Introduction During almost a decade of teaching young learners in an EFL context in South Korea, I had never been exposed to the principle of teaching lexically. When teaching meanings of words, I expected my explanations to be understood and absorbed after a single exposure. However, after enrolling in TESOL courses at Biola University, I was able to experience teaching in the adult ESL context. Teaching TOEFL in South Korea allowed me to transition smoothly into teaching an IELTS course for adult students in Rowland Heights, California.
Introduction: For more than five thousand years prior to the invention of the printing press, scribes and clerks in the West wrote private letters, commercial transactions, sacred scriptures, and imperial decrees by hand. Furthermore, China had been employing the use of mechanical print by A.D. 750, and yet the innovation of printing failed to cause major political or socio-economic developments in that region. According to Rogers, an innovation is a new technology or idea presented by an innovative thinker. Although Johan Gutenberg is famous for inventing the printing press, the innovation itself does not have full explanatory scope as to how the invention changed cultures and societies. So, how did Gutenberg’s printing press result in a wild explosion of knowledge and ideas throughout Europe? A combination of people, processes, pressures and philosophies facilitated the transformation of the religious landscape of Europe for centuries to come, steadily causing Christianity to expand into a worldwide religion.
When considering the history of Christianity in Korea, it is impossible to remove nationalism from the equation. Because Korea is surrounded by the powerful nations of Russia, China, and Japan, nationalism and Christianity have inevitably converged. Furthermore, separating church and state is a notion born of the Western world, where the survival of Christianity in its purist form required this disunion, as corruption dominated the Western church, leading to the Reformation. Separating nationalism and Christianity is an indeed an unrealistic feat, illustrated by Ephesians 6:12, which states that “our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against authorities, against the powers of this dark world, and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms.” Seemingly contrary to Paul’s description of tension between Christianity and earthly governments, Peter instructs the Christians of the early church to submit to authorities. In the case of Korea, the constant threat of war and domination from neighboring powers, and the crumbling of political and social institutions, led people to turn to God and the church in desperation, seeking God’s word for answers, and decisively trusting Him wholeheartedly. The church became the only place to find solace and peace of mind. The brotherly love of missionaries vanquished the suspicion of foreigners and merged with the hope of Korea’s independence, as the gospel transcended ancient customs, religions, and monarchies. Was the merging of nationalism and Christianity ambiguous in nature? Or did the expansion of Christianity in the Hermit Kingdom reveal the hand of God at work? To answer these questions, it is necessary to begin by examining how Christianity managed to infiltrate a nation fiercely resistant to outsiders.
Introduction To help us understand how people maintain their identity within a certain cultural context, we need to consider the traditions, behaviors, beliefs and values of a society. Culture is learned through experience and observation, and it is transmitted over time from generation to generation. However, culture is adaptive rather than static (Greene, 2018). Furthermore, cultural identity influences how we make decisions and interact with others.
ESL Teaching Philosophy My teacher beliefs are based on theoretical study of materials in language learning and experience implementing principles of materials selection in the classroom. When selecting, adapting, and developing materials, authenticity of language content establishes a direct link with the world outside. Teaching materials should allow for an appropriate balance of explicit language instruction and communicative tasks. In addition, textbooks should present objectives and directions with clarity, and materials must be engaging. Media such as videos, blogs and podcasts are an excellent way to supplement textbooks and keep students engaged. Teaching materials and topics should be compatible with the cultural and institutional context. Most importantly, course objectives must meet the needs of the students. My overall teaching philosophy is to set students up for success by providing them with meaningful language they can use, while humanizing textbooks and utilizing supplementary materials, exploiting sources of language input in ways which maximize the likelihood of intake and purposeful output (Tomlinson, 2011). Finally, teaching learner strategies encourages independent learning.