The Pandya dynasty was a royal dynasty in the southern part of India, who ruled over the region of Tamil Nadu and parts of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. The dynasty was founded in the 6th century BCE and lasted until the 16th century CE, with a brief interruption in the 14th century. The Pandyas were known for their military prowess and their support of the arts, especially literature and music. They also played an important role in the trade and commerce of the region, with their capital city of Madurai being an important center for trade and commerce The Pandya dynasty was one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties, along with the Chola dynasty and the Chera dynasty. The Pandyas were known for their naval power and their control of the pearl trade. They were also a major player in the spice trade with the Roman Empire.
The Cholas were a powerful dynasty that ruled in southern India, particularly in present-day Tamil Nadu, during the 9th to 13th centuries. They were known for their military prowess and also made significant contributions in the fields of art, literature, and architecture. The Cholas built a vast empire that stretched from the southern tip of India to as far north as the Ganges Delta in present-day Bengal. The Cholas are also known for their naval power, and their naval expeditions led to the spread of Chola influence and culture to other parts of Southeast Asia. The Cholas were followers of Hinduism and the Shaivite tradition, and the Chola temples are some of the most impressive examples of Dravidian temple architecture in India. The Chola empire eventually declined in the 13th century, but the legacy of the Cholas continues to be felt in modern-day Tamil Nadu and beyond.The Chola dynasty was founded by Vijayalaya Chola, who reigned from 850 to 871. He established the Chola capital at Thanjavur and conquered several territories, including the Pallavas and the Pandyas. The Cholas reached the peak of their power under Rajaraja Chola I and his son, Rajendra Chola I, who ruled from 985 to 1014 and 1014 to 1044, respectively. Rajaraja Chola I expanded the Chola empire through military conquests and also made significant contributions to Tamil literature and architecture. He built the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and considered one of the greatest examples of Chola architecture.