The 2022 college entrance examination papers of physics, chemistry, and biology focus on reflecting the characteristics of the subjects, highlighting the examination of the main contents and key abilities of the subjects, reasonably selecting the situations, strengthening the connection between teaching and examinations, promoting the formation and development of students' scientific thinking and correct values, and guiding candidates to improve their comprehensive abilities.
Candidates answer questions carefully at the examination center of Dahua Yao Autonomous County Senior High School in Guangxi. Xinhua News Agency reporter Zhang Ailin's photo
The first time I saw the film, I had to go to the bathroom.
1. Deepen the basicity, and guide to reduce the phenomenon of "mechanical brushing"
The 2022 Advanced Placement physics exam is based strictly on curriculum standards, focusing on the core and main content of high school physics, not biased or strange, focusing on deepening the fundamentals in the exam, strengthening qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis, testing students' understanding of the nature of physics in specific situations, guiding students to know what they know and know why they know it, gradually forming a global and holistic understanding of physics, and avoiding orienting students to the minutiae of knowledge. The questions are designed to avoid the over-analysis of detailed knowledge and the use of typical problem sets and techniques. At the same time, the test questions focus on some general physics methods, leading to a reduction in the phenomenon of "mechanical problem-solving".
For example, question 20 in National Paper A tests students' ability to analyze and reason about circuits, forces, and motion, requiring them to have strong concepts of motion and interaction and energy. National paper A, question 21 to the charged ball in the electric field force and gravity as a situation, tests students on energy conversion and conservation, the synthesis and decomposition of motion, and other physical concepts of deep understanding, penetrating the idea of equivalence. National paper B, question 16 innovative question angle, requiring students to determine the small ring from the top of the big ring in the process of slipping in proportion to its rate of physical quantities, penetrates the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis methods.
2. Strengthen theoretical and practical connections, and develop students' problem-solving ability
The 2022 college entrance exam physics creates real situations related to the actual production and life, scientific and technological progress, and tests students' ability to build physical models and flexibly apply their knowledge of physics to solve practical problems, to promote the cultivation and development of students' core literacy.
For example, question 14 of National Paper A takes the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympic Games Shougang Ski Jump as a context, which closely combines the subject content and sports activities and guides students to love sports. Question 25 of National Paper A takes a light-point flow detector, which can measure tiny currents, as a context, and closely integrates it with science practice, guiding students to understand the physical ideas contained in the design of the instrument and to form a serious and rigorous scientific attitude. Question 14 of National Paper B takes the situation that astronauts can float freely on the "Tiangong II" as a context to test students' understanding of the nature of weightlessness in space, reflecting the major technological developments in China in the new era and enhancing students' national self-confidence and pride. The 18th question in National Paper B uses a smartphone to measure the geomagnetic field, requiring students to argue the measurement location and the direction of the y-axis based on the results given in the question, allowing students to appreciate that science and technology affect our lives and learning, enhancing students' interest in a physical experimental investigation and developing their sense of evidence.
3. Strengthen experimental design and develop students' experimental investigation ability
Experimentation is an important way and means to develop students' literacy in physics. The 2022 Advanced Placement physics exam strengthens design in the understanding of experimental principles, the design of experimental schemes, the selection of experimental apparatus, the use of basic instruments, the processing of experimental data, the drawing and interpretation of experimental conclusions, etc., tests students' experimental ability and scientific inquiry ability, gives full play to the positive guidance of high school experimental teaching, and guides teaching Emphasis on experimental investigation, guide students to do their experiments, and effectively improve the experimental ability.
For example, the 22nd question of National Paper B takes radar detecting the position of a high-speed aircraft as the background, and asks students to transfer the familiar punctuation timer paper tape processing method flexibly; at the same time, the question asks students to give the reason for the aircraft's approximate uniformly accelerated linear motion, which tests students' ability to express themselves using physics terminology. National paper B, question 23 detects the voltammetric characteristics of the resistor to be tested in a certain current range, requiring students to design the circuit schematic of the experiment and select the appropriate equipment according to the purpose of the experiment and the experimental equipment provided, with a certain degree of inquiry.
Chemistry test questions: focus on core literacy and promote teaching-examination convergence
The 2022 high school entrance exam chemistry test questions to implement the fundamental task of establishing moral education, fully consider the basic laws of education and teaching, the logic of chemistry subject content, the cognitive characteristics of high school students, and actively connect with the reform of high school education, to help "double reduction" work. The test questions are designed to strengthen the connection between theory and practice, to reasonably select situations, to enhance the connection with environmental protection, medicine, health, energy, and materials, to highlight the main content of the subject, to promote the formation and development of candidates' chemical concepts, scientific thinking, and correct values, and to guide candidates' comprehensive quality improvement.
1. Selecting real situations and highlighting values
The test questions are based on a wide range of materials, and they focus on the fields of materials, life, environment, energy, and information, which are closely related to chemistry, and they fully reflect the important role of chemistry in promoting the development of science and technology and the progress of human society and highlight the social value of chemistry.
For example, the nature of coenzyme Q10 in question 8 of National Paper A shows the role of chemical research results in human health. Question 35 examines the relationship between the structure and properties of the polymer materials used in the venues of the Beijing Winter Olympic Games, showing the development and application of new materials in chemistry in China. The method of carbon dioxide fixation and reuse in Question 8 of National Paper B helps China achieve the goal of "carbon peak" and conveys the idea of green chemistry and sustainable development to students.
2. Deepen the basic examination and promote students' active thinking
The basic content of high school chemistry includes the theory of the structure of substances, the properties of typical compounds, the principles of chemical reactions, basic chemical experimental methods, and experimental design ideas. The college entrance examination chemistry test paper focuses on these basic contents, and deeply examines students' understanding of ionic equations, Avogadro's constant, basic concepts of organic chemistry (organic reaction types, isomers, functional groups), elemental properties and periodic laws, ionization equilibrium of weak electrolytes, etc., effectively identifying whether students' foundation is solid, thus guiding secondary school teaching to follow the laws of education and strictly follow the high school chemistry This year, the chemistry questions in the college entrance exams have changed their design.
This year's college entrance examination chemistry questions change the angle of questioning, changing the test method, requiring students to reasonably analyze the causes of the properties of substances, speculate on experimental phenomena or products obtained from reactions based on property data and experimental phenomena, guiding students to develop independent learning, independent thinking, self-improvement habits, and abilities, guiding teaching to improve quality and efficiency, and helping "double reduction The "double reduction" implementation. For example, the national paper A, question 10 around a water-based electrolyte zinc-manganese dioxide ion selective double diaphragm batteries set the situation, requiring students to use electrochemical principles to analyze the direction of ion migration, determine the positive and negative electrodes and speculate on the electrode reaction.
3. Focus on the core elements, and test the key abilities of the subject
The design of the chemistry test focuses on the core literacy of chemistry, and realizes the examination of the core literacy of chemistry such as "macroscopic recognition and microscopic analysis", "change concept and balance idea", "evidence reasoning and model cognition". The test is designed to examine the core qualities of chemistry. The questions are innovative in the way they present information and ask questions from unique angles, requiring students to understand the basic laws of chemistry from multiple angles, levels, and dimensions, and to test the key abilities of the subject in analyzing and solving chemistry problems to guide the cultivation of students' core literacy.
For example, question 35 in National Paper A examines the laws of ionization energy changes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen,d fluorine, allowing students to understand the relationship between atomic structure and elemental properties. Question 28 gives the effect of different conditions on the equilibrium conversion rate of the "tithe titanium chloride" reaction, which examines the concept of change and equilibrium thinking, and guides students to deeply understand the nature of chemical equilibrium. Question 26 of National Paper B presents the process of lead paste recovery, provides the solubility product of insoluble electrolytes of metal ions, requires students to analyze the whole process based on data, analyzes the final existence of different elements according to the nature of substances, and guides students to think about the transformation conditions of different substances.
4. Focus on teaching reality and promote the connection between teaching and examination
The questions of the college entrance examinations insist on taking the curriculum standard as the main basis for proposing questions, and test studtesting' familiar knowledge content in unfamiliar situations, which not only meet the selection requirements of higher education institutions, but also help students to play their actual level, guide students to understand the laws of chemical reactions from different perspectives, and effectively promote the interface between basic education and higher education.
The curriculum and teaching reform pay more attention to the cultivation of experimental operation ability. IToTothe conTheon between teaching and examinations, this year's GCE chemistry test questions are based on "the application of hydrolysis of salts", "the properties of iron and its compounds", "the investigation of factors affecting the movement of chemical equilibrium" and "the investigation of common functionalities in organic compounds". "The test is based on the basic principles of chemical reactions and the ability to analyze experimental phenomena and draw conclusions based on the purpose of the experiment. For example, experime question 13 in National Paper A examines the hydrolysis constant, the effect of acidity on chromate equilibrium, and the properties es of alcohols and divalent iron.
The 2022 chemistry test explores the integration of two major chemical theories, chemical reaction principles and structure of matter theory, with the content of other modules, prompting students to build a systematic and comprehensive system of subject knowledge and to walk in the same direction as the concept of curriculum reform. For example, question 35 of National Paper A examines the relationship between structure and properties of ethylene, tetrafluoroethylene, and their polymers, integrating the influence of the structure of substances on their properties and their applications, which helps students establish the causal relationship between macroscopic properties and uses and microscopic structures.
Biology test questions: enrich the form of examination, examine the degree of understanding and depth of thinking of students
The 2022 college entrance examination biology test questions select materials such as new crown epidemic prevention and control, animal breeding, and waste recycling and reuse to strengthen the value-led role of the college entrance examination and promote students' all all-aroundvelopment in moral, intellectual, physical, and aesthetic aspects. The overall characteristics of the test questions reflect steady progress, relying on the Chinese college entrance examination evaluation system, strengthening the orientation of literacy, enhancing the examination of the subject foundation and key abilities, serving the implementation of the "double reduction" policy, and helping to improve the quality and efficiency of basic education.
1. Strengthen the value orientation and promote comprehensive development
The National A paper biology test questions are based on the content of the biology test, and carefully choose the themes of sports and health, physical exercise, natural resources protection, agricultural production, etc., highlighting the value shaping role of the college entrance examination, promoting the overall development of students' moral, intellectual, physical and aesthetic development, and making students feel the responsibility and mission of the times as a young generation. For example, Question 31 uses a survey of plant and animal resources in woodlands to test basic concepts such as population density survey methods and richness, and asks students to think about the interaction between plants and animals, guiding them to understand the profound meaning and connotation of protecting biodiversity and enhancing their awareness of environmental protection. Question 1 takes the physiological role of calcium ions and the absorption of calcium ions promoted by vitamin D as the theme, explaining the biological principle that sun exposure helps young people's bone growth and prevents osteoporosis in the elderly, and guiding students to develop a sense of healthy living.
In the process of fighting against the epidemic, free vaccination for all and nucleic acid testing for all should be tested play a key role. Question 38 in National Paper B focuses on nucleic acid testing and vaccination for the new coronavirus, examining the basic principles of nucleic acid testing and analysis of results, and guiding students to deepen their understanding of epidemic prevention measures. Question 6 of National Paper B is about the genetic analysis of chicken feather traits of rutabaga and non-rutabaga, pointing out that the clever use of chicken feather traits can distinguish the sex of chicks at an early stage and facilitate the timely sorting of chicken farms according to production needs to improve the economic efficiency of chicken farms, guiding students to establish the concept of scientific labor.
2. Enrich the form of examination, deepen the basic examination
The questions in the college entrance examination of biology highlight the examination of the main content of the foundation of the subject, and design the test questions from various aspects such as the degree of understanding and depth of thinking, guiding students to think from new perspectives and testing the depth and flexibility of students' thinking. For example, Question 3 of National Paper A shows the phenomenon of a dwarf crop variety growing taller after spraying plant hormones, and asks students to analyze the reasons for the dwarf variety, aiming to test the physiological effects of plant hormones acting through specific receptors and gibberellins. Question 37 gives the results of an experiment conducted by a student comparing the oil degradation ability of 2 strains of bacteria, and requires the student to speculate on the experimental thinking of the student, transforming the conventional form of speculating the experimental results or drawing experimental conclusions based on the experimental design. Question 3 of National Paper B created a problem situation of excessive excitation transmission between motor neurons and skeletal muscles triggering a drug treatment for muscle spasm, examining the processes of neurotransmitter release in the presynaptic membrane, postsynaptic membrane activation, and degradation in the synaptic gap, testing students' understanding of synaptic transmission at multiple levels.
3. Strengthen the ability test and promote the connection between teaching and examination
The examination of experimental investigation ability is strengthened in the form and perspective of the college entrance examination, covering various aspects such as experimental design, method selection, data analysis, conclusion generalization, and evaluation improvement, which can help guide students to pay attention to the cultivation of experimental investigation ability, closely link experimental practice and conceptual learning, and increase students' interest in the experimental operation. For example, question 2 of National Paper A creates a problem situation to investigate the different changes of three kinds of plant cells with different cytosol concentrations after being put into the same concentration of sucrose solution and tests the basic concepts of osmotic pressure, cell wall separation, and water transport, as well as the reasoning and judgment on the changes of cell concentration and sucrose solution concentration before and after the experiment. In the problem of genetic control of plant flower color, question 32 of National Paper B requires that only one pure parent be used to conduct only one cross when investigating the pure genotype of a white flower plant.