10 degrees.
To prepare the land for Capsicum, its field is sufficiently ploughed. After this, the field's soil is left open for some time to get sunlight. Then, 15 to 20 carts of old cow dung have to be applied in the form of natural manure in the field. After applying the manure of cow dung, the manure is mixed well in the field's soil by ploughing. If you want, you can use compost manure rather than cow dung manure as well.
Next, the land is pulverised by applying water. During the last ploughing of the field after ploughing, NPK is sprayed in an appropriate amount. If the amount of sulphur in the land is found to be less, then 60 kg of sulphur has to be given per hectare in the field. After this, the field is levelled by putting a pad in the field, due to which water logging problems are not seen in the field.
Planting Season & Method
Capsicum plants are transplanted in the form of seedlings rather than directly sowing in the form of seeds. Therefore, the seeds are prepared before sowing in the nursery or the fields with the help of a super seeder, because the super seeder price is reasonable. The seeds are treated with an adequate amount of Bavistin before they are ready. Apart from this, you can buy plants from any certified nursery for transplanting plants if you want. This saves time for the farmer brothers, and the yield is also obtained easily. While buying plants, it must be noted that the plants should be healthy and one month old.
Then, the meadows are prepared in the land for planting the Capsicum, and a distance of three feet is kept between each plant. In planting seedlings, a distance of one foot is maintained between each plant. The month of July is considered suitable for transplanting capsicum seedlings. Apart from this, transplanting of capsicum plants is also done in the months of January and September. With good care of capsicum plants, yields can be achieved for 6 months.
Irrigation of Capsicum Plants
The drip method is used for irrigation of plants in Shimla cultivation. The first irrigation of its plants is done immediately after planting. Its crop does not require much irrigation. Irrigating plants by drip method means there is no hazard of its seeds flowing apart, and the plants also get an adequate amount of water. For this, capsicum plants have to be irrigated daily for 20 minutes.
Natural ways are used for weed control on Capsicum. If weeds are not controlled, the yield is impacted adversely. Its plants require 5 to 6 hoeing. The first weeding of capsicum plants is done immediately after transplanting. Later, weeding has to be done at an interval of 2 weeks.
Capsicum fruits are ready for harvesting two months after transplanting. When the colour of its fruits becomes eye-catching, it is harvested during that time. One hectare land of Capsicum gives a yield of 300 to 500 quintals. Due to this, farmers can earn a good income of 3 to 5 lakhs by getting a yield from a one-hectare field of Capsicum.
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