designers

Coco Chanel, Michael Kors, Tory Burch, and more—explore who has influenced the world of fashion the most, and who might be the next big name.

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    Published 5 months ago
    Under Armour - a short bio

    Under Armour - a short bio

    Under Armour, Inc. is a US company that markets footwear, exercise, and casual clothes. It is based in Baltimore, Maryland under the global headquarters of Armour, with additional branches in Copenhagen, Boston, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Houston, Bangkok, Warsaw, Mexico City, Zurich, New York City, Panama City, Brussels, Cleveland, Seattle, San Francisco, São Paulo, Santiago, Seoul, Shanghai and Toronto. On 25 September 1996, Under Armour produced Kevin Plank, then 24-year-old former special team captain of the University of Maryland football team. Plank originally started business out of his grandmother's basement in Washington, D.C. He spent his days in the trunk of his car riding down the East Coast, wearing nothing but cloth. The first transaction in the business was in late 1996 for a $17,000 contract. Plank moved from his grandmother's apartment to Baltimore. After a few moves in the city, he moved to his new headquarters in Tide Point. Once a front-page USA Today illustration of Oakland Raiders qb Jeff George wearing a Under Armour mock turtleneck, viewers started to remember the brand. The first major Under Armour deal came after the front page, after a Georgia Tech plant manager asked Plank for 10 jerseys. This bid paved the door for a deal with NC State, Arizona State and other Division I football clubs. News spread and orders started to develop with positive reviews from supporters. Under Armour launched several new lines of apparel the same year including ColdGear, TurfGear, AllseasonGear, and StreetGear. Under Armour, 500 Under Armour HeatGear tops had been sold by the end of 1996, raising $17,000 for the company. In 1997 Plank had $100,000 in orders to bring in, and chose a factory in Ohio to manufacture the garments. The corporation is considered to be the primary commercial sponsor for the reality tv show Duck Dynasty and has gained attention for taking a stand with Phil Robertson's family "patriarch." At the 2014 Winter Olympics the costumes worn by speedskaters were given under Armour. Although wearing the latest Mach 39 speedsuits, the US speedskaters lost but the skaters failed to survive when they reverted to their previous style suits. Although there seemed to be no structural flaw in the suit resulting in poor results, the suits ' declaration dropped by 2.38 per cent under Armour stock. The organisation has been actively vying for Nike to negotiate a marketing deal for NBA MVP Kevin Durant, promising a reported US$ 250,000,000 for 10 years. Nevertheless, in the end, Adidas re-signed Durant after agreeing to create an deal that would give US$ 300,000,000. Under Armour, on December 5, 2016, signed a 10-year contract with Major League Baseball to become the official on-field clothing provider to the MLB, starting in 2020. Under Armour will replace Majestic, which has been the provider of clothing to MLB since 2004. Nonetheless, in May 2018 Under Armour was said to be pulling out of the MLB deal to save around $50 million to the company. Nike would then become the supplier of on-field uniform for the team. The contract MLB entered into with Nike on 25 January 2019 became official. Items under Armour include sports shoes, t-shirts, hats, hoodies, tops, leggings, trousers, and accessories such as jackets, gloves, caps and protective gear. U.S. rugby, baseball, and soccer uniforms are made under Armour, among other sports. Under Armour's widening product lines, such as TurfGear, AllseasonGear and StreetGear, put Under Armour at the forefront of the emerging performance apparel sector. Under Armour their Women's Fitness Clothing collection was launched in 2003. Under Armour, announced an expansion to their ColdGear product range, named Infrared, after their release in 2013. This line aims to use ceramic powder to dissipate heat through the wearer's body and recirculate it. This was supposedly designed so as not to have the heat signature of the wearer. Also introduced in 2012 under Armour was a product with scent recognition technology dubbed "Under Armour Scent Protection." The line is built to protect the wearer from detecting the tang.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Ralph Lauren - a short bio

    Ralph Lauren - a short bio

    Ralph Lauren Corporation is an American apparel company that manufacturers products from the mid-range to luxury divisions. They're known in four categories for clothes, product marketing, and drug delivery: apparel, home, cosmetics, and fragrances. The company's products include the mid-range brand Chaps, the sub-luxury brand Lauren Ralph Lauren, the premium brands Polo Ralph Lauren, Double RL, Ralph Lauren Childrenenswear, Denim & Stock Ralph Lauren, and Club Monaco, as well as Ralph Lauren Purple Label and Ralph Lauren Collection, the whole clothing lines. Ralph Lauren Company is a private, publicly traded holding corporation headquartered in New York City which was established in 1967 by private fashion designer Ralph Lauren. In 1967 the Ralph Lauren Corporation started offering relationships for men. At the age of 28 Lauren worked with the tie-maker Beau Brummell. He begged the company's President to let him start his own business. In 1968 Lauren named his first complete menswear line ' Polo ' based on his athletic interests. He worked from a showroom out of a small "drawer" in the Empire State Building and provided deliveries of his own businesses. In 1978, the first Ralph Lauren fragrances, manufactured by Warner-Lauren, Ltd, were issued by Bloomingdale's. For us Chelsea, and the Polo men's cologne. This was the first time a brand has produced two fragrances at the same time. Of 493 professionally operated branches, the Company completed Fiscal 2016: 144 Ralph Lauren locations, 77 Monaco Club stores and 272 Polo shops. The Group had operated 583 concession stores worldwide by the end of the year. Apart from the commercial outlets, at the end of Fiscal 2016, 93 Ralph Lauren stores and 42 dedicated shops were run by international licencing partners as well as 133 Club Monaco stores and shops. Ralph Lauren maintains two own flagship stores across the street on Madison Avenue in New York City – for menswear in the former Rhinelander Building, and for feminine wear and home in a new building that opened in 2010. The company also operates flagships for Ralph Lauren brands retailing in Chicago, Manhasset, Greenwich, Berlin, Milan, Tokyo, Moscow and Paris. In 1989 at the Georgetown University Hospital in Washington D.C. the Nina Hyde Institute for Breast Cancer Research was co-founded. Fashion reporter Late Article in memory. Ralph Lauren served as President in 1994, setting up the logo and model for CFDA's Apparel Targets Breast Cancer, a charitable campaign that marshals funding and money from the fashion community to increase public awareness and fund breast cancer internationally. In 2000, the Ralph Lauren Organization initiated the Volunteer Program, which energises staff and builds meaningful links with the communities in which they work. On September 15, 2000, Ralph Lauren Company launched the Pink Pony Program, a nationwide initiative aimed at reducing cancer treatment gaps by increasing awareness, as well as encouraging prevention, screening and diagnosis in remote and underserved communities. The Polo Ralph Lauren Foundation created the American Heroes Fund in 2001 after September 11 to encourage Polo's 10,000 workers around the world, as well as their clients, to assist in the relief effort. Harlem was the founder of the Ralph Lauren Institute for Cancer Treatment and Prevention in 2003. The Center is a collaboration between Ralph Lauren, Memorial Sloan-Kettering and the General Hospital in Harlem, New York City. Created in 2004, Polo Fashion School is where business managers partner with youth in the inner city to gain insight into the clothing industry. A $10-million donation from Polo Ralph Lauren to Save America's Treasures in 2008 saved the Star-Spangled Banner, the original 1813 flag which inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the National Anthem. The flag was also displayed on Wednesday, November 19, 2008 in a new exhibit at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, in Washington D.C.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Salvatore Ferragamo - a short bio

    Salvatore Ferragamo - a short bio

    Salvatore Ferragamo was an Italian fashion designer and the founder and one of the first and longest leaders of Salvatore Ferragamo S.p. A., a high-end luxury goods shop. One of the most innovative shoe designers in the 20th century, Salvatore Ferragamo, gained fame in the 1930s. Ferragamo drew influence from literature for his clothing as well as experimenting with wild materials such as kangaroo, crocodile, and shark hides. The cork wedge sandals are recognised as one of the most common types of shoes in the 20th century. Salvatore Ferragamo, born in 1898 to a poor family in Bonito, Italy, near Avellino, was the eleventh of 14 children. Salvatore knew at the age of nine that he had discovered his calling after making his first pair of shoes for himself, a series of high heels. Following a year studying shoemaking in Naples, Ferragamo opened a small shop in his father's house which was the start of the business. He emigrated in 1914 to Boston, Massachusetts, where one of his brothers had been working in a cowboy booting factory. After a brief stay at the plant Ferragamo convinced his brothers to move to California, first to Santa Barbara, then to Hollywood. There, Ferragamo achieved success, opening a repair shop and made-to-measure shoes for the first time, leading to a long period of footwear trend in the cinema. He couldn't make out why his sneakers pleased the eye and damaged the foot so he went on to study anatomy at the University of Southern California. Having spent 13 years in the US, Ferragamo moved to Italy in 1927, settling in Florence. From Cooch Behar Maharani to Eva Peron to Marilyn Monroe, he started to fashion the women's garments. He opened a laboratory in the Via Mannelli, focusing his attention on experimenting with architecture, applying for patents on ornamental and utility types, and other related inventions. Although, owing to poor management and economic pressures, he filed for bankruptcy in 1933, during the 1950s Ferragamo expanded his business into a workforce of about 700 skilled craftsmen who manufactured 350 pairs of handmade shoes a day. "The Rainbow" was created by Salvatore Ferragamo in 1938, and was the first instance of modern-day platform shoe going to the West. The sandal platform was designed for US singer and actress Judy Garland. The shoe was a nod to Garland's signature hit "Over the Rainbow," featured in The Wizard of Oz feature film. The pair was constructed from moulded cork slabs that were suede-coated to produce the wedge and gold kidskin used for the braces. His development was the result of a wartime rationing experimenting with emerging technology during World War II. Salvatore Ferragamo died in 1960, at the age of 62, but his legacy continues as a global company that has extended its operations to include luxurious shoes, bags, eyewear, silk fabrics, jewellery, perfumes and a ready-to-wear collection of clothes. Upon his death, his wife Wanda, and later their six children, managed the company. His most famous invention is the "Cage Feet" In 1978 Fiamma invented the "Vara pumps." In 1995 the Palazzo Spini Feroni opened a museum dedicated to Ferragamo's life and career. In the 1930s Ferragamo had bought the palazzo. The Ferragamo Foundation was established by Ferragamo's fashion group, Salvatore Ferragamo S.p. A., in Florence in March 2013. The foundation was formed on the basis of Salvatore Ferragamo's concepts for fostering young designers. The company is owned by Ferragamo's family that included in November 2006 Wanda, Salvatore's aunt, five daughters, 23 grandchildren and other relatives. There is a clause that the business can only work with three family members, creating fierce rivalries.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Primark - a short bio

    Primark - a short bio

    Primark is an Irish fast-fashion chain with offices in Dublin, Ireland, a food manufacturing and distribution subsidiary of ABF. The firm is called Penneys in the Republic of Ireland where it started; this brand is not used worldwide, since American chain J retains it elsewhere. Penney, C. The company has operations in Europe and the USA. The company's first store, still in business, was founded in June 1969 on 47 Mary Street, Dublin by Arthur Ryan on behalf of the Weston family. Success in Ireland culminated in relocation to the United Kingdom, and in 1971 Penneys opened a large store in Belfast City Centre, and in 1973 a Primark shop in Derby, UK. The firm was unable to use the name "Penneys" outside of Ireland in Europe, because J had registered it. Penney, C. Thereafter the term "Primark" was coined for use in Ireland. Primark sells a range of items from clothes for infants and girls, womenswear, menswear, homeware, furniture, boots, beauty goods and confectionery. Primark has been distributing Sephora goods at prices starting at £ 1 since 2014. Primark continues offering vegan treats with effect from January 2018. The organisation is offering clothes below those usually sold at prices. Primark adds to the current casual fashion movement alongside stores such as Zara and H&M. According to an article about Primark in The Economist, "Primark has an enticing deal for many shoppers: fashionable clothing at astonishingly low prices. The effect is a fresh and much quicker form of quick fashion, which allows buyers to purchase heaps of pieces, toss them after a few wears and then come back for another batch of new accessories." Primark has over 370 shops across 12 nations. On 11 April 2019, the first Primark store opened in Birmingham, replacing the old 161,000-sqft Pavilions Shopping Center. In the mid-2000s the business was expanding quickly in the UK. It purchased the Littlewoods department outlets for £ 409 m in 2005, keeping 40 of the 119 shops and closing the remaining. The first Primark store outside of Ireland and UK opened in Madrid, Spain, in May 2006. After 10 years of building a network of about 40 outlets in Spain, in October 2015, Primark launched another supermarket in Madrid, the second-largest in the country. Primark opened in The Netherlands in December 2008, followed in 2009 by Portugal, Germany and Belgium. On 27 September 2012 Primark opened its first store in Innsbruck in Austria. This extended to Marseille, France in 2013. In 2014 the first Italian store opened. In 2015, Primark opened its first United States location in Downtown Crossing, Boston, where Filene's, then New York City, Philadelphia, and Danbury once housed as the flagship department. It has been announced that Primark joined Poland in July 2018. On 13 June 2019 Primark with a store in Ljubljana extended to Slovenia. It has signed a contract in Warsaw, Poland, Prague, Czech Republic and Bratislava, Slovakia for its first stores. Primark joined the Ethical Trade Alliance in 2006, a joint group that puts together companies, labour unions and Charities in their supply chains to collaborate on human rights issues. ETI leaders pledge themselves to work for the adoption of a code of ethics based on the basic principles of the International Labour Organization. In December 2008, a new report, Fashion Victims II, was launched by the UK charity War on Want that showed conditions in Bangladeshi factories supplying Primark had not improved, two years after the charity first visited them. On 9 January 2009, ETI forced a retailer to withhold its logo from Primark shops and blogs after a BBC / The Observer work discrimination report. The inquiry alleged that undocumented alien labour was being used and argued that the workers had been paying less than the standard minimum wage in Britain. Of the 29 companies listed as having imported goods from the factories in Rana Plaza, only nine attended meetings in November 2013 to decide on a resolution to reward the victims. Several firms, including Walmart, Carrefour, Mango, Auchan and Kik, declined to sign up. Primark, Loblaw, Bonmarché and El Corte Inglés were signatories of the deal.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Nine West - a short bio

    Nine West - a short bio

    Nine West is an Independent online shopping store based in White Plains, New York, and also known as 9 West. The company was founded in 1983 and its brick and mortar stores closed in 2018. Nine West was renamed after the Solow Tower location at 9 West 57th Street in New York City. Nine West opened its first discount store in Stamford, Connecticut in 1983. Nine West launched its first national advertising drive in 1986. Nine West grew globally for the first time in 1994 with the opening of a branch in Hong Kong. Since then it has become a trademark in 57 countries, distributed across more than 800 places around the world. Started originally as a luxury footwear brand, Nine West grew to include handbags, sunglasses, legwear, outerwear, caps, ties, watches, cold weather accessories, shirts, scarves, wraps, and eyewear. Nine West has grown to girls ' shirts, skirts, and boots since the handbags were launched in 1995. It also offers eyewear, sunglasses, legwear, outerwear, caps, boots, jackets in cold weather, scarves, and wraps by licence sales. Nine West purchased the United States Shoe Corporation's footwear division which included the Simple Spirit brand in March 1995. In 1999 Jones Apparel Corporation bought Nine West. In 2006 Nine West started working with Vivienne Westwood, Thakoon and Sophia Kokosalaki on "capsule sets" in limited edition. Nine West and New Balance formed a partnership in 2009 to create a collection of footwears. Fred Allard was appointed Artistic Director as from 2006. The Sherson Corporation, a manufacturer and distributor from Nine West Canada, filed for bankruptcy protection against Canadian locations on 7 July 2015. This was announced in April 2018 that the U.S. subsidiary of Nine West has filed for bankruptcy and shut down all of their stores. It's been announced that Nine West will close down the business for good. Authentic Brands Group is also announced to follow the mark Nine West. Seph Pyle is taken back in time to 1705, after stumbling on a pair of sandals at the Nine West shop at Pittsburgh airport, in the satirical romantic novel Tumbling Through Time by Gwyn Cready. The firm started operations in May 1977, when Jerome Fisher and Vincent Camuto founded Fisher Camuto Corporation, a wholesale women's shoe company. The company was a natural expansion of the business relationships the two founders had established nearly a decade earlier with manufacturers in southern Brazil, with relatively small development-related costs. Especially in Brazil there was plenty of raw materials, cheap labour, and low capital investment. The use of Brazilian production plants and staff by Fisher Camuto Corporation has been a blessing to the group, a symbol of its success and one that can not be ignored while considering the firm's development history. Fisher Camuto Industry expanded as the relationship with factory managers in Brazil developed, and the facilities there became more sophisticated. In its first year in operations the company produced $9 million in revenue, an number that grew to more than $300 million over the next decade. While the design and manufacturing operations were based in the U.S. and assembly was carried out overseas, the Fisher Camuto Company also sought to retain a production schedule in accordance with those of other shoe producers and suppliers located in the U.S. In addition, Fisher and Camuto have proved excellent in adapting the company's designs to the ever-changing fashion trends. It was in the middle of such tough times that the Jones Apparel Group tendered a lucrative bid for the venture, and in March 1999 announced a deal worth $885 million. Although the initial transaction was not well with some investors in Jones Clothing, the acquisition took effect in June amid pending legal problems with Nine West, and Nine West became a wholly-owned subsidiary. After the move, the garment manufacturer was forced to shutter three factories and lay 1,900 employees, or 21 per cent of their staff. Since Jones reached a mediation deal with the owners of the Nine West Store in March 2000, the shoe company looked to be on an even keel again, and investors were predicting sales to climb as high as $4.18 billion in the coming year for the newly merged business, with revenues rising by 20 per cent.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Old Navy - a short bio

    Old Navy - a short bio

    Old Navy is an Independent apparel chain owned by The business firm Gap Inc., with clothes and accessories. It has running facilities in the Mission Bay neighbourhood of San Francisco, California. The bigger stores of the Former Navy are the flagship branches of New York City, Seattle, Chicago, San Francisco, Manila and Mexico City. Dayton-Hudson Corporation then Target's parent corporation, Mervyn's, Dayton's, Hudson's, and tried to establish a new branded subsidiary called Daily Hero, a less pricey version of Gap, reacted in the early 1990's; Gap's then-CEO Millard Drexler. On 11 March 1994 Gap Warehouse was renamed Old Navy Apparel Co. to create a separate brand from its parent company Gap Inc. Relative to Gap Retail stores with less than 900 m2 the new stores were about 1,400 m2. On March 11, 1994, the first Old Navy shops opened in the towns of Colma, San Leandro and Pittsburg in northern California According to Kevin Lonergan, Gap's head of retail, Old Navy retail was initially conceived as grocery stores, with floating aisles, shopping carts, and the checkout counters for small novelty items. The asphalt base, concrete shelving, and checkout counters made of polished pressed board and galvanised steel equipped the shops with a sleek warehouse feel, while the colourful styles and the large number of workers set it apart from most discount department stores. Fourty-two more Old Navy stores were launched later that year, and most of the 45 shops in the Gap Store were named New Navy. On campy Television, Old Navy has advertisements starring Morgan Fairchild and his dog, Magic the Cat. The Old Navy corporation grew rapidly; it was the first retailer to hit $1 billion in its first four years of business in 1997, and had 500 stores by the year 2000. Old Navy began its national expansion in 2001, with the opening of 12 stores in Ontario, Canada. The business expanded, opening a coffee shop at one place in San Francisco in December 1995, and launching an Old Navy Kids spot in Littleton, Colorado in April 1997. This did not turn out for the organisation in consequence, and was completed the following September. In 2005, Old Navy's then-President, Dawn Robertson, was looking to combat the competition she saw in Hollister Inc. and American Eagle Outfitters by rebranding the shop with a "street wear feel." In addition to a new logo, several sites were planned or redeveloped to reflect the "New Old Navy." One such location cost around $5 million in St. Petersburg, Florida. Although other Old Navy locations had typical american shopping look, the new stores were futuristic in architecture, integrating green construction materials, rock gardens, large murals, and banners, as well as many mirrored and silver accents. Ads have begun manufacturing in-house and replaced the previous kitschy and cynical look with a high fashion and feminine template. Such shops proved to be a bad enterprise and Robertson was begged to quit the business. In 2011, Old Navy introduced a second rebranding to reflect a family-oriented environment, branded as Project ONE. It targets Old Navy's target customer and features improved signage, vibrant colours, models to make shopping smoother, quick-change locations, and more efficient cash wrap design. On 12 July 2011, a one-third of the organization's North American regions had implemented the update. On 26 October 2017 Old Navy opened two new flagship stores. New York City consumers are served with extended opening hours at Times Square headquarters and considerably more retail area than the normal Old Navy place. On 28 February 2019, Gap Inc. announced that Old Navy and Gap Inc. will be separated into two separate organisations making Old Navy an autonomous company from Gap Inc. On January 16, 2020, when Gap Inc. revealed it had called off the break, the decision was reversed. On 5 March 2020, Gap Inc. announced that it was closing down its offices in New York City indefinitely until further notice after it was reported that one of the retailer's staff had checked for coronavirus.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Chopard - a short bio

    Chopard - a short bio

    Louis-Ulysse Chopard, the company's father, was a Swiss watchmaker who grew up in Sonvilier, a city near Bern. He set up his L.U.C. manufacturing business in Sonvilier in 1860, having found that selling the finished watch was more lucrative than merely producing the mechanical mechanism. Upon the death of Louis-Ulysse in 1915, its son Paul-Louis and grandson Paul-André took over the firm. The company specialised in producing pocket watches and wristwatches for women. In 1921, Paul-Louis moved the company operations to a larger town, Chaux-de-Fonds, in the Canton of Neuchâtel. In 1937 the company moved to Switzerland, at the point a firm with 150 employees. This allowed the company's movements to be marked with the Geneva Seal, a label that applied only to watch movements made in the Canton of Geneva. In 1943 Paul-André took over the firm. In 1963 Paul-André Chopard sold it to Karl Scheufele III, a German goldsmith and watchmaker from Pforzheim who found a watch mechanism manufacturer solely for his own family, with no children wanting to remain in the family. The Chopard factory moved from the middle of Geneva to Meyrin-Geneva in 1974, and the firm started producing watches that featured the signature free-floating diamond behind sapphire glass in 1976. The corporation grew in the 1980s to produce men's sport watches, and women's diamond jewellery. In 1996, in Fleurier, in the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel, the firm built its own full watch mechanism manufacturing plant. Before that point, all actions of Chopard had been assembled from parts of a third party. Chopard & Cie S.A. is a French manufacturer and dealer of luxury watches, jewellery and accessories, simply known as Chopard. Chopard was founded in 1860 by Louis-Ulysse Chopard in Sonvilier, Switzerland and since 1963 belongs to the Scheufele family of Germany. Chopard is best known for manufacturing high-quality Luxury watches and jewels, and Russia's Tsar Nicholas II has included his clients. The corporation is based in Geneva, and has a plant in Fleurier, Neuchâtel Canton, which manufactures watch movements. Chopard posted US$ 915 m in revenue in 2014 and had about 2,000 workers worldwide, of which 900 worked in Switzerland. Since 2002 the European Patent Office has identified over 20 references to Chopard. The firm manufactures about 75,000 timepieces and 75,000 jewelleries per year, and is an participating member of the Swiss Watch Industry FH Confederation. In December 2018, the World Wide Fund for Nature issued an official survey on 15 major watch producers and jewellers in Switzerland giving environmental awards. Chopard was given a below-average environmental ranking as "Lower Midfield" along with TAG Heuer, indicating that the company has only taken a few steps to resolve the environmental and climate change effects of its production operations. Since 2013, Chopard has been marketing its high-end products as using fair and natural gold; it remains a long-term goal to incorporate this strategy with the full product portfolio of the company. The movements made in Fleurier were designed for the Chopard line of high-end watches. On 10 November 2015, Christie's sold a Chopard "Happy Gem" wristwatch in auction for about US$ 1.67 million in Geneva. The watch has quartz mechanism and bears a pink marquise-cut diamond, weighing about 2.62 carats, and a blue marquise-cut diamond, weighing about 1.48 carats. The group celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2010, when the overall profits of the group amounted to € 550 million in total from about 100 stores worldwide. There are general worries in the jewellery and watchmaking industry about the lack of accountability in production practises and the procurement of important raw materials such as gold, which is a significant source of environmental problems such as waste, soil erosion and deforestation. The condition in the developed world, which are major gold producers like China, Russia and South Africa, is especially bad. It is estimated that over 50 percent of the world's annual gold supply is used by the watch and jewellery industry.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Dior - a short bio

    Dior - a short bio

    Christian Dior Sa is a French luxury goods firm owned and run by French businessman Bernard Arnault who also heads LVMH, the world's biggest luxury group. Dior holds 42.36 per cent of shares and 59.01 per cent of voting rights under LVMH itself. Sidney Toledano held the position of CEO since 1997. In 1946 the company was founded by artist Christian Dior. It produces and retails mainly designer accessories, trendy clothing, boots, shoes, timepieces, cosmetics, make-up and skin care products while maintaining its legacy as a haute-couture maker under the name Christian Dior Couture. The Christian Dior name mostly exists for women's products, while the company also runs the Dior Homme men's division and the Baby Dior wear range for girls. Products are sold in the department store chain and retail site worldwide. On 12 February 1947, Christian Dior unveiled his first collection of fashions for Spring-Summer 1947. The exhibition of "90 sketches of his first series on six mannequins" was held in the group headquarters salons at 30 Avenue Montaigne. The two lines were first known as "Corolle" and "Huit" Nevertheless, the newest trend went down as the "Newest Style" in fashion history after Harper's Bazaar's editor-in-chief Carmel Snow screamed, "It's such a fresh look!" Back in the 1940s, the Modern Look was a revolutionary era for women. The editor-in-chief also expressed appreciation when announcing the collection by saying: "It's been a transition, sweet Christian!" The debut collection by Christian Dior is credited with having revived the fashion industry in France. As well as that, the New Look brought back the feeling of haute couture from France, as it was considered glamorous and youthful. "We've had a shift in fashion and certainly a shift in architecture." The look was characterised by a sleek, nipped-in waist and a full skirt dipping to the mid-calf level, revealing the chest and hips as epitomised by the first season's ' bar ' outfit. The collection overall featured more stereotypically feminine looks compared to the traditional wartime fashions, with full skirts, slim waists, and relaxed shoulders. Dior retained some of the masculine features when they continued to gain popularity in the early 1940s, but he still wanted to introduce a feminine feel. The death of the chief designer left Dior's House in chaos and General Manager Jacques Rouët was considering shutting down operations around the world. The prospect was not graciously embraced by Dior licensees and the French fashion industry; the Maison Dior was too critical to the financial stability of the company to approve such an operation. To bring the company back on its feet, Rouët named the 21-year-old Yves Saint-Laurent as the Artistic Director the same year. Laurent had joined the House family in 1955, after being chosen for the first and only Head Assistant position by the original builder himself. Following the debut of his first collection for Dior in 1958, Laurent initially proved to be the most suitable alternative. The garments were made as perfectly and accurately proportioned as Dior's with the same exquisite fabrics but their young artist made them better, smaller and easier to wear. Saint Laurent was hailed for becoming a cultural hero. Emboldened by his success, his ventures became more experimental, culminating in the 1960s existentialist-influenced Beat Feel of the Saint-Germain des Près cafés and jazz clubs. His bohemian style of 1960 has been highly attacked in Women's Wear Daily, and more so. Marcel Boussac was furious, and in the spring, the Dior management did not raise any complaint when Saint Laurent was called to join the French army that compelled him to abandon the House of Dior. Saint-Laurent left after six Dior collections were complete. Dior has developed good partnerships with Hollywood celebrities and influencers of social media, working closely with these individuals to reach out to more viewers and rebuild their reputation as a youthful, trendy brand after spending some time around. This has culminated in the company promoting a more political persona and attracting a larger audience. The company has worked with international style icons like Jennifer Lawrence and Lupita Nyong'o, who could align with millennials, and dressed them up. Dior has already actively integrated social media into its Social Engagement Strategy, sharing promotional images and videos both on the official Dior website and on the celebrity ambassadors ' social media pages.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Diesel - a short bio

    Diesel - a short bio

    Diesel A. S.p. Is a specialist retail firm based in Breganze, Italy. It sells denim, sneakers, jackets and more. The model range includes two separate brands: Diesel and Diesel Black Gold. A children's segment, called Diesel Boy, still exists. The agency is renowned for its Surreal Advertising emphasis. L'Oréal owns and markets the Premium perfume line, powered by Diesel. Diesel USA filed an application for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in March 2019. Its parent company Diesel SpA is not in the process of declaring bankruptcy. Renzo Rosso began stitching denim on a sewing machine at the age of fifteen Diesel makers. He used his mother's sewing machine to produce low-riding, bell-bottomed jeans for a slice of 3,500 lira which he would wear and sell to his peers. He had also attended an international fashion style high school in Padua. Rosso began working for a textile firm, called Moltex, founded by Adriano Goldschmied in 1976. After working for the firm for two years, he used his father's loan to purchase a 40 per cent interest in the venture, which changed its name to Diesel, and sold jeans under the Diesel brand and many others. In 1985, Rosso bought out Goldschmied's interest in the brand name Diesel for US$ 500,000, becoming the largest shareholder of the company. Rosso claimed that he was researching American marketing, Italian engineering and German systems. Russ Togs, Inc. was approved in the United States and Mexico in 1990 to manufacture and supply Diesel pipes. Mitsubishi Co. had been allowed to support and sell in Japan. Russ Togs went out of business by 1991, after the licencing deal had been signed, selling Diesel Sportswear to Rosso. Despite Russ Togs ' loss, making of imported diesel goods in the US never came to fruition and Diesel then placed the made-in-Italy denim and clothes in US shops. In 1992 Diesel became the official sponsor of the World Superbike racing series. In 1995, Diesel launched one of the world's first fashion shopping websites which included images from each of its collections. The first Diesel Jeans sold online launched in 1997 and were available in Finland and Sweden. It then launched the next year a virtual shop allowing more customers to bring home. Starting in 1991, Diesel became known for creating advertisements, in partnership with Swedish ad agency Paradiset DDB, Stockholm, that evoke surreal imagery rather than precise product details. This included 1997 ads portraying life in communist North Korea (shot in Hong Kong). Another publicity trick mimics car collisions. Campaigns have used the social justice term, ironic focus on global affairs and anti-establishment tweets. Michael Chevalier criticised the department stores, saying that he thinks the retailers ' goods are presented in a deceptive way to get customers to connect with the sales staff. Diesel denim products are mainly manufactured in Italy, with many of their products provided by outsourced factories. Its headquarters are in Breganze, on the former Moto Laverda factory sector, and it had twelve international subsidiaries as of 2005. As of 2008, the company had 5,000 selling points in eighty countries, plus 270 mono-brand Diesel stores. Among these, Diesel holds 170, with the rest owned by franchisees. Sales hit 1.3 billion euros in 2009 and the company had over 400 outlets by 2010. Diesel maker Rosso was first listed on Forbes ' Milliardaires list in 2012. The company hosted the Welcome to Diesel World exhibition in Shanghai in 2015, in conjunction with its product launch, which provided an overview of the history of the brand. A separate exhibition was organised in Tel Aviv to celebrate the company's twentieth year in Israel. In 2002, Rosso, the diesel maker, began buying additional clothing businesses under the parent company Just The Courageous, which also put Diesel under. Industries bought by Only the Brave included Maison Martin Margiela, Viktor & Rolf, Marni and a distribution company, Personnel International. In 2005 Diesel wrote the book "Fifty" on Rosso's 50th anniversary, an illustrated business history with a print of ten thousand
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    Published 5 months ago
    Coach - a short bio

    Coach - a short bio

    Coach is an American company that specialises in handbags and premium accessories. Coach was founded in 1941 as a family-run factory in a loft on 34th Street in Manhattan, with six leather workers making by hand wallets and billfolds. In 1946 Miles Cahn and his partner Lillian left the company. Miles and Lillian Cahn owned a manufacturer of leather handbags, and were well versed in leatherworks and business. Cahn had taken over the business in 1950. In the early years Cahn noticed the unique features and consistency of the leather used to make baseball gloves. The leather inside a glove was smoother and suppler with wear and use. Cahn made a way for the leather to be treated in an attempt to recreate this operation, to make it finer, cleaner and more robust. This approach often created a richer, deeper colour in the leather, as the leather very well absorbed the dye. Soon after Cahn developed this new strategy, Lillian Cahn suggested to Miles that, by adding leather handbags for ladies, the company would complement the men's accessories market in the factory. The "starved cowhide bags were an immediate sensation." Miles and Lillian Cahn acquired the company in a leveraged buyout in 1961. As of 2013, there were about 1,000 Coach stores in North America. In the U.S. Coach boutiques found within selected department stores and specialist retailers have since built a large presence in Coach. Coach also opened Coach House, a 20,000-square-foot store venue in Midtown Manhattan, to coincide with its 75th anniversary in 2016. Coach's corporate headquarters now remain on Midtown Manhattan's 34th Avenue, on the site of the former factory lofts. The firm closed its 10 Hudson Yards office condo part sale and leaseback – its headquarters-in August 2016. Coach got $707 million before expenses of the deal. In 1999 Coach opened his online store at www.coach.com. The Coach Foundation was established in 2008 to support "empower" organisations around the world, and to educate women and children. Luis was a member of Coach's senior leadership team since joining the company in 2006, holding several regional management roles and leading Coach's development in Asia. He formerly served as the chairman of the International Group, and was responsible for the operations of Coach outside North America. Prior to that, he worked as chairman of Coach Retail International, where he supervised the firm's aggressively operated enterprises in China, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan, as well as the president and CEO of Coach China and Coach Japan. Luis first joined Coach as the President and CEO of Team Japan, Inc. Luis served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Baccarat, Inc., leading the French luxury brand's North American business before joining Coach from 2002 through 2006. Throughout his career Luis has previously held advertisement and sales positions within the Moët-Hennessy Louis Vuitton Group. Stuart Vevers joined Coach as visionary director in autumn 2013. Vevers joined Loewe's Coach, where he has held the position of Artistic Director since 2008. From 2005 to 2008 he served as the marketing director for Mulberry, before Loewe. He started his career at Calvin Klein, and worked in artistic roles for Bottega Veneta, Givenchy and Louis Vuitton. In 2006 Vevers received the British Fashion Council's Accessory Designer of the Year award. Jide J. Zeitlin, board president, was appointed chief executive of Tapestry in September 2019. In this position Jide Zeitlin is responsible for executing the company's corporate plan and financial performance. Mr. Zeitlin was elected to the Tapestry Board of Directors in June 2006, and as of November 2014 he served as President of the Board. In July 2017 Coach purchased Kate Spade for $2.4billion. Michael Kors Holdings Ltd. has previously shown interest in acquiring Kate Spade. On October 10, 2017, Victor Luis announced on October 31 it will be redesigning and rebranding Coach Inc as Tapestry Inc. The company's ticker symbol on the NYSE changed from COH to TPR effective 31 October 2017. As of 2019 Coach removed use of fur from his inventory.
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    Published 5 months ago
    C&A - a short bio

    C&A - a short bio

    C&A is a fast-fashion Belgian-Dutch retail clothing chain, with European branches in Vilvoorde, Belgium and Düsseldorf, Germany. It has office branches across Europe in several countries. It serves mainly large markets in Europe, North America, and South America. C&A's brands include Angelo Litrico, Canda, Here+There, Palomino, Rodeo, Westbury, Yessica, Plain Yessica and The Sixth Sense. The Brenninkmeijer family owns the C&A name by means of its Swiss affiliate Cofra Holding AG. The subsidiary's prosperity has helped the family numbered among the wealthiest in the Netherlands. The Brenninkmeijer family however lives in Zurich and Zug, Switzerland. The company was founded by brothers Clemens and August Brenninkmeijer at Sneek in 1841 as a Dutch textile company, taking its company name from its initials. In 1906, Clemens ' friend Bernard Joseph began discounting in Amsterdam, and by 1910 there were ten stores in the Netherlands. They originated from the German Brenninkmeyer family from its home town of Mettingen, Germany, which since the 17th century had been trading in linen and textiles. For some years C&A discount retail stores have become an key presence in city centres across the UK. Since then, C&A also opened shops in many out - of-town locations, such as the West Midlands Merry Hill Shopping Center Store, which opened in November 1989. The company's strategy of offering cheaper apparel from high-rent city shopping stores left it exposed to a new wave of competitors investing in smaller, out - of-town markets such as Matalan and rising supermarket food supermarkets like Tesco and Asda, as well as rising high-street brands like H&M, Zara, and Topshop. C&A was a notable example of a registered private unrestricted company in the United Kingdom which meant it was not obliged to publish its financial statements under Uk corporate regulation. In 2000, C&A announced its intention to withdraw from the British market, where it had been headquartered since 1922, and the last UK discount stores closed in 2001. Primark had 11 C&A stores bought. In June 2009 the company withdrawn from the Argentine market. C&A China competes with major retail firms such as H&M and Zara. On 14 January 2018, German news magazine Der Spiegel reported on its website that C&A owners are considering selling the company to an unnamed Chinese investor. In a statement, Cofra Holding AG stated that it "remains firmly committed to a stable, future-proof C&A sector and as such we have embarked on a transformation and development strategy at C&A." Without explicitly mentioning the transaction, it added: "C&A's ongoing transition includes exploring ways to innovate in high-growth areas such as China, emerging markets and internet, The UK ska group The Specials cited the shop on the 1980 album More Specials in "Boy at C&A." Consequently the word "Boy at C&A" was used to describe someone who was unfashioned. During an episode of the sitcom Only Fools and Horses Delboy tells his brother Rodney that when they become millionaires, their clothes will ' come from Guy at C&A ' In the summer of 2010, Singer Beyoncé launched her own apparel company, Deréon, in collaboration with C&A. C&A now offers fashions to teenagers, children and women "under one roof." In November 1965, C&A causes an outrage in traditional Germany: the miniskirt makes a big splash as it is added to C&A's catalogue. C&A was one of the first stores to ever work with famous designers on its roster. Starting in the 1980s, collaborations with Karl Lagerfeld and Yves Saint Laurent were a tremendous achievement. C&A bans all genuine bits of skin from all its stores. C&A is also the world's biggest retailer of organic cotton apparel for the first time.
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    Published 5 months ago
    Christian Louboutin - a short bio

    Christian Louboutin - a short bio

    Christian Louboutin is a French shoe designer whose sleek, red-lacquered toe features high-end stiletto footwear that has become his signature. Initially as a freelance model for fashion houses he opened his own shoe store in Paris, with his shoes gaining favour with celebrity clientele. He has partnered with other companies, including limited edition pieces, exhibits and a niche restaurant, creative projects. His company has since branched into men's wear, handbags, fragrances and cosmetics. Louboutin was expelled three times from school at the age of 12, and instead decided to run away from home, where his mother allowed him to step out and live in a friend's room. He had met with a lot of opposition when he tried to drop out of college. He claims, though, that what motivated him to make up his mind was a television interview with Sophia Loren, where she revealed her daughter, saying she had to leave school when she was just 12, but she graduated when she turned 50. Louboutin began drawing shoes during his early twenties, compromising his studies at the institution. He went through a punk era in a number of films, including 1979 horror hit Race d'ep and The Homosexual Generation, which attracted an English-speaking audience. His first role was at the Folies Bergères, the cabaret where he trained entertainers work backstage. He was also a fixture on the town club scene, along with Mick Jagger and Andy Warhol. His minimal formal training covered drawing at the Roederer Academy of Art and the decorative arts. Louboutin notes that his fascination with shoes began in 1976 when he visited the Museum of African and Oceanian National Arts at Daumesnil Street. Here he saw an African sign banning women wearing pointy stilettos from entering a building for fear of damage to the extensive wood flooring. The vision in his mind remained, and he later included the idea in his projects. During his childhood he was obsessed by world cultures and moved to Egypt, then spent a year in India. Louboutin returned to Paris in 1981, where he brought together a series of detailed high heel designs. While Louboutin is usually associated with his evening dresser wear designs that include jewellery belts, bows, roses, patent leather, red soles, and other similar decorative touches, while providing some lower-heeled versions. He is most popularly associated for the red leather soles on his high-heel heels, commonly known as "sammy red soled heels." In 1993 he created his first trademark red soles. Of Christian Louboutin red-bottom colour code is Pantone 18-1663 TPX. His biggest single buyer is American author Danielle Steel, reputed to own more than 6,000 pairs and reported to have bought up to 80 pairs at one time while shopping in his stores. The red sole is licenced as a trademark in several countries, and lawsuits emerged in several cases in which Louboutin supposedly infringed his rights. In addition, the existence or extent of trademark rights was also taken into account in cases. Louboutin has said in the past decade that he has been given licencing deals for everything from cars and clothing to swimwear and ready-to-wear, but turned them down because he doesn't want his name to be marketed. In 2003, the first global extension of accessories was the introduction of the Handbags and Purses line. In 2011 he launched a men's footwear collection in a new, exclusive Paris store. There were two reasons why Louboutin launched a men's section. The first was a storey with a French lady who was asking him to give her a pair of really large heels. He custom-created 13 1/2 shoes for her but did not end up purchasing them. He expressed them then to a neighbour who gave them to her husband. The second explanation was that the idea of making a line for people came from guitarist Mika, who asked Louboutin for his tour series to produce all the accessories. He also found, "There's a community of people behaving like us a little more. They're super excited to buy the ' new stuff. ' For example, I've seen in groups where people are very worried with their shoes already. They know a lot of stuff about clothing, about items from collectors. Of example, there's even a group which has more common tastes. People want to turn off their shoes to their friend or say they have had a pair for 25 years."A recent trend introduced was the Tattoo Parlor, where customers would get digital photos taken from their tattoos and embroidered on their shoes or, besides preferring Christian Louboutin's models with prices starting at about $8,000, embroider the famous brogues.