1. What is biotechnology?
It is a branch of biological engineering in which biology, chemistry, and various processes are used with the aim of producing goods and services using living beings or part of their biological machinery. It has great use in agriculture, food, and medicine. Thanks to biotechnology, we can solve problems that only a few decades ago were a serious blow to our society.
2. How is it divided? There are two branches:
- Traditional Biotechnology
- Modern Biotechnology: This, in turn, is divided into red, blue, green, white.
3. Explain Modern Biotechnology and Traditional Biotechnology:
Traditional: Use the hand of man. It began millions of years ago when man discovered that when he fermented grapes he would get wine. Another example is that the bread is produced from the fermentation of the flour with the use of yeasts.
It is responsible for the crossing of plant species?Living beings (animals and plants) are used. Examples: lactic or alcoholic fermentation.
Modern: Set of techniques that allow to manipulate genetic information, improve production and obtain benefits, such as the production of medicines, detergents or biodegradable plastics from bacterial genetic modifications.
It works with genetic engineering, cell culture techniques and tissues are used. Examples: antibiotics, cosmetics, food, industry, the creation of agricultural products.
4. Where was the biotechnology born?
The first documented manifestations of biotechnological management go back to the years 8000 B.C.; that is, from the fortuitous discovery of the fermentation process by the Egyptian civilization, by producing food such as wine and cheese. Later this term was used for the first time by the Hungarian engineer Karl Ereki, in 1919, who introduced it in his book Biotechnology, which talks about the meat and dairy products of a large farming operation.
5. Relationship Between the Genetic Code and Modern Biotechnology:
The knowledge of the genetic code allows the development of methodologies to transfer the information units (DNA), which is the basis of modern biotechnology, that is, biotechnology uses the genetic code for the modification of living organisms, the genetic code It is the raw material, the elementary for biotechnology to work.
6. What can be obtained from modern biotechnology?
New products in many areas and the solution of various problems, such as the production of environmentally friendly fuels, more effective drugs, plants resistant to pests and new treatments for diseases.
7. Latest Advances in Biotechnology:
Vaccines: Initially, they were obtained from animal samples; currently, the majority is made synthetically to be injected. Today tests are carried out to manufacture edible vaccines that, when ingested, release the agents that protect us against certain diseases. In addition to avoiding punctures, these vaccines can present other advantages, such as a lower price and simpler transportation and storage, as they do not require refrigeration.
Water treatment: It is a fact that every day whole bodies of water are polluted around the world. In order to solve this problem, processes such as bioremediation have been developed, which consists of planting specific microorganisms in bodies of water and defined areas. The cultures of microorganisms feed and get rid of the residues that contaminate the water, and gradually, they clean the area in which they are.
8. What are the areas of research on human health?
There are four areas of research on human health in which biotechnology has a greater impact is the molecular diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, drug development, cell therapy, and tissue engineering, and finally gene therapy and genetic vaccines.
- Red Biotechnology: Applied in Medical Processes—Like the design of organisms to produce antibiotics, the development of safer vaccines and new drugs, molecular diagnostics and regenerative therapies. It is important because it helps to cure several diseases that previously had no cure.
- White Biotechnology: Applied to Industrial Processes—It is used to produce valuable chemicals or destroy dangerous chemical contaminants. It is also applied in the textile industry, in the creation of new materials, such as biodegradable plastics. Its importance lies in that it is dedicated to optimizing industrial processes, seeking to replace polluting technologies with cleaner or more environmentally friendly ones.
- Green Biotechnology: Applied to Agricultural Processes—Like the design of transgenic plants capable of growing under unfavorable environmental conditions or plants resistant to pests and diseases. It is important due to the population increase and on the other hand, to take care of the environment.
- Blue Biotechnology: O Marine Biotechnology—The development of marine life has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of the sea blue biotechnology, deals with the exploration and exploitation of marine organisms in order to create new products. It is important since it allows us to develop pharmaceutical products and industrial enzymes that can withstand extreme conditions, also allows work opportunities and to explore the sea.