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Diffusion of Innovation

Literature review and methodology of innovation diffusion.

By Maulik BorsaniyaPublished 3 years ago 8 min read
Diffusion of innovation

To gain an understanding of what diffusion of innovation and rate of adoption is that this chapter is split into two sections, the primary section can offer mainly a literature review of diffusion, diffusion of innovation theory, perceived attributes of innovations (including relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability) and rate of adoption, and secondary the ideas of governmental electronic payments, and cashless society are going to be delineated. The second section presents a review of methodologies and theories of previous studies associated with innovation diffusion.

Collis and Hussey (2014, p. 87) state that "A literature review could be a vital analysis of the prevailing body of information on a subject, that guides the analysis and demonstrates that the relevant literature has been settled and analyzed." the foremost relevant literature associated with the analysis queries square measure delineate during this chapter to supply the mandatory background as an outbound purpose for the comment. To search out the foremost correct methodology and theories for the analysis style previous studies associated with the diffusion of innovation in payment systems wherever reviewed. Additionally, in chapter 3, the literature search and review processes square measure delineate well.

2.1 Theories and ideas

The following section starts by defining diffusion. Secondly, we tend to introduce the four main components of the distribution of innovations theory, then go deeper into the attributes of innovations and the adoption rate. Finally, the electronic payment systems and cashless society ideas square measure delineate to own an outline of the analysis context and be ready to build relations between diffusion of innovations and electronic payment systems.

2.1.1 Diffusion

In Latin, "diffusion" suggests that "to unfold out," Rosenberg (1994) explicitly that diffusion isn't a passive method. However, that involves a fancy way with progressive changes to create all the system work components along. Rogers (1983, p. 5) defines diffusion as "the method during which AN innovation is communicated through bound channels and a special kind of communication over time among the structure members. it's a special kind of communication, therein the messages square measure involved with new ideas". Diffusion is often thought-about a method wherever all the variables concerned have a high level of complexness and the context wherever innovation square measure developed and used play a significant role in the adoption rate. In keeping with Hall (2005), innovation alone wouldn't significantly impact while not the diffusion method.

2.1.2 Diffusion of Innovation Theory

The diffusion of innovation theory is adopted to guide the analysis, and the literature review associated with this theory has been prioritized. As explicit by Parisot (1995); Medlin (2001), this theory is the most applicable and convenient for analyzing technology's adoption rates in instructional environments. The diffusion of innovations approach consists of 4 main components,

(1) invention, (2) communication channels, (3) time, and (4) structure (Rogers, 1983). These four main components are vital to predicting AN innovation's adoption; an outline of them follows below.

The first component of the diffusion of innovation theory is innovation, "An innovation as a concept, practice, or object that's perceived as new by a person or another unit of adoption" (Rogers, 1983, p. 135). economic expert (1934) combines a collection of different definitions, considering innovation as:

(1) "The introduction of a replacement sensible, that's one with that shoppers aren't however acquainted, or of a replacement quality of a good; (2) The introduction of a replacement technique of production, which require by no suggests that be supported upon a discovery scientifically new, and might additionally exist in an exceedingly new approach of handling an artifact commercially; (3) The gap of a replacement market, that's a market into that the actual branch of manufacture of the country in question has not antecedently entered, whether or not or not this market has existed before". Generally, innovations desired for one adoptive parent in one scenario are often unsought for one more potential adoptive parent that's in an exceedingly different method (Rogers, 1983); this can be AN example that the speed of adoption of AN innovation could disagree counting on the context and their perceived attributes. Once analyzing the various definitions of innovation, Rogers's report will be adopted within the gift analysis, although that has a lot of relation with the topic and context. For analysis purpose, MPay is going to be thought-about AN innovation of the European country Government payment systems for public services, that is giving another for the services that square measure on the market solely in ancient payment systems, during this case, money payments below totally different platforms (EGC, 2017c).

The second component of the diffusion of innovation theory is that the line, as outlined by Rogers (1983, p. 17), "Is suggests that by that messages get from one individual to another." Rogers highlighted that mass media channels, like radio, television, a newspaper so, square measure the foremost fast ANd economical thanks to transmitting an innovation's existence. On the opposite hand, Rogers highlighted that social channels square measure simpler in persuading people to adopt a replacement plan. The innovation's complexness often designates the line; for advanced innovations, mass media channels square measure adopted. For non-complex innovations, social channels square measure a lot of appropriate (Rogers, 1983). Müller and Rode (2013) explicit that communication channels square measure necessary due to their influence on innovations' adoption rate. Rogers recommended that to extend the transference of concepts and own more straightforward communications between 2 people, the degree of homophily had to be high. Homophily is outlined by Rogers (1983, p. 18) because the "degree to that two or a lot of people World Health Organization acts square measure similar inbound attributes, like beliefs, education, socioeconomic standing, and also the like." On the opposite hand, heterophily, the alternative of homophily, tends to guide ineffective communication and increase the possibility of rejecting the innovations. The net as a mass media channel and the implementation of MPay created the potential for the diffusion of the govt. e-payment system in the Republic of Moldova achieving a high penetration level and an increasing uptake of the service within the society.

The third component of the diffusion of innovation theory is that the time component, including this component, reinforced the diffusion analysis. This component has been neglected or wasn't necessary for different activity science analyses (Rogers, 1983). As outlined by Rogers (1983, p.20), the time dimension is concerned in diffusion in 3 main factors, "(1) the innovation-decision method by that a personal pass from the information of AN innovation to its adoption or rejection, (2) the originality of a personal or different unit of adoption (that is, the relative earliness/lateness with that AN innovation is adopted) compared with different members of a system, and (3) an innovation's rate of adoption could be a system, sometimes measured because the range of members of the system World Health Organization adopts the innovation in an exceedingly given period".

Finally, the fourth component of the diffusion of innovation theory is that the structure, as outlined by Rogers (1983, p. 37), could be a "Set of reticulate units that square measure engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a specific goal. The members or units of a structure are also people, informal teams, organizations, and subsystems." The users of the European country Government e-payment system square measure a part of the structure which will be analyzed within the gift analysis. In keeping with Rogers, there square measure many problems involving the link between the structure and the diffusion method, the structure, norms on diffusion, roles of opinion leaders and alter agents, and eventually forms of innovation-decisions (Rogers, 1983). amendment agents as explicit by Haider and Kreps (2004, p. 3–11) square measure accountable for seven roles "to develop a necessity for amendment, to determine AN information-exchanging relationship, to diagnose issues, to form AN intent within the consumer to vary, to translate AN intent to action, to stabilize adoption and forestall discontinuation and to attain a terminal relationship." in keeping with Rogers (1983), amendment agents square measure qualified professionals with a degree in an exceedingly technical field and usually use opinion leaders in an exceedingly structure as their lieutenants in diffusion activities. Watson (1971) mentioned that amendment inside social systems is typically resisted by some members of society, particularly dynamic the approach we tend to do things. This shows the importance of introducing opinion leaders and incentives to hinder this barrier.

2.1.3 Perceived attributes of innovations

Perceived innovation attributes square measure necessary factors that may be ascertained and measured inbound ways. In several units of study, they'll also facilitate clarifying the various rates of adoption and establishing the weakness of every attribute, which might later be improved or eliminated. In keeping with Rogers (1983), analysis of the perceived details will facilitate predicting adoption rates be explored. A brief description of the five perceived characteristics of innovations is careful within the following section.

Rogers (1983, p. 213) defines relative advantage as "the degree to that AN innovation is perceived as being higher than the concept it supersedes" Rogers additionally states that "the degree of relative advantage is usually expressed in economic gain, low initial price, a decrease in discomfort, social status, savings in time and energy, and also the immediacy of the reward." Adopters verify that specific relative advantage sorts measure a lot of necessary, in keeping with their desires and different variables. In keeping with Rogers, several diffusion students have found a comparative advantage to be one of the most effective predictors of AN innovation's adoption rate, which indicates the advantages and the prices from adopting AN innovation. A previous study on e-payments systems performed by Mallat (2007, p. 427) outlined the relative advantage of mobile payments for shoppers as "the perceived independence of your time and place, availableness to avoid queues, and also the ability to enrich ancient services (cash payments)."

According to Glanz, Rimer, and Viswanath (2008), if a concept isn't compatible with its needed values and norms of a structure, it'll not be adopted as speedily as a consistent innovation. For Rogers (1983, p. 223) "compatibility is that the degree to that AN innovation is perceived as in keeping with the prevailing values, past experiences, and desires of potential adopters." However, Schierz, Schilke, and Wirtz (2010) explicit that perceived compatibility encompasses the new technology's compatibility with existing values, activity patterns, and experiences. In keeping with totally different researchers. The compatibility definition has values of a structure as {a necessary|a crucial|a vital| a critical} issue that would be thought-about important in terms of the success of adopting innovations. The invention's naming is an integral part of compatibility, although that catchy and easy names square measure is easier to recollect. Rogers (1983) outlined that AN innovation is often compatible or incompatible:

1. With social group values and beliefs

2. With antecedently introduced concepts

3. With consumer desires for the innovation

Rogers (1983, p. 230) outlined complexness as "the degree to that AN innovation is perceived as comparatively troublesome to grasp and use, however negatively correlate with the speed of adoption." As explicit by (Labay and Kinnear, 1981; Vollink, Meertens, and Midden, 2002; Karakaya, Hidalgo, and Nuur, 2014), innovations with high complexities was directly associated with low adoption rates, this finding was valid by (Balcombe, Rigby, and Azapagic, 2013) mentioning that a high complexness significantly affects the diffusion rate. In keeping with all previous studies mentioned above, we can say that complexness is directly associated with low adoption rates.

Rogers (1983, p. 231) explicit that "Trialability is that the degree to that AN innovation is also experimented with on a restricted basis." Innovations with more extended trialability periods usually have the next diffusion rate (Makse and Volden, 2011). Roger states that "new concepts {that can|which can|that may} be tried on the installment buying will typically be adopted a lot of quickly than innovations that aren't divisible" (Rogers, 1983).


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Maulik Borsaniya

Digital Marketers | Blogger | SEO | SMO | SEM | Content Creator | ASO


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