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The Chronicles of Narnia: An Immigration Story

An Essay

By LalainaPublished about a year ago 24 min read
The Chronicles of Narnia: An Immigration Story
Photo by Mark Rabe on Unsplash

Most scholarship centered around the Chronicles of Narnia focuses on the religious imagery C.S. Lewis utilized within his fairytale world. Christianity is undoubtably an important aspect of the Chronicles of Narnia; Aslan represents Jesus, Edmund represents Judas, and countless other religious allegories litter the series, but that is not all the series has to offer. In fact, whether intentional or not, Lewis wrote a compelling tale of the immigrant journey, particularly with the Pevensies. The four siblings are activists and provide a service to the Narnia, freeing them from the White Witch. However, they are deported from their true home, sent back to England. They eventually return, only to make the journey back to England because it is what is best for their people. They are forced to leave their kingdom in the hand of another king, a descendant of colonizers, though Narnia is where they feel they truly belong.

For the scope of this paper, I shall focus on books where the Pevensies are central characters and all four siblings are united. While the Last Battle is a pivotal book in the series, as it is the end and most of the Pevensies are allowed into Narnian heaven, Susan is only briefly mentioned. So, I will go into depth within this paper. However, I will be paying special attention to The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, along with Prince Caspian, which were also the most commercial of Lewis’ works, as they were turned into movies by Disney. Of course, there cannot be a discussion on xenophobia and immigration within the Chronicles of Narnia without first touching upon Lewis’ perspective.

C.S. Lewis, Racism, and Xenophobia

While many scholars have accused Lewis of xenophobia and racism, the author was progressive for his time, especially for a white, cisgender, heterosexual, British man. He was a man of faith and he stood by his faith when it came to his interactions with humanity. Lewis had strong convictions towards minority groups, believing they needed to be respected, and was strictly against the subjugation of people. Lewis “directly [attacked] the hypocrisy of foreign policies that produce[d] slaves and grub for profit in the name of spreading civilization and order” (Taylor 171). He was a Christian and he followed the teachings of Jesus Christ faithfully, which is reflected in his work.

Whether Lewis was racist or not is heavily debated, but it seems accurate to say, as Taylor did, that “both sides have at times less concerned about the fiction than about Lewis himself and whether he was racist or not” (162). He was not perfect, and his writings do reflect that he “was born during the height of the British Empire’s power” (Taylor 162) and “his fiction [reflects] prejudices he learned in his formative years” (Taylor 166), particularly in The Horse and His Boy, which has often been deemed Islamophobic. However, his intent was not to be racist towards the people, though it may have come off that way.

According to Walker, “the best children’s fantasies encourage questioning of commonly held cultural values rather than mere conformity to them” (Walker, “High Fantasy” 109). Lewis did this by subverting expectations of his characters, challenging “his characters’ views of the ‘white barbarians’ and the ‘dark men’” (Taylor 165). His books have villains and heroes of all colors, and some are not even humans, but animals. “Lewis also uses role reversal with countries to examine the cultural and economic problems caused by colonization” (Taylor 170) and “he encourages his readers to accept foreigners as brothers” (Taylor 172). His results may be questionable, but he had good intent, and was not above writing an immigrant story.

Racism in Narnia

Narnia is a heavily colonized country, overtaken more than once by “reprehensible groups dominated by vice” (Taylor 169). Racism is rampant in the country of Narnia because Lewis was aware of the racism surrounding him, and he utilized “racial imagery in The Chronicles of Narnia [to highlight] racism in Western culture and its roots of tyranny in the human heart” (Taylor 175). During The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, Narnia was ruled by a White Queen, an immigrant. In Prince Caspian, Narnia was ruled by the Telmarines, also immigrants. They act as the antithesis of the Pevensies, who are immigrants that are there to serve the community, not colonize Narnia. Prince Caspian plays a similar role, though he is only born to Narnian immigrants, not an immigrant himself.

According to the animals in The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, “there may be two views about humans (meaning no offense to the [Pevensies]). But there’s no two views about things that look like humans and aren’t” (Lewis, The Lion 81). This shows that they are aware of the complex relationships within their community, particularly among humanoids and animals. The dwarves tend to side with the White Witch, while the animals clearly side with Aslan. The White Witch is not human, which inherently makes her evil in the eyes of the creatures, even though she is not human herself either, just pretends to be.

However, much like social movements in real world countries, the Narnians undergo their own changes in dynamics and human geography. In Prince Caspian, animals are no longer the dominant species in Narnia, Telmarines are. They are presumably human and the animals are now subjugated, along with humanoids, such as the dwarves. The rules are always unclear, having to do with more than appearance.

By the end of the series, “some Narnians end up in the shadow proving that who you love and serve matters more than where you were born or even what color and shape you possess” (Taylor 165). Lewis does not take sides in his story in terms of specific racial roles. Narnians and non-Narnians can both join heaven or hell; actions are what matter. Prince Caspian, for example, is a ‘good’ Telmarine and Susan eventually betrays her family by forgetting about Narnia, making her a questionable human.

The Wardrobe as Border

The trip through the wardrobe is a clear allegory for migration. According to Walker, the “wardrobe, the threshold between the ordinary world and the artificial world of Narnia, is repeatedly referred to by the narrator as a potential place of death, and the potential failure of the children’s status change is convincing” ( “The Lion” 178). This is similar to the countless of trips immigrants take, whether it is the Vietnamese traveling through boats, Mexicans crossing the desert on foot, or the Irish boarding a plane.

However, the wardrobe is not a sanctioned border. There is no sanctioned border between the two worlds, otherwise, there would be a consistent one. The Pevensies would be able to return easily, instead of having to take different paths to Narnia each time. Beings in the same world as Narnia can travel to the country, but the Pevensies are only able to go there by chance. Eventually, every passageway is closed for them. They are unable to freely make the journey, only relying on luck above anything else.

The Professor makes it clear that they will not be able to get into Narnia again through the wardrobe (Lewis, The Lion 188). This is something he knows from firsthand experience, having once been to Narnia. This reality is similar to individuals who cannot sneak back into a country after being pushed out, though they want to. This leads me to believe that, despite their service to Narnia and becoming monarchs, the Pevensies were never legally Narnians. They were undocumented immigrants who, despite all they had done, were tossed from their home arbitrarily.

The Pevensies as New Immigrants

The Pevensies have not had a conventional childhood. The “ordinary world from which the children emerge is an image of a particularly chaotic society” (Walker, “The Lion” 178). They are living through the height of World War II. Their parents must send them a way to their protection. In a sense, they are similar to refugees, seeking a safe haven in the Professor’s home in the country. However, they do not find it there. They end up in Narnia, a country undergoing their own war, a war they are caught in the middle of.

For the Pevensies, their true rite of passage is not becoming Narnian royalty, but immigrating to Narnia. No other milestones receive as much focus as how they adapt to the new world they have entered. Every new immigrant must learn the new expectations of the new culture they inhabit, the “laws in Narnia force the [Pevensies] to experience and so to comprehend and interpretation of the world and act upon it” (Walker, “The Lion” 178). The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe signify that the Pevensies are growing up, partially because they have undergone this journey.

“As members of a world society in absolute dishevelment, the four children have no clear status until they enter Narnia” (Walker, “The Lion” 187). Prior to entering Narnia, the children have no autonomy. However, in Narnia, they are saviors, they even become monarchs. They are able to save Narnia, unlike they are able to save their old world, which is part of the appeal of their immigration to Narnia. They have a semblance of control there.

People immigrate for various reasons. Job opportunities, marriage, escaping war torn countries, and being with family are just a few of the motivations behind immigration. In the case of the Pevensies, it is a combination. They are escaping war torn England, they are trying to stay together, and they are more or less offered the jobs of saviors of Narnia. Overall, they have found a better life in Narnia, which is what most immigrants desire. However, they are still immigrants and nothing can help them escape that label.

Every immigrant must learn the rules and conventions of a culture when entering a new country. “Once the children get into Narnia, they evaluate the animals and time and weather and all the events according to conventions they have learned in the past” (Walker, “High Fantasy” 115); their only frame of reference is the ‘real’ world, so they tend to believe the rules are the same. Instead, they have to adapt and adjust. In the old world, they were common, just a group of English kids among other English kids. In Narnia, they are the minority, as opposed to the majority.

Narnia is mostly inhabited by animals and humanoids, which is why the Pevensies are so novel. The White Witch, though she appears human, is not human. The humanoids, strangely, treat them with more discrimination than the animals, who see them as the ‘other’ like themselves. The Pevensies do not retain the superiority that comes with being a part of the majority. In fact, “as the children explore the symbols they encounter, they act, and with each act they discover more symbols to unravel” (Walker, “High Fantasy” 116). The learn to become Narnians, how to communicate with them, and become warriors. They soon stop reacting to animals talking back to them.

The first to enter Narnia is Lucy, the youngest. She takes on the role of a foreigner, as Mr. Tumnus makes it evident that humans like Lucy are uncommon in Narnia (Lewis, The Lion 11-12). Usually, the youngest in an immigrant family has a much easier time adjusting when immigrating, as they are more flexible and have an easier time learning the customs. In Lucy’s case, Narnia is a magical place and she is a young child, so she still believes in the magical abilities of the world. She sees an opportunity to explore where her older sibling, Edmund, sees profit.

When Lucy explains she came through the wardrobe in the spare room, Mr. Tumnus replies “if only I had worked harder at geography when I was a little Faun, I should no doubt know about all those strange countries” (Lewis, The Lion 12). He believes the wardrobe and the spare room are potentially countries; while he is incorrect in thinking that, he is not entirely wrong. The Pevensies are from a completely different country than Narnia; in fact, England is in a completely different world entirely.

Lucy is not supposed to be there, though she is unaware of the matter. She is too young to understand the concept of immigration laws, much like other young children are when they immigrate. She also does not expect to be anything but welcome in Narnia, because she means no harm. She does not yet understand that beings are not always kind to immigrants, especially ones that are different from themselves.

Mr. Tumnus plays an interesting role in Lucy’s first immigration experience. He is the first being Lucy meets in Narnia; in fact, in her first trip, he is the only being he meets from the country. She does not particularly question the fact that he is a faun, though that would be unusual from her country. He is kind to her and promises to show her Narnia, so she accepts his companionship. However, Mr. Tumnus’ intentions are not entirely pure.

While Mr. Tumnus is a guide to Lucy in her immigration journey, keeping her from getting lost in Narnia, guides frequently betray those they are guiding. Usually it is for financial gain, abandoning them in the middle of nowhere once they have their money. In Mr. Tumnus’ case, it is because he wants to save himself. He is somewhat of a humanoid, like the dwarves and the White Witch, so he has a clear allegiance. However, instead of betraying Lucy for his queen, he sides with his new friend and confesses to her:

“I’m a kidnapper for her, that’s what I am. Look at me, Daughter of Eve. Would you believe that I’m the sort of Faun to meet a poor innocent child in the wood, one that had never done me any harm, and pretend to be friendly with it, and invite it home to my cave, all for the sake of lulling it asleep and then handing it over to the White Witch?” (Lewis, The Lion 19)

Mr. Tumnus acts as a kidnapper for the queen, something he shows great remorse over. (Lewis, The Lion 19). It is much easier to discriminate against people in the abstract than when they are right in front of you, proving they are also like you. Lucy is nothing but kind to Mr. Tumnus, who acts as a kind of border patrol for the queen, keeping humans out of the country for her. This makes him regret his decision to turn her in, likely for money, and do the right thing instead. He sends her home, knowing what awaits her in Narnia if she remains.

Mr. Tumnus is arrested by the White Witch for “comforting [her] Majesty’s enemies, harboring spies and fraternizing with Humans” (Lewis, The Lion 58). While racism may or may not be legal in Narnian law, the queen certainly exerts her xenophobia by calling the Pevensies’ her enemies. By acting as if they are the dangerous ones, she is able to keep herself in power instead of them. The irony is, that if she was not so insistent on destroying them, the Pevensies would have likely never crossed her path and taken her kingdom.

The second most prominent character among the Pevensies is Edmund, who is slightly older than Lucy and is an opportunist. He sees Narnia for all that it offers him, instead of what he can offer it. In fact, he sells out his entire family for Turkish Delight, uncaring of what the queen plans for him (Lewis, The Lion 36-38). Chocolate and sweets were rationed during World War II, so he enjoys eating such things again, and the White Queen takes advantage of his greed. He is also away from the most prominent adult role models in his life, so it is easy for him to be seduced by her.

Edmund is older than Lucy, but younger than Susan and Peter. He is an immigrant child that is upset at having already been forced to move to the Professor’s house. At least moving to Narnia gives him agency and a position of power, if he is to believe the White Queen. Unfortunately, like many immigrants seduced by job opportunities in a new country, he is taken advantage of. The Queen insists she needs a prince, and could make it Edmund, but in reality, she just wants to use him for her own needs, then dispose of them all.

Despite the White Witch’s discrimination against humans, she has clearly never seen many of them before. Her first question to Edmund is, “Are you a great overgrown dwarf that has cut off its beard?” (Lewis, The Lion 34). She cannot fathom him as human. This also shows how arbitrary racism in Narnia is, as the dwarves are on her side, but she despises humans. The difference is dwarves have learned to fall under her dominion, while humans have not. She also, likely, does not fully understand humans, so it is much easier to hate them. All she knows is what she has heard: they are there to take her job.

A common thread across all discrimination against immigrants in the entire history of the world is that they are there to take jobs. They arrive, they are cheap, then they do too good of a job and must be disposes of. The White Witch is simply a zealot afraid of these new immigrants taking her job and doing better at it. She is afraid of being replace, so she plans on putting everyone against them instead and destroying them before they can destroy her.

This entire fear is entirely irrational. The Pevensies are children. They do not have any ulterior motives than enjoying Narnia, especially since they are bored in the country and their other world is in chaos because of the war. None of them, save for Edmund, particularly show a desire to be a member of royalty. They enjoy Narnia, and become a part of it, but had the White Queen not targeted them, they might have never joined the rebellion and taken her job from her. The White Queen creates her own worst enemies, not the prophecy, which is the equivalent of scare news tactics.

It is obvious that the White Queen is manipulating Edmund. Her reaction after deducing that he is humans is as follows: “A door. A door from the world of men! I have heard of such things. This may wreck it all. But he is only one, and he is easily dealt with” (Lewis, The Lion 35). She intends to get rid of him, because she does not want him there, is afraid of a child whose biggest desire is to eat sweets, not take over her country. In fact, if she had made it easier, the Pevensies might have gone home as soon as they finished exploring for a bit. Or, they might have remained as her willing subjects.

The queen even utters the words, “You must go back to your own country” (Lewis, The Lion 39). While the White Witch is saying this so Edmund can bring back his siblings and she can kill all four of them, this proves she thinks of the Pevensies as foreigners who cannot claim Narnia as their own country. She will not allow it, no matter what false promises she makes to Edmund.

Susan and Peter are less prominent than their younger, siblings, though they do play an important role in the The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. They become the High King and High Queen, though this seems to be because they are the eldest above all else. They clearly do not hold the same ideals as their younger siblings. They do not initially care much about Narnia, but are willing to explore, primarily because they feel guilty over calling Lucy a liar when she tells them of the great land.

Susan, who is the only Pevensie to not return at the end of the book series, even says “I don’t want to go a step further, and I wish we’d never come” (Lewis, The Lion 60). Though she agrees to help Mr. Tumnus, she clearly does not want to be a part of Narnia, at least, not then. She is mostly there because she has to be. There is no alternative if she wants to look after Edmund and Lucy, who she has been entrusted with.

Susan acts as a sort of maternal figure for the younger siblings. She eventually stays in Narnia, like a mother, for her children above all else. Back in England there is a war, and in Narnia, her younger siblings are eventually safe, and become royals. There are better opportunities for them. This immigration experience is also common and just as valid as the ones Lucy and Edmund undergo.

Peter is a similar story, having undertaken a more paternal role among the siblings. He does not seem to particularly care about Narnia, only wants to make everything up to Lucy. The prime motivation for Peter to go to Aslan, and therefore the rebellion is not out of some sense of nobility, or of freeing the country of Narnia from tyranny; it is to find his brother, Edmund, despite the fact that he is a pain (Lewis, The Lion 85-86).

Peter’s motivation behind immigrating to Narnia is to simply be with his family, particularly the makeshift one he creates with his siblings. Their parents might not even survive the war, but in Narnia, they have a better chance of making something of themselves, rather than risking dying through air raids. He remains in Narnia, initially, to be with his siblings and find his annoying little brother. It is an incredibly common trope among immigrants, particularly when their family members immigrate first.

The Pevensies enter Narnia as workers. Though it is initially more of a vacation for them, the Narnians prove to need them and expect them to take over after the White Queen is defeated. As she kidnaps Edmund, they have little choice but to go along with the Narnian rebellion’s plans for them, as otherwise their only option would be to die at the hands of the White Queen. Inevitably, they become royalty.

“In order for communities to continue, they must have members; each member can be said to save heroically the community from collapse by adopting its values and interacting with its other members” (Walker, “High Fantasy” 110). As the White Queen is slowly turning many of her subjects into stone and does not seem to have plans of expansion, Narnia is slowly crumbling. It is heavily divided by racial categories as well, so, even without the Pevensies, Narnia was at a brink of a civil war.

The Pevensies have different goals which lead them to Narnia. However, they all eventually establish lives there. They defeat the White Queen, become royalty themselves, snuff out what is left of her followers, and spend decades there. Then, once they have served their purpose and after decades of service, they are ungraciously deported back to England.

The Pevensies’ Deportation

At the end of The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, the Pevensies have forgotten their old world and believe themselves to be Narnians above all else. They are briefly featured in some of the other books set during their reign, in which they act as Narnians. They do not mention their old world because they do not remember it. It is no longer a part of them and they assimilate into Narnia. In other books, they even find themselves among other humans featured in the world.

They became adults in Narnia. In fact, they spent more time in Narnia than they did in England. The had jobs, created laws, and were beloved by the kingdom, enough for their memory to live on in legends. But it was not their world and as undocumented immigrants, they always had to be on edge.

According to the narrator, the :two Kings and two Queens governed Narnia well, and long and happy was their reign” (Lewis, The Lion 183). The Pevensies did an adequate job and were desired there. However, that was not their origin and whatever force governs Narnia decided that meant they had to leave, though they do not even remember England anymore or that they were ever immigrants in the first place.

Their lack of interest in their old world becomes most evident when they do not recognize the very lamp that signified the beginning of their journey at the beginning of the story (Lewis, The Lion 186-187). This explains why they never went back to the lamp, in all their years in Narnia. At some point, they decided to stay, and that meant they stopped searching for it. They do not choose to go back to England, they stumble into the wardrobe and end up back there by chance. Whether or not they want to go back to Narnia, they cannot go back. The portal behind them is closed and they have been officially deported.

The Pevensies as Returning Immigrants and True Narnians

Prince Caspian features the Pevensies extensively. Though it has been a year for the Pevensies, it has been centuries in Narnia. They have become legends, with only Aslan alive to remember them. While the Pevensies have adjusted to living life in England, they still remember Narnia and have no qualms about going through the terminal again. It is an accident once more, but they are not unhappy with the situation. In fact, the Pevensies take their second to trip to Narnia in stride.

Lucy’s first reaction upon returning to Narnia is excitement (Lewis, Prince Caspian 5). Her sister, Susan refers to England as “the other place” (Lewis, Prince Caspian 27) and focuses on their previous departure being an accident. Peter and Edmund are more than eager to embark in the war effort. This time, they are not escaping from anything. They are simply going to boarding school. They stay in Narnia because they are happy to be there, not necessarily because they were forced there.

The Pevensies did not want to leave Narnia. In fact, the more time they spend in Narnia, even in this second time, the more England is just an afterthought, a place they are not eager to return to. They are more concerned with exploring this new Narnia than going back to England. They are more comfortable in this magical country, which becomes evident in innocuous moments like their preference in clothing.

The Pevensies feel more at home in Narnian clothes than their own. As stated by Lewis, “they came back up the stairway, jingling in their mail, and already looking and feeling more like Narnians” (Prince Caspian 104). Chain mail is not exactly comfortable, and definitely not more comfortable than school clothes. However, they are at home in the knightly clothing, because they spent years in it.

The more time the Pevensies spend in Narnia, the more they adjust to the world, the more their muscle memory takes over. One of the more obvious moments is when Trumpkin and Edmund spar.

I don’t think Edmund would have had a chance if he had fought Trumpkin twenty-four hours earlier. But the air of Narnia had been working upon him ever since they arrive on the island, and all his old battles came back to him, and his arms and fingers remembered their old skill. He was King Edmund once more. (Lewis, Prince Caspian 105)

Edmund changed drastically from the selfish boy he was in The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. After a day in Narnia, he adapts once more. While we never saw his adjustment in England, he is clearly happy to return. He is comfortable in Narnia and was skilled in Narnia.

All of Edmund’s character development did not happen in England. His emotional growth happened in Narnia. Being in that particular environment was good for him and made him into a success. His work in Narnia and acceptance of his faults turned him from a selfish, whiny, child, to a king. He had to work hard, after all his efforts led to fruition, he lost it all.

Another example of the Pevensies’ adjustment in Narnia is the description of Lucy watching the stars in the Narnian sky and comparing them to her experience with the stars in England:

Then, with a thrill of memory, she saw again, after all those years, the bright Narnian stars. She had once known them better than the stars of our own world, because as a Queen in Narnia, she had gone to bed much later than as a child in England. (Lewis, Prince Caspian 115).

The two skies are not part of the same solar system or even the same universe. Lucy knows one of them better and clearly prefers it. She grew into herself in Narnia, became a heroine, and was the bearer of truth. She was an adult and now, she is forced to grow up again, in England, a land she can accommodate to, but that is no longer really home.

Part of the reason Lucy is one of the Pevensies to spend the most time in Narnia is because she is young. She was a young immigrant and adapted more easily to the new culture, and countries frequently grant exemptions for undocumented immigrants who enter the country because of their parents. This is not the exact situation Lucy is in, but it is similar.

Lucy is the only one of the Pevensies that never stops believing in Aslan. He is a staple in Narnia, their version of Jesus, and their savior in the war during The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. There are no talking lions in England, much less large ones with the same majestic qualities. Though Aslan has become a myth in Narnia because of how long he has been away, Lucy never stops believing in him. In some ways, she is the most patriotic of the Pevensie siblings, hopelessly devoted to Narnia. She is the only one that can always see Aslan, while her siblings take longer to do so.

As stated on their previous journey together, “Once a king or queen in Narnia, always a king or queen” (Lewis, The Lion 182). In Prince Caspian, the Pevensies are allowed to return to Narnia, for the final time all together, to help the kingdom. They are brought back because the country needs their labor, not because of their desire to return.

The Pevensies do want to be back in Narnia, but they are not meant to stay there. They are meant to help Prince Caspian, the son of foreigners, to take the throne, not take the throne themselves. Though it is not touched upon in the books, the Pevensies do not seem to think they will be taking over Narnia. However, they are loyal to their country.

Despite the fact that they were forced to leave Narnia and the bad blood they feel towards the Telmarines, the Pevensies help Prince Caspian because it is for the good of their people. Whether or not Narnia wants them to stay, the Pevensies want to stay. They love Narnia and want to help the very creatures they initially swore to protect.

Interestingly, this time, the Pevensies are on the same side as the dwarves, displaying how the racism has changed over time, and showing that the Pevensies were good rulers who could forget old biases for the sake of what is right. Susan even saves one of the dwarves from being drowned, though her first memories are of dwarves in Narnia are not positive ones.

Potentially, the Pevensies had been good rulers because they were immigrants and understood the concept of xenophobia. While they went back to England, where they were the majority, the same was not true in Narnia. However, they forgot such old prejudices in favor of what was right.

Once the Pevensies settle Prince Caspian on the throne, and make him king, it becomes evident that their services are no longer needed. As the Telmarines are given the option to leave Narnia through a portal, the Pevensies have to volunteer to step through the portal (Lewis, Prince Caspian 219-221). It is what makes sense and the Pevensies want to serve their country. However, it leads to them being deported once more.

The Pevensies find the aspect of not returning to Narnia ever again to be a travesty, which is evident when Lucy and Edmund console Peter and Susan when it becomes clear the latter will not be returning to Narnia again (Lewis, Prince Caspian 221). Peter does not return until he dies and Susan never returns within the books. Edmund and Lucy are allowed to return once more while alive, then only return once they have died.

Conclusion

Each time the Pevensie’s leave, it is seen as inevitable. While they are not happy with the situation, they accept it. As immigrants, particularly undocumented ones, it is a constant fear. They are essentially Narnians, except on paper. However, it is never enough. The Pevensies are a typical immigration story in an atypical world. Ideally, more scholarship will study migration patterns in Narnia, particularly with other groups in the books. There needs to be studies done beyond the usual analysis in religion, as The Chronicles of Narnia are rife with content. Though the series is old, it continues to have a cultural impact and more in depth analyses need to be done.

​​Works Cited​

Lewis, C.S. Prince Caspian. New York, HarperCollins, 1951.

Lewis, C.S. The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. New York, HarperCollins, 1950.

Taylor, Jennifer. “Beautiful Barbarians”: Anti-Racism in The Horse and His Boy and Other Chronicles of Narnia. 2012. Hollins U, PhD Dissertation.

Walker, Jeanne Murray. "High Fantasy, Rites of Passage, and Cultural Value." Teaching Children’s Literature: Issues, Pedagogy, Resources, 1992, pp.109-120.

Walker, Jeanne Murray. "The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe as Rite of Passage." Children’s Literature in Education, vol. 16, no. 3, 1985, pp.177-188.

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Lalaina

She/Her. Writing Center Coordinator & Professor. Novelist. 30+. Proud Latina.

I'm obsessed with my cat and fantasy fiction.

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