The concept of "cartel", which we often hear together with illegal businesses, is the monopolization of individuals or companies.
By controlling the production of a product or product, a cartel essentially decides how much is available in the market.
A classic example of an international cartel is the De Beers diamond company, which controls the world's diamond market and causes an artificially inflated price.
On the other hand, another well-known example of an international cartel is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which has controlled oil prices since the 1960s.
Cartel is also a term frequently used for drug dealers. Many drug cartels have existed, especially in Mexico, including Pablo Escobar and El-Chapo.
Cartels resort to many illegal methods, from drug dealing to murder. Cartels, ambushing security forces and executing their opponents and people they see as obstacles, smuggle weapons, fuel oil, mines, avocados, alcohol, citrus fruits and people, as well as drugs such as cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and marijuana.
Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria (December 1, 1949, Colombia - December 2, 1993, Medellín, Colombia) was a Colombian drug lord and founder of the Medellín Cartel.
Escobar is described as the first and most famous "narco-terrorist" by various agencies, notably the DEA.In the heyday of his drug trade, he became the 7th richest person in the world.
Also called the "Cocaine King," Escobar was estimated to have a fortune of around $30 billion ($58.7 billion at 2019 inflation) at the time of his death. His monopolizing the cocaine trade by bringing together different drug cartels in the drug industry had a revolutionary effect. the Medellín Cartel, of which he was the leader from the 1980s to 1991; It has created large-scale drug networks in many regions, especially in the United States and South America. In addition to drug trafficking, he declared war on the Colombian Government; carried out bombing and armed actions against security units, public employees and civilians. Escobar is held responsible for the deaths of at least 4000 people. He also traded illegal weapons for Cuba and illegal organizations such as the M-19, and laundered money.
Born in Rionegro, Colombia, in 1949, one of seven children to a farmer father and a primary school teacher mother, Escobar moved to Medellín with his family shortly after his birth. Escobar, the son of a poor family, spent his childhood and youth here, and his criminal life began in adolescence. His first illegal activities were smuggling stereo equipment and stealing and selling tombstones. He was educated at the Medellín Universidad Autónoma Latinoamericana but dropped out without graduating. In the early 1970s, Escobar, who continued to steal, kidnapped an executive from Medellín and earned $100,000 as a ransom in exchange for his release
In 1976, Escobar decided to enter the cocaine business, killed his rivals, and founded an internationally operating illegal criminal organization, the Medellín-based Medellín Cartel, with various drug traffickers in the region. In 1976, Escobar and many of his men were caught with 18 kg of drugs in Ecuador. He offered bribes to the judges during the lawsuit, but he could not be acquitted of the case. After months of legal process, the case was dropped when 2 officers who witnessed the smuggling were killed by Escobar.
It is estimated that until the 1980s, Escobar shipped between 70 and 80 tons of drugs per month. In the 1980s, he started to trade drugs illegally, especially to the United States, via Florida, with the support of airways, and his earnings increased rapidly. During this period, 80 percent of America's drug traffic was in the hands of the Medellin cartel. In the same period, he earned more than 60 million dollars daily, and with these figures, he made Medellín the capital of cocaine smuggling. In the mid-1980s, he quickly became one of the richest people in the world, thanks to the money he earned from drug trafficking. In the early 1990s, the power of the Medellín Cartel under his leadership weakened and with the death of Escobar, the cartel was completely dissolved.
With the money he earned from the drug trade, he built hospitals, stadiums and residences for the poor and sponsored various sports teams and institutions between 1978 and 1982 in order to gain the support of Colombians. Escobar, who was nicknamed "Robin Hood" by some of the people for his help, was elected to the Colombian Assembly as the candidate of the Colombian Liberal Party in 1982 with the votes he received from the people, but had to resign as a result of the disclosure of his criminal activities two years after he was elected. The Colombian Minister of Justice of the time, who played an important role in uncovering Escobar's crimes, was assassinated and killed after Escobar's resignation.
Pablo Escobar; He caused the death of many people by fighting against domestic and foreign rival cartels, especially the Cali Cartel.Protesting the decision to send drug traffickers to America, Escobar declared war on the Colombian Government due to this decision of the state, and kidnapped and held hostage many people, including journalists, politicians and public servants. Escobar, who carried out armed attacks on the security forces, ordered bombing and armed actions against civilians, including passenger planes. It is thought that Escobar killed at least 4000 people in line with his armed and bombing actions. He also supported illegal armed organizations such as the National Liberation Army operating in Colombia to carry out bomb attacks in Colombia. He financed the separatist armed organization M-19 operating in Colombia in order to have his criminal record on drug trafficking erased, and he led the organization to attack the Palace of Justice in the capital, Bogotá, and to take high-ranking judges and judges hostage and kill them. Forbes magazine declared Colombia the murder capital of the world because of the armed and bombing actions it carried out in Colombia. On the other hand, Escobar did not take responsibility for any of his acts of aggression against the Colombian people. Despite his actions, he is loved by many Medellíns.
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Very well written. Keep up the good work!
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