Throughout the Classical period Aristotle had been a Greek philosopher and polymath in Ancient Greece. He was the founder of the Lyceum, and Aristotelian Theory and Philosophy's Peripatetic School. Along with his teacher Plato, he was called the father of Western Philosophy. His research covers biology, genetics, zoology, metaphysics, philosophy, ethics, painting, poetry, theatre, writing, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, history and economy. Aristotle gave a complex interpretation of the other theories that existed before him, and it was from his teachings above all that the West extracted his philosophical lexicon, as well as the tools of questions and examination. His philosophy has since had a tremendous impact on almost every area of knowledge in the West, and remains the subject of contemporary academic debate. None of his own lives are known. Aristotle was born in the town of Stagira, in northern Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, and had been raised by a guardian. Around the age of seventeen or eighteen he entered the Plato Academy in Athens, and stayed there until he was thirty-seven. Soon after the death of Plato Aristotle left Athens and tutored Alexander the Great at the behest of Philip II of Macedon beginning in 343 BC. In the Lyceum, he founded a library that helped him produce some of his hundreds of papyrus scrolls. Although Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only about a third of his original writing, none of which was intended for publication, has survived. Physical science influenced Aristotle's opinions on the scholarship of the mediaeval period. Their influence extended from the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and was not continually replaced until the Enlightenment and philosophies such as classical mechanics. Any of Aristotle's zoological observations, found in his biology, such as on the reproductive neck of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century. His studies include the earliest recorded systematic logic analysis which was studied by mediaeval writers including Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic, however, continued well into the 19th century. He influenced Islamic philosophy as well as Christian theology during the Middle Ages, especially Early Church Neoplatonism and scholastic practise of the Catholic Church. Aristotle has been regarded by mediaeval Muslim thinkers as "The First Scholar," and by mediaeval Christians such as Thomas Aquinas as the fundamental philosopher. Though still dominant, the theory sparked a revived interest in the recent development of virtue ethics, for instance in the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot. In Prior Analytics, Aristotle is credited with the first study of formal logic, and his invention of it became the dominant style of Western logic until advances of mathematical logic in the 19th century. In Pure Reason's Critique Kant believed it had been inferred with Aristotle's logic. Contrary to his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy is against the abstract. Aristotle's ontology positions the absolute in particulars, events in the cosmos, while Plato's ideal is a purely recurring concept that imitates real things. To Aristotle, shape is always based on what phenomena, but in a particular substance it is instantiated. Aristotle's empirical theory encompasses a broad variety of natural phenomena beyond those already being investigated by biology, psychology, and other natural sciences. "Physical philosophy" is, in Aristotle's words, a branch of philosophy that addresses real life phenomena, including fields that can today be considered physics, psychology, and other natural sciences. Aristotle's work encompassed virtually every aspect of metaphysical inquiry. Aristotle makes philosophy coextensive, in the broadest sense, with logic, which he most also describe as intelligence. Remember, though, that the use of the term analysis has a meaning distinct from that which the term science method offers.