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Cholas

History of chola

By Mahendrarajah MithusharanPublished about a year ago 6 min read
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History of cholas

The Cholas were a powerful dynasty that ruled in southern India, particularly in present-day Tamil Nadu, during the 9th to 13th centuries. They were known for their military prowess and also made significant contributions in the fields of art, literature, and architecture. The Cholas built a vast empire that stretched from the southern tip of India to as far north as the Ganges Delta in present-day Bengal. The Cholas are also known for their naval power, and their naval expeditions led to the spread of Chola influence and culture to other parts of Southeast Asia. The Cholas were followers of Hinduism and the Shaivite tradition, and the Chola temples are some of the most impressive examples of Dravidian temple architecture in India. The Chola empire eventually declined in the 13th century, but the legacy of the Cholas continues to be felt in modern-day Tamil Nadu and beyond.The Chola dynasty was founded by Vijayalaya Chola, who reigned from 850 to 871. He established the Chola capital at Thanjavur and conquered several territories, including the Pallavas and the Pandyas. The Cholas reached the peak of their power under Rajaraja Chola I and his son, Rajendra Chola I, who ruled from 985 to 1014 and 1014 to 1044, respectively. Rajaraja Chola I expanded the Chola empire through military conquests and also made significant contributions to Tamil literature and architecture. He built the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and considered one of the greatest examples of Chola architecture.

Rajendra Chola I continued the military expansion of the Chola empire, and his naval expeditions led to the spread of Chola influence to Southeast Asia. The Cholas also made significant contributions to the fields of art and literature during this period. The Chola period is considered a golden age in Tamil history, and the Cholas are remembered for their cultural achievements as well as their military prowess.

The Chola empire eventually declined in the 13th century due to a combination of internal strife and external invasions by the Pandyas and the Hoysalas. Despite its decline, the legacy of the Chola empire continues to be felt in modern-day Tamil Nadu and beyond, and the Cholas are remembered as one of the greatest empires in Indian history.Some other notable achievements of the Chola empire include:

The Cholas were known for their efficient administration and their well-organized system of governance. They divided the empire into provinces called "mandalams", each of which was further divided into smaller units called "nadus". The Cholas also established a standing army and a powerful navy, which helped them to maintain control over their vast empire.

The Cholas were patrons of the arts and supported the growth of literature, music, and dance. They also encouraged the translation of Sanskrit works into Tamil and promoted the development of Tamil literature. The Chola period is considered a golden age of Tamil literature, and many important works in Tamil were produced during this time.

The Cholas made significant contributions to the field of architecture. The Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur, built by Rajaraja Chola I, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and considered one of the greatest examples of Chola architecture. The Cholas also built many other temples and palaces, and their style of architecture influenced the development of temple architecture in other parts of India.

The Cholas were known for their naval power and their naval expeditions led to the spread of Chola influence and culture to other parts of Southeast Asia. The Cholas established trade and cultural ties with countries in the region, and their influence can still be seen in the architecture and culture of countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.During the Chola period, the economy of southern India prospered due to the growth of trade and agriculture. The Cholas encouraged the development of trade and established a strong network of roads and ports. They also promoted the growth of agriculture by building irrigation systems and encouraging the cultivation of new crops. The Cholas also introduced new coinage and a system of weights and measures, which facilitated trade and commerce.

The Chola empire was a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, and people of different religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, lived together in harmony. The Cholas were followers of Hinduism and the Shaivite tradition, and they supported the construction of temples and the promotion of Hindu religious practices. However, they were also tolerant of other religions and allowed people of different faiths to practice their religion freely.

The Chola period was a time of great cultural and artistic achievements in southern India. The Cholas supported the growth of literature, music, and dance, and many important works in these fields were produced during this time. The Cholas also made significant contributions to the fields of sculpture and bronze casting, and their style of art influenced the development of art in other parts of India. The legacy of the Chola empire can still be seen in the culture and art of modern-day Tamil Nadu and beyondDuring the Chola period, the Tamil language and literature flourished. The Cholas encouraged the growth of Tamil literature and supported the translation of Sanskrit works into Tamil. The Cholas also patronized Tamil poets and scholars, and many important works in Tamil literature were produced during this time. Some of the notable works of Tamil literature from the Chola period include the Tirukkural, a work on ethics and morality, and the Periya Puranam, a work on the lives of the Nayanars, a group of Shaivite saints.

The Cholas also made significant contributions to the field of music and dance. They patronized Tamil music and supported the growth of the Carnatic music tradition, which is still popular in southern India. The Cholas also encouraged the development of Bharatanatyam, a classical dance form that originated in Tamil Nadu.

The Cholas were also known for their bronze casting and sculpture. They developed a unique style of bronze casting that combined Indian and Southeast Asian elements. The Cholas also built many temples and palaces, and their style of architecture influenced the development of temple architecture in other parts of India. The Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur, built by Rajaraja Chola I, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and considered one of the greatest examples of Chola architecturethis time. The Cholas also made significant contributions to the fields of sculpture and bronze casting, and their style of art influenced the development of art in other parts of India. The Cholas built many temples and palaces, and their style of architecture influenced the development of temple architecture in other parts of India. The Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur, built by Rajaraja Chola I, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and considered one of the greatest examples of Chola architecture.

The Cholas are also known for their naval power, and their naval expeditions led to the spread of Chola influence and culture to other parts of Southeast Asia. The Cholas established trade and cultural ties with countries in the region, and their influence can still be seen in the architecture and culture of countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.

The Chola empire eventually declined in the 13th century due to a combination of internal strife and external invasions by the Pandyas and the Hoysalas. Despite its decline, the legacy of the Chola empire continues to be felt in modern-day Tamil Nadu and beyond, and the Cholas are remembered as one of the greatest empires in Indian history.

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