Understanding Drug Resistance of Melanoma Brain Metastasis with Single-Cell Omics
Brain metastases, as its name indicated, means that cancer spread from the original site to the brain. All kinds of cancers are likely to spread to the brain and form one or more tumors in the brain, be it lung, breast, colon, or kidney. However, statistics in the United States show that only lung and breast cancers are the most frequent primary sites associated with brain metastases and approximately 10 percent of advanced melanoma patients would also develop brain metastases. Though the prognosis for melanoma brain metastasis (MBM) patients has been substantially improved due to advances in neuroimaging, improved disease management, as well as the development of immunotherapies, the understanding of the underlying biology behind MBM is relatively rudimentary and the treatment options for MBM remain limited, especially when it comes to the discovery of novel therapeutics.
Finding the Best Animal Model Organisms for Biliary Atresia
Biliary atresia (BA) is a congenital condition that a blockage happens in the tubes responsible for carrying bile from the liver to the gallbladder. It results from abnormal development of the bile ducts inside or outside the liver and results in progressive fibrous obliteration with different degrees of inflammation in the hepatobiliary system. According to incomplete statistics, about 1 out of 10,000–20,000 live births would be identified with biliary atresia, but actually, the situation could be worse given the late diagnoses. Up to now, the causes for this condition remain unclear and seem to be heterogeneous, but it undoubtedly would lead to an inestimable mental and financial burden for patients and their families, as well as the healthcare system.
Macrophages as Biomarkers of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as its name indicated, is a condition caused by abnormal or excessive fat buildup in liver, which is not a result of heavy alcohol use. It has become a common chronic liver disease and is affecting up to 25% of people worldwide. Most people have no symptoms, and 2% to 5% of people will experience complications from the fat in their liver and a more serious condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) due to liver inflammation and cell damage, which ultimately could develop into liver cirrhosis. Thus, early detection is important before some irreversible results in the liver disease progression pose clinical and economic burdens.
Paper-based Microfluidic Devices for Prototyping
It's acknowledged that the right selection of the material interface is of vital importance from research development to microfluidic platform applications and product transfer, in that one might be suitable for certain targeted applications but detrimental for another. The inherent microfabrication and specific physico‐chemical properties of each material dedicated to microfluidic applications are playing a dominant role in further microfluidic operability with both advantages and disadvantages.
How Camels Change the Antibody Engineering Industry?
In the late 1980s, researchers in a lab in Brussels found some old camel blood at the back of a freezer when extracting antibodies from human blood samples. Then, it was noticed that in addition to normal antibodies, some smaller antibodies devoid of light chains were extracted from the camel blood. Moreover, the heavy chains of these small antibodies were shorter and have only three domains, which lack the domain that binds the heavy chains to the light chains. This is how camelid antibodies came into sight by accident, which later proven to be a revolutionary finding for antibody engineering.
How to Prepare and Construct an RNA Sequencing Library?
RNA is a polymeric molecules composed of nucleotides that are required for gene coding, decoding, regulation, and expression. In molecular biology, DNA's genetic information gets transcribed into multiple copies of messenger RNA (mRNA), and then mRNA is translated into proteins. This is why cells can synthesize several protein molecules from a single gene at a given point of time. However, only 1-4% of total RNA are mRNA, the rest of which are generally non-coding, called non-coding RNA (ncRNA). ncRNA is unable to be translated into protein but there are many types of them, which have different biological functions.
Single-cell Genomics Study Elucidates Human Cytomegalovirus Infection
Infection of β-herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) could be life-threatening or cause life-long suffering in the majority of humans. Moreover, the viral vertical transmission during pregnancy leads to most congenital birth defects. However, treatment and prevention options currently available are extremely limited.
Sulfonamides and Sulfonamide Hapten
Due to a low cost and general efficacy in common bacterial diseases, sulfonamides (SAs), the oldest antibacterial agents, are still widely used nowadays in human and veterinary medicine for the treatment and prophylactic purposes of infectious diseases and used as growth-promoting feed additives.
Bispecific Antibody Cellular Therapy Displays Anti-tumor Activity Against Lymphoma Cells
Researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center recently conducted a preclinical study on combining cytokine-activated natural killer (NK) cells derived from donated umbilical cord blood with an investigational bispecific antibody (known as AFM13) targeting CD16a and CD30. The result of bispecific antibody cellular therapy displayed potent anti-tumor activity against CD30+ lymphoma cells.
The Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases
It's acknowledged that the core of the immune system to defend our body from germs and other foreign invaders is the ability to tell the difference between self and non-self. However, immunoglobulins may occur in healthy individuals and mistakenly target and react with our own cells, tissues, or organs, leading to autoimmune disorders.
Model Organisms in Research and Model-org Antibodies Development
It's acknowledged that researchers rarely can perform direct experiments on human subjects. Therefore, model organisms become attractive examples to be studied when other species, especially humans, are not practical. Furthermore, a wealth of favorable characteristics also make model organism antibodies become a hot spot.