Memory Strategies and Enhancement
Increase memory input one step at a time
Memory strategies are “mental events intended to improve encrypting and recovery” (Gazzaniga, Ivry, & Mangun, 2018). Memory strategies help people remind and recall about the things that happened in the past. Also considering any information that deals with the prior experiences from everyday external aids to internal memory strategies that facilitate storage and retrieval from long-term memory. We create memories every day and not all of them are stored, thus, learning different memory strategies can help those who may be struggling with keeping their memory or trying to retain information. Cognitive mapping is the cognitive process “a process by which the individual subject situates himself within a vaster, unrepresentable totality, a process that corresponds to the workings of ideology” (Jameson, F. n.d.). In addition, cognitive mapping is helpful because it allows us to solve complex difficulties of origination and policymaking.
There are multiple memory strategies, but I decided to pick one of the memory strategies called chunking. This strategy helps increase the capacity of grouped information in our short-term memory. This method basically breaks up longer units into little sub-units or categories to help easily remember things. Those chunks are then easier to remember compared to a large unit that is not interrupted. A huge example of this that is commonly used would be like phone numbers. Often times we give out our phone number in different chunks rather than telling the person all the numbers at once. It helps reduce the cognitive “load” for the learner. When a person has a large amount of information, they can first break that information into smaller amounts. Then they would identify similar patterns of the information. Next they would organize that information, and finally group them into a manageable subunit. Some other positive effects of chunking would be daily use, not just phone numbers, but birthdays too. Birthdays aren’t given with all the numbers, they are separated with a dash, this also helps identify the month, day, and the year. Chunking is one of the most important memory strategies as it helps deals with numbers, many people use it everyday and most times we don’t even realize that we are using it.
Using a memory strategy has positive effects. “Mental imagery can strengthen the effects of implementation intentions on goal achievement” (Knäuper, Roseman, Johnson, & Krantz, 2009). Memory strategies let our brain generates a neural record, that allows memories to be recovered when needed. This is also known as the long-term effects of memory training. One positive effect of using memory strategy would be helping depressed people remember the good times. Recalling and reminding detailed positive memories helps depressed people because this boost positive mood for people with a history of depression. As the research stated by Targeted News Service (TNS), (2013), depressed patients were asked to come up with 15 positive memories. One group asked that to create associations with their memories, while the other group was asked using that rehearsal strategy, in which grouping memories based on their similarities, or chunking (previously discussed). Both groups were able to recall nearly all of the 15 memories. The people from first group that asked to create associations with their memories were better at recalling their positive memories. From this research, the result suggests that “positive memories with physical objects or locations may make it easier for depressed individuals to recall those positive memories, which may help to elevate their mood in the long-term” (“Memory Strategy May Help Depressed People Remember the Good Times”, 2013). Another positive effect of using memory strategy would be for studying at school. As a student, I think learning different memory strategies can help students learn better. Some students have difficulty remembering instructions or directions because they get too much information all at once, however, if they use a memory strategy, they can recall conversations, class lectures and discussions. Students who have difficulty with working memory often times forget what they were doing. Imagery has often been believed to play a very large, even pivotal, role in both memory and motivation. If students improve their understanding of strategies like creating mental images when reading, it’ll increase the likelihood that they will remember what they have read (Mustafa, 2016).
We usually use cognitive mapping when we visualize the landscape and solve orientation problems by referring to these maps. We use the hippocampus (which functions like a mail center for memories) it is “the most important part of the brain in their formation, considerable controversy has centered around whether other animals, such as honeybees, can form similar maps” (“Visualization and Interpretation Tool for Expert Systems Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps”, 2019). For example, people with cognitive map should be able to assess landmarks and compass information and then calculate its travel path to any location within its mapped area. (“Visualization and Interpretation Tool for Expert Systems Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps”, 2019). Understanding what cognitive mapping is helps us in connection to memory as it is like a layout, as the individual can have a mental representation and recall what the memory they encoded.
As recalling, learning and remembering memory, sleep is an important factor. Sleep can play an imperative role in the consolidation development. Sleep affects learning and remembering, also to be able to have the capability to concentrate and absorb proficiently. This “enhancing memories by shielding them from intruding stimuli, present theories climax an energetic role for sleep in which memories endure a course of system consolidation during sleep” (Rasch and Bom, 2013).
A memory strategy refers to methods than are intended to support one recollection. Memory directly affects to our daily life, it may even help those with memory problems like patients dealing with Alzheimer’s or dementia, which are diseases affected in the hippocampus (where cognitive mapping and memory is at). Humans are not be able to remember information or recall it from past days, or even the plans for the future. Without memory system, it will be more difficult to learn, remember, and recall information. Thus, memory has a huge role in our lives. Some ability to store the variations of information not just images but, sounds and even touch as memory is considered to be a cognitive foundation of awareness.
Gazzaniga, M., Ivry, R., & Mangun, G. (2018). Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of the mind (5th ed.). New York, NY: Norton. ISBN-13: 9780393603170
Jameson, F. (n.d.). Postmodernism or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Cognitive Mapping. Retrieved from: https://www.d.umn.edu/~cstroupe/ideas/cognitivemap.html
Knäuper, Roseman, Johnson, & Krantz. (2009). Using Mental Imagery to Enhance the Effectiveness of Implementation Intentions. https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/200845629?accountid=7374
“Metacognition and Consciousness” from the Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness (2007).
Memory Strategy May Help Depressed People Remember the Good Times. (2013). Targeted News Service (TNS). Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgin&AN=edsgcl.320377531&site=eds-live&scope=site
Mustafa KOCAARSLAN. (2016). An exploratory study of the relationships between reading comprehension competence, reading attitude and the vividness of mental imagery among Turkish fourth-grade students. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, (4), 675. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.82af9264f2ce4a9e9d41f874160eadfc&site=eds-live&scope=site
Rasch, B. and Born, J. (2013 Apr). About Sleep’s Role in Memory. American Physiological Society. doi:10.1152/physrev.00032.2012
Visualization and Interpretation Tool for Expert Systems Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. (2019). IEEE Access, Access, IEEE, 6140. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2887355