industry

Get “in the know” about the ins and outs of the fashion industry as a whole. Learn about everything from design to production and sales.

  • Creative Writing
    Published a day ago
    Jaeger LeCoultre: a short bio

    Jaeger LeCoultre: a short bio

    In 1833 Antoine LeCoultre founded the Swiss luxury watchand clockmaker Jaeger-LeCoultre, with headquarters in Le Sentier, Switzerland.Since 2000 the company has been awholly owned subsidiary of Swiss luxury group Richemont.Jaeger- is seen asthe top- company of Richemont.Of which must be added hundreds of inventions, patents and more than a thousand movements, suchas the world's shortest road, one of the world's most advanced wristwatches, and a quasi-perpetual motion timepiece.The earliest traces of the LeCoultre family in Switzerland date back to the16th century, when Pierre LeCoultre, a French Huguenot, left the Lisy-sur-Ourcq to Genoa.France flees frompersecution from Muslims.In 1558 he received the status of "inhabitant," but resigned the nextyear to buy a plot of land in the Vallée de Joux.A small settlement grew over time, and in 1612, Pierre LeCoultre's son built a churchthere, marking the foundation of the village of Le Sentier where the material is now located.French Navy watchmaker Edmond Jaeger was born in Paris in 1903, andchallenged Swiss designers to create and refine the ultra-thin movements he had created.The design was approved by Antoine's mother, who was at LeCoultre & Cie. in charge of production, who gave birthto a number of ultra-thin pocket watches fitted with the LeCoultre Caliber 145, including the thinnest in the world in 1907.Because of the Smoot Hawley Tariff Act, watches were cast in cases made locally in North America before 1932to around 1985 and sold by Vacheron-LeCoultre, a Longines-Wittnauer corporation, with very different styles of cases under the name LeCoultre.After 1985 Jaeger-LeCoultrewas produced homogeneously worldwide.According to the factory records, the last device to be usedon an American LeCoultre watch was sent to Le Sentier in 1976.The misleading claim that American LeCoultre is not associated withSwiss Jaeger-LeCoultre has been made by several supporters and misinformed salesmen.The misconception derives from the 1950s, when the Longines-Wittnauer Corporation became the maker of LeCoultreclocks in North America, and later assumed responsibility for the production of Vacheron Constantin watches.Collectors have likened the deliveryto the method of watchmaking.According to Jaeger-LeCoultre fans Zaf Basha, the "Galaxy," an intriguing upmarket dialdiamond watch, is a US-market collaboration between Vacheron & Constantin and LeCoultre.Since the establishment of Jaeger-LeCoultre, the firm has manufactured more than1,242 different calibres, earned almost 400 patents, and created hundreds of inventions.In 1844, Antoine LeCoultre invented the Millionomètre, which was the first instrument in the worldto be able to calculate the micron, thereby facilitating the precise production of watch pieces.The invention was never patented because there wasno such device in Switzerland at the time.Nevertheless, the peculiar arrangement was kept a tightly guardedsecret held by the organisation for over 50 years.It was displayed on theParis International Exhibition of 1900.For the first time in the historyof LeCoultre & Cie watchmaking, in 1866.Small-series calibres continued to be produced and the chronograph andminute repeater problems were merged into a double calibre in 1891.In the mid-1890s, this later led to the development of broad complications, or watches consistingof at least three traditional horological complications, such as a perpetual clock, chronograph, and minute repeater.The Manufacture produced the first internationally complicated wristwatch, the Gyrotourbillon I, in 2004, featuring atwo-axis gravitating tourbillon with a perpetual calendar with double retrograde signs and a runtime equation.The Reverso grande complexité à triptyque was launched in 2006, the first watch in history to have three dials powered by asingle mechanism, and in 2009 the company created the 26-complicated Hybris Mechanica à Grande Sonnerie, one of the world's most complex wristwatches.In December 2018 an official report was issued by the World Wide Fund forNature that provided environmental ratings for 15 big watch manufacturers and jewellers in Switzerland.
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    Published 2 days ago
    Breguet: a short bio

    Breguet: a short bio

    Breguet is a luxury watchmaker, clockmaker, and jeweller founded in Paris in 1775 by Abraham-Louis Breguet therefore leading to a long and successful history of watchmaking and a legacy that lives on today. Since 1999, she has been a member of Swiss Swatch Team. Breguet, headquartered in L'Abbaye, Switzerland, is one of the oldest surviving watchmaking firms and founded by Abraham Breguet in 1801 with several watchmaking inventions, such as the Tourbillon. As well, Abraham Breguet designed and created the world's first self-winding watch in 1780, and the world's first bracelet watch in 1810. Breguet is a well regarded horologist. Over the years, Breguet's outstanding clients and owners include King George III, Queen Victoria, Napoleon Bonaparte, Ettore Bugatti, Sir Winston Churchill, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Gioachino Rossini, and Arthur Rubinstein. In fact, the Breguet & Fils, Paris No. 2667 pocket watch ranks among the world's most expensive watches ever auctioned, winning US$ 4.69 million on May 14, 2012 in Geneva. The Breguet Sympathique Clock No.128 & 5009, by contrast, also holds the distinction as the most expensive Breguet timepiece ever sold at an auction, earning USD 6.80 million on December 4, 2012 in New York. The Swiss horologist Abraham-Louis Breguet, who had been born to Huguenot's parents in Neuchâtel, founded Breguet in 1775. He watchmaked for ten years under Ferdinand Berthoud and Jean-Antoine Lépine, before starting up his own watchmaking company at 51 Quai de l'Horloge in Paris, Île de la Cité. The dowry that came to a wealthy French bourgeois ' daughter with his marriage provided the funding that allowed him to open his own workshop. Each of the company's mottoes is "Every woman has a queen." The slogan was based on Breguet's lady family, the Reine de Naples. The Breguet watches and their coin-edge cases are also readily evident, with guilloché dials and blue pomme hands. In addition to watches, Breguet also produces writing instruments, feminine hats, and cufflinks. The World Wide Fund for Nature released an official report in December 2018 outlining the conservation opportunities for 15 major watch makers and jewellers in Switzerland. From 1870 until 1970, Breguet was owned by the Brown family of England. But, ownership of quartz crashes had changed hands many times during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1976 Breguet's then-owner, Chaumet, sold his French plant and moved production to Vallée de Joux in Switzerland. In 1987, Investcorp purchased Breguet, which formed Groupe Horloger Breguet in 1991. The Breguet Group consists of four subsidiaries: Montres Breguet SA, Breguet SA, Valdar SA and Nouvelle Lemania SA. As a result, Breguet-branded watches are now being produced at the New Lemania plant in Switzerland. Montres Breguet SA, in effect, is the only company that sells the timepieces under the brand name "Breguet," and Breguet SA is the name of Breguet Group's distribution subsidiary in France. Admirer Marie Antoinette The Queen of France in 1783 commissioned Abraham-Louis Breguet's watch as a surprise to the Queen. The criteria was that the watch would be "as beautiful as possible, with perhaps the greatest set of available horological documents." No time-limit or financial constraints were placed on the commission. The end target was Great Suspense, at Breguet No.160. And the watch was completed only in 1827, 34 years after the Queen's death during the French Revolution, only 4 years after the death of Abraham-Louis Breguet (the watch eventually ended with his son Abraham Breguet). The watch has reportedly taken 44 years to make. The watch was housed in the Islamic Art Museum in Jerusalem, until it was stolen in 1983. The watch was eventually rescued in 2007, and was returned to the museum.
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    Published 2 days ago
    Lacoste: a short bio

    Lacoste: a short bio

    Lacoste is a French company, founded in 1933 by tennis player René Lacoste and André Gillier. It comes with wardrobes, shoes, eyewear, sportswear, clothing pieces, perfume, towels, and watches. The company is identified by the green crocodile emblem. Owing to his tenacity on tennis court, fans nicknamed the company's creator, René Lacoste, "The Crocodile" Maus Frères, a family-owned Swiss firm, acquired Lacoste outright in November 2012. La Chemise Lacoste was founded in 1933 by the owner and chairman of the then largest French knitwear manufacturing company, René Lacoste and André Gillier. They started wearing the revolutionary tennis jersey Lacoste had created and worn on the tennis courts with the crocodile symbol embroidered at the front. The business cites this as the first example of a brand name that occurs outside a market. Izod developed Izod Lacoste label clothing in the United States under a manufacturing deal that started in the 1950s. That partnership concluded in 1993, when Lacoste under its own name obtained exclusive U.S. apparel sales rights. Le Tigre Clothing was created in 1977 to compete directly on the US market with Lacoste, offering a comparable range of clothes but featuring a tiger instead of the new Lacoste crocodile. Lacoste's popularity came about as a result of efforts by French designer Christophe Lemaire to create a feminine, sleeker look. In 2005, about 50 million Lacoste products were sold in over 110 countries. The reputation has increased due to negotiations with Lacoste and several tennis stars like retired American tennis players Andy Roddick and John Isner, French champion Richard Gasquet and Swiss Olympic gold medalist Stanislas Wawrinka. Lacoste has since started to expand its scope in the world of golf, where Masters Tournament Champion José María Olazábal and Scottish golfer Colin Montgomerie have seen Lacoste wearing shirts in tournaments. In early 2005, Bernard Lacoste became seriously ill which prompted him to transfer the presidency of Lacoste to his younger brother and longtime closest friend, Michel Lacoste. Bernard died in Paris, on 21 March 2006. The brand is sold to different corporations by Lacoste. Until recently, Devanlay held exclusive apparel rights around the world, while today, in Thailand, ICC and also in China still produce Lacoste Polo Shirts under rights. Pentland Group has the exclusive licence to sell Lacoste boots worldwide, Coty Inc. has the exclusive licence to distribute perfume worldwide, and CEMALAC has the licence to manufacture Lacoste bags and leather goods. In the early ' 50s, Bernard Lacoste joined David Crystal, who owned Izod at the time, to create Izod Lacoste cloths. In the 1970s and 1980s it became incredibly popular with teens who simply called the shirts Izod. While the partnership was both profitable and productive, Izod Lacoste's parent company was being saddled with debt from other business ventures. Crystal sold his half of Lacoste back to France, and after attempts to break Izod and Lacoste, Izod was sold to Van Heusen and raise profits did not alleviate the debt. Nonetheless, starting in 2000, following the appointment of a new marketing director Christophe Lemaire, Lacoste began to assume control of the brand name and image, reining in the advertising arrangements. In July 2011, Lacoste was the subject of Dirty Laundry, a report by Greenpeace on climate change, along with other major footwear and sportswear firms including Nike, Adidas and Abercrombie & Fitch. Dirty Washing had been the focal point of a public marketing dispute in 1990. The study results indicate that, Lacoste was accused of collaborating with Chinese farmers who had induced pollution of the Yangtze and Pearl Rivers. Samples obtained from one Youngor firm headquartered on the Yangtze River Delta and another belonging to Well Dyeing Factory Ltd. headquartered on a Pearl River Delta tributary revealed the presence of toxic and persistent chemicals hazardous to the hormones.
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    Published 2 days ago
    Oakley: a short bio

    Oakley: a short bio

    Oakley, Inc., based in Lake Forest, California, and a subsidiary of the Italian multinational group Luxottica in Milan, designs, produces and produces athletic lifestyle products and luxury items, including sunlasses, outdoor visors, ski / snowboard goggles, watches, clothing, backpacks, boots, optical lenses, etc. Some of the goods are manufactured at their factories in-house but some countries have different designs which are specific to the country. Oakley reportedly owns over 600 patents relating to eyewear, footwear and protective devices. James Jannard started Oakley out of his garage in 1975, with an initial investment of $300. The name "Oakley" appeared in Jim's English Setter, "Oakley Anne." Jannard started selling what he dubbed ' The Oakley Handle ' from the back of his bicycle at motocross competitions. Unlike other grips his motorcycle grips were available at the time. The substance is now being used for making the earsocks on Oakley plates, including other portions of their nose and even their watch bands. Oakley plans to sell number stickers, gloves, sticks, elbow guards, chin guards and goggles for BMX and Motocross enthusiasts. Jannard released a pair of sunglasses, the O-Frame, in 1980. The brand received steady exposure and success with the ' Oakley ' logo on the box in the sporting industry. In 1983 Oakley started selling the ski-goggles for the first time. The first sunlasses from Oakley; the Factory Pilot Eyeshades were sport-oriented, goggle-like, and released in 1984. Following them was the Oakley Frogskin, a casual sunglass style manufactured in Japan in 1985. The company went public in 1995, collecting US$ 230 million. In early 1996 Oakley had a market battle with Italian company Luxottica, the world's biggest eyewear producers and distributors. Luxottica stopped distributing Oakley's products at its stores, including Sunglass Shelter, and Oakley's stock market valuation fell 33 per cent. In 2001, Oakley purchased from Iacon, Inc. a chain of mall-based sunglasses, Sunglass Accessories, Sports Shoes, and Occhiali da Sole stores. Oakley signed a four year consumer eyewear contract in September 2004, produced by itself and by Fox Racing. Jannard purchased large amounts of Oakley shares starting in 2004: $2 million in 2004, $16 million in 2005 and $4.6 million in early 2006, raising his financial stake in the company to 63%. In 2006 Oakley purchased a premium eyewear chain from Oliver Peoples Company, the $55.7 million high-end designer label eyewear manufacturer, and the 14-store Aspen Optical Store. On June 21, 2007, Luxottica announced its plan to buy Oakley in a $2.1 billion cash bid, paying a 16 per cent premium over the existing share price. On November 15, 2007, the deal was signed making Oakley part of a stable brand that includes Ray-Ban, Persol, and Vogue. After selling Oakley Inc. to Italian Eyeware company Luxottica Group in 2007, Founder James Jannard went on to found Red Digital Cinema. In plans for the ultimately successful rescue of thirty-three miners trapped in a Chilean mine in October 2010, a television writer told Oakley to add sunlasses to the relief activity, not knowing that the miners were wouling. Oakley's 35 pairs of sporting lenses donated by Scope, loaded with specially chosen tints. The US was sponsored in 2012 by the Oakley Group of the Olympic Committee, which extended the deal the same year until 2020. In August 2013 Oakley licenced REVO for $20 m to Concurrent Distributors. In September 2015, Oakley shut down their website for sales arm. Oakley Free, though maintaining the company's brick and mortar legacy. With extensive field testing and input from rivals including hostile conditions, a number of Oakley's technological advances, retail products, clothes etc. were produced. Oakley controls the USA, too. Uniform consideration which provides U.S. military and law enforcement eye protection.
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    Published 2 days ago
    Puma: a short bio

    Puma: a short bio

    Puma SE is a German multinational company based in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany, designing and producing sporting and casual shoes, shoes, and accessories. Puma is the third- of sportswear in the world. The company was founded in 1948 by Rudolf Dassler. In 1924 Rudolf and his brother Adolf Dassler jointly founded the Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik. For each decision to separate in 1948, the rivalry between the two companies escalated, and became two independent entities, Nike and Puma. Both companies presently had offices in Herzogenaurach, Germany. As of 1986, Puma has become a public company and is listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. French luxury firm Kering owns 16 percent of the shares, Kering's chief shareholder Artemis SA controls 29 percent of the shares. Since 1 July 2013 the organisation is led by former football player Bjørn Gulden. Puma SE hires more than 13,000 people worldwide as of 2017 and exports its products to more than 120 nations. Initially named after a split from his uncle Rudolf Dassler, the newly founded company became Ruda, but later the name changed to Puma. The oldest symbol of Puma, consisting of a square and beast jumping into a D, registered in 1948, and name of the product. Puma's boots ' pieces and designs include the 1958 Puma mark, and the iconic ' Formstrip. '' Christoph von Wilhelm Dassler was a shoe factory owner in Herzogenaurach, a Franconian town 20 kilometres from Nuremberg, while his wife Pauline owned a small laundry business. After their son had left school Rudolf Dassler joined his father at the shoe factory. Rudolf was working as a merchant in a porcelain factory when he returned from fighting in World War I, and went on to a cloth trading business in Nuremberg. At the 1960 Summer Olympics, PUMA threatened German sprinter Armin Hary with wearing PUMAs in the 100 m sprint final. Hary had previously worn Nike and demanded money from Adolf but the appeal was denied by Nike. Afterwards, the German won gold in PUMAs to the surprise of the two Dassler guys, and unveiled Adidas for the awards ceremony. Hary tried to cash in on both but was so angry he disqualified Adi as champion of the Olympics. Puma supported African-American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos at the 1968 Black Power Salute Games, who won gold and bronze in 200 metres respectively, marching onto the podium with their Puma Suedes in their socks, bowing their heads and raising their black-gloved hands in quiet defiance before singing the national anthem. On 10 April 2007, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute, French manufacturer and Gucci brand owner, announced that it had acquired a 27 percent stake in PUMA, paving the door for full takeover. The deal had cost PUMA 5.3 billion euros. PPR said it would carry out a "good" takeover for PUMA, worth € 330 a share, after buying the smaller stake. The PUMA board approved the move, claiming that it is fair and in the Group's best interests. In March 2018, Puma announced its collaboration with its spokeswoman Selena Gomez called "Phenom Lux." In 2018, Puma re-entered the basketball sneaker market for the first time in 20 years and confirmed that Jay-Z will be Puma Basketball's creative director. Originally funded by Puma in 1998, Vince Carter signed the rising basketball stars Marvin Bagley III and Deandre Ayton, both of whom were Top 2 p. In 2000, PUMA launched an annual audit of all its suppliers, and made the results available in its sustainability reports. It has kept a registry of its vendors open to the public since 2005. A collaborative report conducted by the National Labor Committee and China Labor Watch in August 2004 found that workers at some of Puma's Chinese factories had endured sweatshop conditions, operating for just 0.31 USD an hour up to 16.5 hours a day. Puma said they'd be looking into the charges.
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    Published 2 days ago
    Jimmy Choo: a short bio

    Jimmy Choo: a short bio

    Jimmy Choo is a British luxury fashion company specialised in designer clothing, handbags, watches, fragrances, etc. Profit, J. Choo Limited, founded by the couture shoe designer Jimmy Choo in 1996, and Vogue Accessories editor Tamara Mellon. The firm appeared to be a fan of Diana, Princess of Wales. The company was listed on the London Stock Exchange, until it was acquired in November 2017 by Michael Kors Holdings, now Capri Holdings. The company traces its roots to shoemaker Jimmy Choo, who catered for the multinational jet set as Diana, Princess of Wales, based in London's East End in the early 1990's. At the end the J. Choo business was founded in 1996 when Tamara Mellon, a social activist, joined Choo and his aunt, Sandra Choi. Mr Choo left the organisation in 2001. At the end of 2006, separated from the ready-to-wear company Jimmy Choo, Mr. Jimmy Choo started Jimmy Choo Couture Limited to continue his work on the exclusive line of Jimmy Choo Couture shoes created under licence J. Choo Ltd., accessible by invitation only at Connaught Lane, London. Choo sold its 50 per cent interest in the firm to Equinox Luxury Holdings Ltd. in 2001. Lion Capital acquired a majority shareholding in November 2004, and TowerBrook Capital Partners sold the company for £ 225 m in 2007. In 2011, sold to Labelux for £ 525.5 m. In 2012 the firm named ex-LVMH CEO Pierre Denis as its CEO. In September 2014, an IPO was announced for the company. In October 2014 the company announced that it will give its London Stock Exchange ipo a stake of 140 pence, giving the firm an equity value of £ 546 million. The company put itself up for sale in April 2017. It was announced in July 2017 that Michael Kors Holdings would purchase the company in a £ 896 m deal. The account was set to expire on 1 November 2017. The first Jimmy Choo shop was opened on Motcomb Lane, London, in 1996. Two years later the company moved to the USA, opening two stores in New York City and Beverly Hills. Jimmy Choo expanded its retail footprint in the years that followed by opening independently run stores and collaborations with local partners. In 2011 and 2012 Jimmy Choo took responsibility for much of her Asian operations in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Japan. Many shops can be located in secondary malls such as Saks Fifth Avenue, as well as smaller Central Valley, New York shopping boutiques such as the Woodbury Famous Luxury Malls. The brand has received awards for its products including the British Style Council Awards Designer Brand of 2008, the Accessories Council Brand of 2008, the Fashion News Company of the Year Award and the Nordstrom Partners of Excellence Award 2009. J. Choo Ltd. owns over 600 patents in favour of the design. As well as being the victim of "knock-off" falsified goods in the UK, the US and Australia, the company has served up several prominent examples of theft and patent infringement. The company blamed Oasis, Target and Marks & Spencer for losing the luggage and accessories. Jimmy Choo suede and leather heels worn by Carrie Bradshaw in the US TV show Season 3, Episode 1,1999, ' Sex and Place ' She lost a running shoe to catch the Staten Island ferry and said "I skipped my Choo!" The ' Angel pump ' Jimmy Choo was used in the 2014 South Korean TV series ' My Life, From The Moon. ' Jimmy Choo shoes was worn by Andy Sachs, editor's assistant on website ' Runway, in 2006. ' Jimmy Choo footwear is worn by an enemy, and cited as a nod to the life of her storey in The Salt-Stained Novel, a children's book by Julia Jones. For the season 6, episode 5, 2018 American TV show "House of Cards" is using the red suede Jimmy Choo "Vanessa 85" and nappa pointy toe boots. Actress Jane Davis enters a white house room as she carries a pair of pumps for her pocket.
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    Published 2 days ago
    Macy's: a short bio

    Macy's: a short bio

    Macy's is an American department store chain, founded in 1858 by Rowland Hussey Macy. In 1994 it became a division of the Dayton based Federated Department Stores, of which it became affiliated with Bloomingdale's department store chain; of 2007 the parent company was renamed Macy's, Inc. As of 2015, Macy's is the top U.S. department store chain by price sales. As of February 2019, 584 full-line stores with the Macy's nameplate is in operation in the U.S., Puerto Rico and Guam. The flagship store is located in Manhattan Borough, at Herald Square in New York City. The company had 130,000 employees as of 2017, and posted annual revenues of $24.8 billion. Macy's hosts the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City since 1924 and sponsors the area's annual Fourth of July fireworks display since 1976. The Herald Square of Macy is one of the biggest department stores in the country. The flagship store in New York City occupies almost a whole block, includes around 1.1 million square feet of retail space, offers additional office and storage services, and acts as the location for the Thanksgiving Day parade. The value for Herald Square was valued at around $3 billion. Rowland Hussey Macy opened four dry-goods department stores from 1843 to 1855. Another was Macy's first store in downtown Haverhill, Massachusetts; it opened in 1851 to support the workers of the milling industry in the city. They all collapsed but he learned from his errors. Macy moved to New York City in 1858 to establish a flagship store on Sixth Avenue, between 13th and 14th Avenues, named "R. H. Macy & Co." Place was just north of where at the time there were other dry goods shops. The company's first day of service on October 28, 1858, sales totaled $11.08, equivalent to $347.23 of 2020. The Macy's logo featured a star from the start, which came from a tattoo that Macy got as a youth while working on an Emily Morgan, a whaling ship from Nantucket. In the 1960s Macy's opened a store at Queens Boulevard in Elmhurst, Queens Borough, New York City. This resulted in a round department store on 90 per cent of the property, with a small private house at the corner being a Queens resident refusing to sell their land to Macy despite the corporation's $200,000 offer. Mary Sendek, who owned the tiny house, was the only one who declined the corporation's offer and lived at Queens Boulevard's home until her death. Macy's no longer owns this building directly, but now houses the Queens Place Store, which instead moves the entire store to the nearby Queens Centre. On January 8, 2020, Macy's announced it would close 29 underperforming stores. At the end of January 2020, Macy's began searching for a luxury fashion shop focused on "apothecary," which would concentrate on beauty and wellness products, which will feature a cafe which restaurant in the wealthy neighbourhood of Southlake, Texas. On February 4, 2020, Macy's announced it will close down a total of 125 stores over the next three years including the stores that had been disclosed earlier in January. These supermarkets have an annual profits of about $1.4bn in exchange for the gain of $23.2bn to $23.9bn by concentrating on being leaner, more nimble and more competitive retail chain. By 2022 Macy's will start closing down department stores and eliminating jobs. It also expected to launch 4-5 "Shop by Macy's" locations by the end of 2020, small scale sites about 15,000 sq ft, and 7 freestanding Macy's Backstage sites. Macy's revealed in March 2020 that it would shutter all stores, including Bloomingdales, temporarily until March 31 to further support the introduction of COVID-19.
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    Published 2 days ago
    Nordstrom: a short bio

    Nordstrom: a short bio

    Nordstrom is an American retail department store chain, founded in 1901 by John W. Nordstrom and Carl F. Wallin. It opened as a clothing shop and then a full-line accessories, boots, handbags, watches, luggage, beauty, and fragrance shops chain. Several shops sell home furnishings and wedding stores, while some provide in-house cafes, restaurants, and bars with espresso. By 2020, Nordstrom has 117 outlets in 40 U.S. states, three Canadian provinces and Puerto Rico. Company headquarters and flagship store are housed in the former Frederick & Nelson building in Seattle, Washington; a second flagship store is located in New York's Columbus Circle. Many divisions include the department store chain Nordstrom Rack off-price, and the members-only membership retailer HauteLook. John W. Nordstrom was born in the northern Swedish town of Luleå on 15 February 1871. In 1887 Nordstrom immigrated to the USA at the age of 16. His birth name was Johan Nordström, and John Nordstrom was later anglicised. Since arrival in New York, he decided to live in Michigan, and was able to raise enough funds to buy an 81,000 m2 potato farm in Arlington, Washington. In 1897 he entered the Klondike Gold Rush within Canada's Yukon Territory. Following two years of prospecting he finally struck gold but sold out his contested claim for $13,000. He returned to Seattle with his inherited wealth, married Hilda Carlson in 1900, and sought a business undertaking. He eventually decided to open a shoe shop called Wallin & Nordstrom in 1901. The director of the shoe repair shop next door was co-founder of the store, Carl F. Wallin. John and Hilda had five sons in the family business, Everett W., Elmer J, three of whom would join him in. Both Nordstrom both Lloyd N. Nordstrom FSB, a wholly-owned Nordstrom subsidiary, Inc., are federally chartered savings banks that trade as Nordstrom Bank. It was founded in 1991, in Scottsdale, Arizona, with its market touch centre in Centennial, Colorado. Formerly known as Nordstrom National Credit Union, Nordstrom FSB changed its name into Nordstrom FSB in March 2000. The bank offers a variety of financial and loan options including Nordstrom Visa VISA, Nordstrom discount credit and debit cards, interest-bearing deposits, cash cards, and certificates of deposit. It offers Nordstrom gift cards under the Nordstrom Rewards customer rewards programme where customers earn points by making deals with other stores with the Nordstrom token. Other rewards include Nordstrom Notes that are traded for new products or used in shops as currency, and the Nordstrom Signature VISA card also has an exclusive Travel / Leisure rewards component. The Nordstrom Reward package features 4 rating rates based on overall purchases and offers multiple incentive incentives to gain double, triple and even ten-time points throughout the year. On 2 February 2017, Bloomberg News announced Nordstrom would stop selling Ivanka Trump's company apparel collection, blaming weak results. The store is cutting 10 per cent of the worst-performing items per year. Nordstrom's decision came amid a push to prohibit the sale of Trump-family product products in supermarkets. President Donald Trump responded with a letter addressed to Nordstrom, blaming the store for caring about his family. In the aftermath of the release, the shares of the firm dropped by 0.65% before the day ended with an gain of over 4%. Fortune declared this dramatic change in the company to have ended Trump's "tweet ban." In October 2017 Nordstrom launched the first "Nordstrom Local" in West Hollywood which is intended to concentrate on neighbourhood retail which luxury, rather than merchandising. Nordstrom Inc.'s founding family, who owned 31.2 per cent of the firm, revealed they would take Nordstrom private in June 2017. The family suspended its operations in October due to difficulty completing a financing strategy. Lenders requested a 13 per cent interest rate, nearly double the current market rate.
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    Patagonia: a short bio

    Patagonia: a short bio

    Patagonia, Inc. is an American apparel company that sells outdoor clothing and distributes them. The firm was founded by Yvon Chouinard in 1973 and has its headquarters in Ventura, California.] Its emblem is the outline of Mount Fitz Roy, the boundary between Chile and Argentina (Patagonia).Yvon Chouinard, an accomplished rock climber, began selling hand made mountain climbing equipment through his firm Chouinard Equipment in 1957. He worked alone selling his products until 1965 when he assisted Tom Frost in establishing his company and addressing the rising supply and demand problem he faced. Chouinard got rugby jackets from Scotland around 1970, which he wore on camping, as the jacket stopped his back from hurting the camping belt. Great Pacific Iron Works, Patagonia's first store, opened in 1973 at the former meat-packing plant in Santa Clara St, opposite Chouinard's blacksmith shop. In 1981 it merged Patagonia and Chouinard Machinery into Great Pacific Iron Works. Chouinard changed the name Lost Arrow Corporation into Great Pacific Iron Works in 1984. Patagonia has expanded its variety of products to include apparel meant for various sports including sailing. They sell other things including backpacks, sleeping bags, and camping equipment, including clothing. Most decently shaped Patagonia products can be traded for new commodity points beginning in April 2017. The recycled merchandise is cleaned and repaired, and sold on their website called "Worn Wear." Patagonia provides 1 percent of its gross sales to environmental groups by One Percent for the World, an organisation of which Yvon Chouinard was a founding member. One percent for the Planet makes companies donate 1 percent of their annual net income to non-profit, conservation-focused ngos. Patagonia took this initiative to the next level in 2016 and promised to send environmental organisations 100 per cent of Black Friday's profits, totalling $10 million. Patagonia identifies itself as an "activist organisation," which received praise for its innovative family / motherhood leave policies in 2017. The organisation, which is based on four fundamental values. In 2006, Yvon Chouinard, founder of Patagonia, discusses the organization's environmental ethos in his book: "Live a life examined; clean up our own lives; perform our penance; support public democracy; and monitor other enterprises." But over the years they have done just that, and focused on a number of sustainability projects. Patagonia sponsored a boycott of the Outdoor Retailer trade show traditionally held in Salt Lake City, Utah in February 2017, leading to the passage of legislation by the state legislature in Utah that would transfer federal lands to the Government. Patagonia has replied to a request for the Trump administration by Utah Governor Gary Herbert to revoke the recently created Bears Ears National Monument in southern Utah. Despite support from several organisations for the Patagonia-led boycott, event promoter Emerald Expositions said it did not endorse a Utah bid to continue to host the Outdoor Retailer trade show and would move the exhibition to another venue. Four Paws said Patagonia used force-fed geese feathers and downs from live-plucked downs in 2012, British animal welfare group Four Paws said. In a post on their website, Patagonia denied the use of live-plucking but claimed it had used down procured from the foie gras market. As of the fall of 2014, Patagonia said it used 100 percent traceable down to guarantee that the birds were not forced-fed or live-plucked, and that they were not combined with down from unknown sources. In February 2005, PETA challenged Patagonia's purchase of Australian wool for the practise of mulesing. Patagonia has then moved its wool supply from Australia to South America and the cooperative Ovis 21. In August 2015, however, PETA released new video footage showing how cruelly sheep were treated at 21 farms in Ovis. Which led Patagonia to ban the import of yarns from Ovis 21.
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    Longchamp: a short bio

    Longchamp: a short bio

    Longchamp is a French luxury leather goods company, founded in Paris in 1948 by Jean Cassegrain. Jean Cassegrain created the world's first luxury leather-covered pipes and then extended them to small pieces of leather such as wallets, passport covers etc. Longchamp introduced the first female handbag in 1971, and became one of France's leading leather goods manufacturers. With the business the true breakthrough arrived with the use of nylon. In the 1970s, Longchamp manufactured a range of leather and nylon cloth luggages. Unlike the overweight suitcases that were widely sold at the time, for the first time, luggage was lightweight. The innovation prompted the company to manufacture a popular worldwide women's handbag: Le Pliage, back a few decades. Items from the firm include the innovative women's foldable handbag "Le Pliage." The handbag was an instant sensation and continues to be the business ' best-selling product. The signature style of Le Pliage, rooted in nylon, has been re-thought out and re-invented in various sizes, designs, colours and fabrics. Today, the company produces and imports a wide variety of luxury items, including leather and fabric handbags, luggage, jewellery, travel parts, fashion accessories and a "ready-to-wear" collection of women's designer clothing. The company is doing business with nearly 1,500 retail stores in 80 countries. The house is now privately owned and run by the founding Cassegrain family. Cassegrain was convinced by Longchamp's popularity in leather-covered pipes that the company's future lies in diversifying and expanding its product portfolio to include small leather items, passport covers, wallets, belts and other men's leather accessories. Earlier in the early 1950s he had been prospecting and dealing on both continents. He hired an export agent, and his products started to be exported. Jean Cassegrain noticed that women were more interested with the handbags as the business expanded. Longchamp introduced the first women's handbag in 1971, by reworking a toilet case and adding a back strap and two flaps. The company was the first to make nylon bags. Philippe Cassegrain sketched a series of nylon khaki and leather pockets in the 1970's. This set was an alternative to huge suitcases, which became a major success. Philippe Cassegrain also invented the Xtra-Bag, a pack which folded to a quarter of its height and slipped into a single jar. The Xtra-bag was the forerunner to the Le Pliage handbag produced in 1993.1993 which was a turning point in Longchamp's history. In 1993, Longchamp CEO Philippe Cassegrain personally created what would become the company's most famous handbag: Le Pliage, meaning to ' cover ' in French. The Le Pliage is a handbag that folds into a distinctive trapezoidal form, evoking an envelope image. Philippe Cassegrain decided to construct a functional yet stylish fold-up bag; Over the years, Longchamp has branched the company's artistic path into handbags and wallets, men's and women's luxury accessories, women's "ready-to-wear" garments and a collection of shoes Sophie handles. Sophie Delafontaine is responsible for creating and developing the labels around the clothing, leatherwear, and company lines. The company is known for other handbags as well as the case of Le Pliage, such as the canvas of Veau Foulonné, the template of LM-printing, the Gatsby, the Legende, the Cosmos and the Gloucester. In the 1950s and 1960s Longchamp's products appeared in French cinema, and particularly in Jean Gabin's films. The relationship of the brand with fashion started in the 1970s when the renowned franco-russian artist Serge Mendjisky launched a limited edition series of bags featuring a pattern. In 1971 he was adding patchwork leather to pockets. Through this breakthrough, Longchamp is one of the first leather goods companies to enter the market by partnering with well-known celebrities. Since then they have been working with other designers to create special pieces and installations in shops. Longchamp initiated the first collaboration with independent musician, Thomas Heatherwick, in 2004. Heatherwick next designed the best-selling Zip Case, a long zipper handbag. The success of the Zip Bag has led to Heatherwick's design of the Longchamp flagship store in New York City.
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    New Look: a short bio

    New Look: a short bio

    For Spring-Summer 1947 on February 12, 1947, Christian Dior launched his first collection of fashions. The exhibition of "90 variations of his first concept on six mannequins" was displayed in the company headquarters salons at 30 Avenue Montaigne. The two styles were originally named "Corolle" and "Huit" But the new series went down as the "Next Trend" in fashion history after Harper's Bazaar's editor-in-chief Carmel Snow screamed, "It's such a fresh look!" The New Look was a pioneering era for women back in the 1940's. The new collection by Christian Dior is being credited with having resurrected the luxury industry in France. As well as that, the Latest Look brought back the feeling of haute couture from France, as it was considered glamorous and youthful. The look was characterised by a slim, nipped-in waist and a full dipping of the skirt below mid-calf level, revealing the chest and thighs as epitomised by the ' bar ' outfit of the first series. The collection overall featured more stereotypically feminine looks compared to traditional wartime fashions, with long skirts, slim waists and loose shoulders. Dior kept some of the masculine features when they began to gain popularity in the early 1940s but he still wanted to incorporate a feminine feel. The New Look was immensely successful, with its full-skirted style well into the 1950s influencing many fashion designers, and Dior drew a number of prominent clients from Hollywood, the United States, and the European aristocracy. As a result, Paris, which had fallen from its post-WWII status as the luxury capital of the world, was reclaiming its preeminence. The New Look was embraced in western Europe as a chic alternative to post-war austerity and de-feminizing trends, and was followed in the UK by fashionable celebrities such as Princess Margaret. According to Harold Koda, Dior had credited Charles James with inspiring The New Look. Dior's "New Look" styles not only inspired the 1950s models but also some of the younger models that we all know in the 2000s, including Thom Browne, Miuccia Prada, and Vivienne Westwood. Most designers also point to Dior's evening dresses from that time, and they've been seen in several wedding themed catwalks with many layers of fabric piling up under the tiny waist. Take for example Vivienne Westwood's Ready-to-Wear Fall / Winter 2011 and Alexander McQueen's Fit for Wear Fall / Winter 2011. Everybody was not happy with the New Style however. Some found the quantity of material unnecessary particularly after years of fabric rationing. Feminists in particular were angered, believing such corseted styles were patriarchal and regressive, and took away a woman's integrity. There were numerous resistance organisations to the projects, including the Split Husbands ' Association, made up of 30,000 people who opposed the costs involved with the quantity of fabric required for them. Fellow artist Coco Chanel said, "Only a guy who was never intimate with a woman could do something that was awkward." Despite the face of this resistance, the New Look remained universally popular and continued to affect other designers ' work and styles well into the 21st century. John Galliano has revisited it to mark the 60th anniversary of the New Look in 2007 with his Spring-Summer collection with Dior. Galliano used the wasp waist and wide shoulders, modernising and revising them using parallels to origami and other Japanese styles. Raf Simons revisited the Modern Look in 2012, in order to reinvent his creations for the 21st century in a sleek but yet sensual and feminine way, with his first haute couture collection with Dior. Simons ' work with Dior retained the traditional fabrics and elegance, but fostered self-respect and free speech for the woman's body. For this album, which was produced in just eight weeks, Dior and I film the production process highlighting Simons ' use of technology and modernist reinterpretations.
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    Escada: a short bio

    Escada: a short bio

    Escada SE is a luxury women's fashion-wear company with head office in Munich, Germany. The founder, Regent, L.P. Michael A. Reinstein, manages the firm and is a large private equity business. The company was founded in 1978 by the designer Margaretha Ley. It also retails ready-to-wear and casual clothes. The Escada SE deals with 600 selling points in 80 countries around the world as of 2017. The multinational fashion house has around 1,500 employees in Milan, Paris, Osaka, Berlin, Beverly Hills and New York City, and regional branches. In 1978 Escada was founded in Munich, Germany, with Margaretha and Wolfgang Ley. Margaretha Ley is known for her daring feminine designs, acquiring an older model and a strong Swedish Royal Court education in tailoring. The line of Escada womenswear was first launched in 1978, and features beautiful inlays and appliqués. The brand quickly stood out for its innovative designs which incorporated unique variations in colour and form, patented embroidery and complex knitted fashions. Escada has undergone a dramatic upswing and its finances and artistic ventures continuously rising. Escada In 1986 it became legal, as it expanded worldwide. In 1994, the company launched the Escada Sport label, developed its own range of products such as bags and trainers, and approved partners including Procter & Gamble with large licences. In 2007 a new Escada collection was created by artist Stefan Szczesny in Saint-, France. Since July 2008 Bruno Sälzer has been the acting CEO responsible for production, promotion, and distribution. In 2009 Escada sold its Münster- subsidiary Primera AG, Westphalia, which included the brands apriori, cavita, and Laurèl, as well as BiBA. Escada filed an insolvency at the Munich District Court on 11 August 2009 after the necessary 80 percent of all bond holders did not accept an exchange offer for the outstanding € 200 million bonds. It was purchased by multimillionaire Lakshmi Mittal of India in November 2009 whose daughter-in-law, Megha Mittal, is the owner and director of the firm. She is allegedly married to Aditya Mittal. In October 2019 Megha Mittal sold the firm in Beverly Hills, California to Regent, L.P., a global private equity group. According to Women's Wear Daily, Bruno Sälzer had stepped down as CEO of Escada until December 2014, on 20 February 2014. Iris Epple-Righi met with Calvin Klein and Tommy Hilfiger on 1 September 2016, after 13 years as CEO of Escada. She had left the organisation in 2019. Niall Sloan joined Escada as Regional Artistic Director on 1 August 2017, after working with the luxury brand Burberry and Hunter. At New York Fashion Week, Sloan launched his first runway presentation Escada for Spring / Summer 19 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the brand. The trial was held on Park Avenue, in the famed Armory. Sloan unveiled his latest line for the fall / winter 19 season at the Paris Fashion Week in February, inspired by Hedy Lamarr Hedy Lamarr's life and work at the Institut de France. On 14 January 2019, Escada announced British singer Rita Ora as the new ambassador for the brand and the face of their spring campaign. On 27 March 2019, Ora unveiled an version of the ESCADA Heart Box, which she co-designed at a New York City Public Hotel launch party. Women for Women Worldwide, a charity aiming to rebuild the lives of women prisoners of violence, is donating some of the proceeds from the unveiling of the brand. Diana, Princess of Wales was a client of Escada who was allegedly sporting an Escada outfit on an official visit to Berlin in 1987. Kim Basinger won the Oscar in an Escada gown in 1988. A regular customer at Escada is Swedish Crown Princess Victoria. In 2010 she wore Escada to the pre-wedding celebration at the wedding of Prince Nikolaos of Greece. She wore Escada in 2011, as well as the Uk Royal Wedding Pre-wedding Dinner and the Monaco Royal Wedding State Visit to Germany. York duchess Susan wear Escada at Black Tie and Tiara Concert at Elton John's in 2011.