Do Middle Schools Result In Higher Achievement Than Junior High Schools?
Question: Do middle schools result in higher achievement than junior high schools? This question addresses the academic outcomes of students in junior high schools that are organized in a manner similar to large comprehensive high schools with departmentalization, 40-50 minute periods, subject area teachers, and competitive sports, as compared to middle schools using various degrees of the five commonly endorsed practices considered essential to the middle level model of schooling: teaming, exploratory courses, co-curricular programs, adviser-advisee arrangements, and intramural activities. These delineations, however, are not consistent, as many junior highs contain middle school components and vice versa.
Choosing College Is Choosing A Different Kind Of Present And Future
High School graduation requirements should be worked out at the school level by faculty and approved by parents and supervising boards, accepted by students who come to the school (who - one hopes! - have some choice in what school they attend), and which lay out the knowledge which a young person needs to be considered an effective adult. These requirements will not consist only of long-ago earned Carnegie units and/or test scores, but will be based on a system of promotion by performance and by portfolio during the junior high school and high school years. Although most students will complete the faculty's expectations by the time they are about eighteen, others will move through the program more or less quickly. The "fixed" will be the basic proficiency standards; the "variables" will be the time it takes to achieve them, and the ways in which these aptitudes are displayed. Breadth in the curriculum will also vary according to the student. Senior year will be dominated by a rigorous senior seminar, which will include a substantial senior project, possibly including an internship, and which will lead to a Graduation Exhibition which can be described and explained to all interested parties.
Adolescents Who Perform Better In School
Associations between important aspects of the home and family and adolescents' behavior and well-being are the primary focus. Families with few economic resources are more likely to have adolescents who have behavioral problems, who are psychologically distressed, and who do less well in school. Parental behavior and psychological well-being in less adequately resourced homes partially explain adolescents' poorer functioning. Parents in economically deprived homes are more distressed, inconsistent, and harsh in their parenting, and are less likely to create an organized and structured home environment. All of these can lead adolescents to display psychological distress.
Gender Equity In Schools And The New Educational Leaders
To be a woman does not necessarily imply that one is disempowered. The basis for my analysis provides an opportunity to distinguish two components that have often been confused and confounded. With this challenge in mind, I scrutinized and probed educational management as a gendered construction.
New Models Of Teaching And Learning
While parents and communities stress the importance of students having access to technology, it is a mistake to focus primarily on students. For the educational enterprise to adapt appropriately to our new world, we must invest in training teachers to integrate technology into the curriculum. School districts frequently use staff development opportunities to train their teachers to incorporate new technologies; this is a complex process. Traditional staff development training in technology involves a day's instruction, including hands-on experience with the software. Most of this training ignores the developmental process of adults--the need to understand relationships, to reinforce concepts with frequent use, to explore and be challenged, and to conceptualize an entirely different teaching methodology. Districts rarely have support staff available to help the teachers work through these innovations. The combination of reticence, frustration, and inadequate training threatens to sabotage the opportunities for technology to enhance classroom learning.
Maximize The Learning Of All Children
The information age poses a whole new set of challenges and questions to America's schools. The quality of our nation's political, social and economic future will depend on the ability of young people to become functioning members of society who understand how to access information and determine its significance, draw independent rational conclusions and communicate findings. A democracy requires contributing citizens who are informed and capable of independent, critical thought. Continual retraining is becoming the norm in American business, but are future employees prepared to contribute? Our society's preparation of young people for the workplace of the industrial age has been insufficient.
Excellence In Education As A National Priority
Learning is a complex process. We learn by building on past experiences; by trial and error; by starting with simple tasks and combining them over time to accomplish more complex tasks; and, by gaining insight and understanding of the relationship between various parts of a problem. Research demonstrates that for teaching to be effective, a learner must be able to create meaningful relevant patterns. The process of learning must be maintained within a context of appropriate and challenging standards.
Education Reform Continues To Top The List Of Issues Facing The Nation Today
Education reform continues to top the list of issues facing the nation today. Americans are better informed than ever about school performance and its implications for our future, and many feel a sense of urgency about improving their children's education. This urgency is leading to a shift in focus for education policy at all levels - federal, state and local. Many states and localities are enacting policies that put the needs of children and parents over systems, focus on improving student achievement rather than on processes and procedure and policies that empower communities, enterprising school leaders and teachers.