It's important to note that the Exodus story is a significant part of religious texts, particularly the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), and its historical accuracy is a topic of debate among scholars. According to the biblical narrative, the Israelites escaped from slavery in Egypt under the leadership of Moses and then wandered in the desert for 40 years before entering the Promised Land. The exact dates for these events are not specified in the Bible, so establishing precise historical records can be challenging. Many scholars suggest that if the Exodus did occur, it likely happened in the 13th century BCE, during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II.
The Israelites were in the land of Egypt because they had migrated there during a time of famine and were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians. The narrative begins with Joseph, one of the sons of Jacob (also known as Israel), who was sold into slavery by his jealous brothers and taken to Egypt. Through a series of events and with divine assistance, Joseph rises to a position of power and becomes a trusted advisor to the Pharaoh. During a severe famine in the region, Joseph's family, including his father Jacob and his brothers, travel to Egypt in search of food and refuge.
Pharaoh welcomes Joseph's family and gives them land in the region of Goshen. Over time, the Israelites prosper and multiply in Egypt. However, as generations pass, a new Pharaoh arises who does not remember or acknowledge Joseph's contributions and the special status of the Israelites. This Pharaoh fears the Israelites' growing numbers and enslaves them, forcing them into hard labor. The Israelites' time in Egypt as slaves eventually leads to their cry for deliverance, which sets the stage for the events of the Exodus, where Moses leads them out of Egypt toward the Promised Land.
According to the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), King Saul became the first king of Israel . His reign is traditionally dated to approximately 1020-1000 BCE.
After fled from Egypt they wandered in the wilderness for 40years with the guidance of God. Priest Eli was their channel to God and every time other nations tried to conquer them priest Eli consulting to God to protect them from the conqueror that is why no one can conquer them because of the protection of God to Israelites. There was time that their priest Eli became older and older and died, his sons were abusive to collect taxes and use for their own sake and in that God get angered to the sons of Eli as well the protection of God unto the Israelites weren't abide anymore and there were all nations who want to conquer them won, so all people of Israel were grieve to fear.
The next to priest Eli was prophet Samuel and became their judge for almost 40years and then after, they ask to Samuel to bring their request to God to have a new King so that they would have a leader to lead and fight for them from the conquest. So then God answered their request to give them a new leader to lead them and gave king Saul and He was anointed as king by the prophet Samuel, and his reign marked the transition from a loose confederation of tribes to a centralized monarchy in ancient Israel.
The first king of Israel was King Saul and their the condition that all men became the soldier of the king and give 10% of their means to the government and women serve the king in the palace and all that was well under the government of King Saul.