BELOVED OF PONNI
Story at least of a devoted hero
[Chapters 1 - 30]
Salt Lake City, Utah.
With much thanks to
for editing help.
Translation Copyright Indra Neelameggham
A Guide To Pronouncing
More or less phonetic spelling is used for proper names, place names and literary works.
Tamil words are used when inevitable. English spelling for place names use the more
popular anglicized version -- Tanjore instead of Tanjavur -- when applicable.
The letters zl are used to denote the Tamil alphabet/sound . There is no known way
to symbolize this in English. Thus the name `Cho a' is written as Chozla. It can be
pronounced with the Z silent as in Chola, Paluvoor etc.
(For further details on Chozla history of this period, refer to Colas by Prof K.A. Nilakanta Sastri,
Madras University Historical Series 9, 1955, reprinted 1984, University of Madras, India.)
Kalki's Ponniyin Selvan
Part I -- New Floods [Part A]
Chapter Page Chapter Page
1 Aadi Festival 3 16 Arulmozli Varma 41
2 Azlvar-adiyan Nambi 5 17The Horse Galloped 43
3 Vinnagara Temple 7 18 Idumban Kari 44
4 Kadamboor Fort 10 19 Battlefield And Forest 47
5 The Gypsy Dance 12 20 The First Enemy 49
6 Midnight Meeting 15 21 The Curtains Parted 52
7 Laughter And Hatred 17 22 Velaikara Battalion Of Velirs 54
8 Who Is In The Palanquin? 19 23 Amudan's Mother 57
9 Wayside Chitchat 21 24 A Cuckoo And A Crow 60
10 The Astrologer of Kudanthai 24 25 Inside The Fort 62
11 Sudden Entry 27 26 Danger! Danger! 63
12 Nandini 31 27 Court Poets 65
13 The Waxing Moon 34 28 Iron Grip 67
14 A Crocodile On The River Bank 38 29 "Our Guest" 69
15 Vanathi's Tricks 39 30 Art Gallery 71
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 1 -- Aadi Festival
We welcome our readers to get into the boat of imagination and go sailing down the flood of
source less, endless time. Let us travel a century for every second and quickly reach the times of
a thousand and more years before the present.
In the southern end of Thiru-Munaipadi, which lies in between the Thondai Kingdom and the
Chozla Kingdom, about two leagues far to the west of Thillai Chittrambalam, (Chidambaram
Town) there spreads an ocean-like reservoir. It is known as Veera Narayana Lake. It is about a
league and a half long north to south and about half a league wide east to west. Time has twisted
its name: for these days the reservoir is known as Veeraanatthu Lake.
In the windy months of Aadi-Aavani (August), when new floods fill the reservoir to almost
overflow, anyone who looks at the Veera Narayana lake will surely recall with pride and
astonishment the splendid deeds of our ancestors in Tamil Nadu. Did those old timers do things
merely for the welfare of themselves and the people of their own times? ... They fulfilled tasks
that would benefit thousands of future generations in their sacred motherland.
On the 18th day of the month of Aadi, in the early hours of the evening, a young warrior,
mounted on a horse, was riding down the banks of this ocean-like Veera Narayana Lake. He
belonged to the Vaanar clan which is famous in the history of the gallant Tamils.
Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan was his name. Having travelled a long distance and being worn and
weary, his horse was walking along rather slowly. The young cavalier did not seem concerned
about this. The sprawling reservoir had so enchanted his heart!
It was common for rivers of the Chozla Kingdom to run with flood waters touching both banks
during the Aadi month festival of Padhinettam Perukku. The lakes fed by these rivers would also
be filled to capacity, with waves jostling and colliding upon their embankments. Waters from the
river called North Cauvery by the devout, but commonly known as Kollidam, rushed into the
Veera Narayana Lake, through the Vadavaaru stream and made it a turbulent sea.
Seventy-four floodgates on the lake distributed the bounty via aqueducts to distant tracts of the
country side. With these irrigation waters from the lake, activities such as ploughing, sowing and
seed transplanting were being carried out as far as the eye could see.
Here and there, the song of farmers who were ploughing and women who were transplanting
created a pleasant and joyous music. Listening to all this, Vandiya Devan was riding quite
slowly, without prodding his tired horse. As soon as he had climbed the embankment, he had
started counting the floodgates with the intention of finding out if popular claims, which declared
the lake to have seventy-four floodgates, were true! After having come about one and a half
leagues along the bank, he had counted seventy gates.
Aha! How huge is this lake? How wide and how long? Can we not say that the tanks built by the
great Pallava monarchs in the Thondai Kingdom are mere ponds and pools compared with this
immense reservoir? Did not Prince Raja-aditya son of King Paranthaka who conquered Madurai,
think of building this great tank to conserve the waters of the North Cauvery which were going
wastefully into the sea? And did he not execute his thinking into action? How great a genius he
must have been! Who can we compare to his brave nobility! During the battle at Thakkolam, did
he not, riding an elephant go to the forefront and single handed, enter combat? And in the course
of that confrontation did he not receive enemy spears on his chest and give up his very life? And
because of it did he not get the title ‘Deva who reposed atop the elephant’ as he departed for the
heavens meant for the brave? These kings of the Chozla Dynasty are remarkable! They were just
as just as they were brave! And as in justice they excelled in the veneration of their Gods.
Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan's shoulders swelled with pride when he thought of his good fortune
in having received the friendship of a Chozla prince of such a dynasty. Just like the waves that
dashed against the banks of the lake because of the swift western breeze, his heart too bubbled
with gratification and pride. Thinking all such thoughts Vandiya Devan reached the southern end
of Veera Narayana Lake.
There he could view the panorama of the Vadavaaru stream separating from the North Cauvery
and falling into the lake. For a short distance inside the embankment, the lake shore was silted
forming a sandy beach. A number of casuarina trees and wood-apple trees had been planted on
the beach so that rising flood waters would not destroy the embankment. Naanal reeds had grown
thickly along the water's edge. From a distance, the scenic view of the rushing waters from the
tree lined North River merging into the lake in the south-west, seemed like a colorful, newly
Vandiya Devan saw a few other things that increased the pleasing joyousness of this enchanting
scene. Was it not the day of the Aadi Festival? Crowds of people from nearby villages, dragging
their carts covered with canopies of sandal-colored, supple coconut-leaves, were coming. Men,
women, children and even several elderly folks all wearing new clothes and vividly dressed in
various ways had come. Bunches of fragrant flowers, such as thaazlai, the hearts of screw-pine
cactus, chrysanthemum, jasmine, gardenia, champaka and iruvatchi decorated the braids of
Several had come with families bringing stewed rice and fancy picnic foods. Some stood by the
water's edge and ate their picnic rice-dishes from platters of areca palm leaves. Others, more
brave, had ventured further into the water to cross over to the bank of the Vadavaaru.
Some children threw the platters from which they had eaten into the floodgates and clapped their
hands with laughter to see the petals float through the gates to be rushed onto the canals. Some
mischievous young men plucked the flowers off the heads of their loved ones and threw them
into the water, merely to see them being cast upon the shore.
Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan stood there watching all this for a while. He listened with an eager
ear when some of the girls with pleasant voices sang. They sang traditional boat-songs and floodsongs as well as folk songs like Kummi and Sindhu.
Come, oh ye young maidens,
Look at the North river bubbling by!
Come watch, oh ye friends,
Look at the White river rushing by!
Come, oh come all ye girls,
To look at the Cauvery tumbling by!
Such flood-songs pleasingly flooded the ears of Vandiya Devan. Others sang ballads about the
bravery and fame of Chozla kings. Some girls sang of Vijayala Chozla who had fought in thirtytwo battles and had worn his ninety-six body wounds like ornaments. Others sang acclaiming the
bravery of his son, Aditya Chozla, and how he constructed sixty-four Shiva temples all along the
Cauvery - from where it rose till it mingled into the sea. One girl sang the fame of King Aditya's
son, Paranthaka Chozla, who had not only conquered the Pandiya, Pallava and Chera kings but
had also sent an army to Lanka to raise his victory flag. When each girl sang, several people
stood around her listening with rapt attention. They applauded with loud shouts of "ah, ah" and
expressed their happiness!
An elderly woman noticed Vandiya Devan who was sitting on his horse and listening to all this.
"Thambi! You seem to have come from a long distance; you are tired! Come down from your
horse to eat this stewed rice," she said.
(Note: Thambi -- younger brother, mode of address for young men.)
Immediately several young girls noticed our youthful traveler. They whispered amongst
themselves about his appearance and laughed merrily. Vandiya Devan was overcome by a certain
mortification on one side and delight on the other. For a moment he considered dismounting and
eating the food offered by the old woman. If he did so, the young girls would surely gather
around to tease and laugh.
So what? Is it easy to behold so many beautiful maidens in one place? Even their laughter and
teasing would be heavenly music. In Vandiya Devan's eyes all those girls on the lake shore
appeared like the heavenly nymphs Ramba and Menaka!
At the same time, he noticed something towards the south-west along the flow of River
Vadavaaru and hesitated. About seven or eight large boats with white, spreading sails filled with
the breeze were coming swiftly like white swans floating with wide-spread wings.
All the people engaged in various merriments turned to avidly look in the direction from which
the boats were coming. One of the boats came forward more swiftly and reached the lake shore
where the embankment turned west. Several well-built footmen carrying sharp and shiny spears
were in that boat. Some of them jumped on to the lake shore and started shoving the people with
shouts of "Go! Move!" Before being pushed around too much, the people picked up their
containers and belongings and quickly started climbing upon the bank. Vandiya Devan could not
understand any of this. Who were these men? Who were coming in the sailboats behind them?
Where were they coming from? Perhaps they belonged to the royal household?
Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan approached an elderly man leaning upon his cane by the bank. "Sir,
whose men are these? And whose boats are those coming behind like a school of swans? Why are
these footmen chasing away the people? And why are the people hurrying away?" came his
questions, one upon the other.
"Thambi! Do you not know? There is a flag flying in the middle of those sailboats. See what is
embossed on it!" said the elder.
"Seems like a palm tree."
"It is a palm tree! Don't you know that the palmtree-flag belongs to the Lord of Pazluvoor?"
"Is it the great warrior, Lord Pazluvoor, who is coming?" asked Vandiya Devan in a startled
"It must be so. Who else could raise the palmtree-flag and come?" said the elderly man.
Vandiya Devan's eyes opened wide with immeasurable surprise as he looked towards the boats.
Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan had heard much about Lord Pazluvoor. But who would not have
heard about them? The names of the brothers - The Elder Lord Pazluvoor and The Younger Lord
Pazluvoor -- were renowned from Lanka in the south to the Kalinga Kingdom in the north.
Pazluvoor, situated on the northern banks of the Cauvery near the city of Uraiyoor was their
capital. Even from the times of Vijayala Chozla, the Pazluvoor Family had won heroic fame.
They had a lot of give and take with the royal family of the Chozlas. Because of this and also
because of their nobility, bravery and fame the Pazluvoor clan had all the distinguishing
characters of a royal family. They also had the right to carry their own pennant.
The elder of the present Lords of Pazluvoor had fought in twenty-four campaigns. During his
times he had won acclaim as having no equal in war in the Chozla Kingdom. Since he had now
crossed the age of fifty, he no longer entered the battlefield directly. Nevertheless, he now held
several eminent positions in the government of the Chozlas. In the Chozla Empire, he was the
head of finance; head of food supply. He had the authority to levy taxes according to political
needs. He had the right to call upon any princeling, nobleman or squire and order them thus:
"This year you shall pay this much tribute" and the powers to implement such orders. Therefore,
next to Emperor Sundara Chozla he was the most powerful man in the Chozla Kingdom.
Vandiya Devan's heart brimmed with an eagerness to meet this powerful, illustrious, and noble
Lord of Pazluvoor. At the same time, he recalled the words uttered in privacy by Prince Aditya
Karikala, at the new Golden Palace in Kanchi City.
"Vandiya Deva, I know you to be a brave man. At the same time, I trust you to be intelligent and
give you this immense responsibility. Of the two letters I have given you, deliver one to my
father the Emperor and the other to my sister the Younger Pirati. (Pirati is the term used to refer
to princesses of the ruling house.) I hear all sorts of rumors about even the senior officials of the
kingdom in Tanjavur. Therefore, the contents of my letters should not become known to anyone.
Even the most eminent persons should not realize that you are carrying letters from me. Do not
get into quarrels with anyone on the way. You should not merely avoid conflicts of your seeking;
but also, not be involved in disputes thrust upon you. I very well know about your courage. You
have proved it several times. Therefore, there shall be no loss of valor in escaping from duels
forced upon you. Most important, you should be particularly careful about the Lords of Pazluvoor
and also my Young Uncle Madurandaka. I do not wish them to know even who you are! They
should definitely not know why you are going!"
The Crown Prince of the Chozla Empire and the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Armies,
Prince Aditya Karikala had told him all this. The Prince had repeatedly advised Vandiya Devan
about how he should behave. Since he recalled all this, Vandiya Devan suppressed his desire to
meet Lord Pazluvoor. He whipped his horse to move on quickly. In spite of the prodding, his
tired horse merely plodded ahead. Having decided to spend the night at the Kadamboor fortress
of the noble Sambuvaraya, he resolved to procure a better horse before resuming his journey the
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 2 -- Azlvar-adiyan Nambi
Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan rode down the embankment and turned his horse towards the
southern path; his heart danced with joy: like those sailboats skipping across the waves. The
excitement buried deep in his heart seemed to erupt outward. His intuition said that he was going
to meet adventures experienced by none in one lifetime.
What joyous delight even as I approach the Chozla Kingdom! What wonders will the fertile,
bountiful land beyond Kollidam hold? How would the men and women of that country behave?
How many rivers? How many reservoirs? How many clear streams? How wondrous would be the
river Ponni (Cauvery) praised in song and epic? How enchanting would be the flower laden
punnai, konnai and kadamba trees on its banks? Would not the wink of the lily and the blue-lotus
or the blossoming welcome of a red-lotus be a pleasant sight? How magnificent would be the
spectacular temples erected by these devout Chozlas along both banks of the Cauvery? Aha!
Pazlayarai! Capital city of Chozlas! Pazlayarai that turned Poompuhar and Uraiyoor into small
country towns! What of its palaces, towering columns, armaments, guard houses, busy markets,
Shiva temples of granite and towering Vishnu temples?
Vandiya Devan had heard about the captivating devotional poems - Thevaram & ThiruVaaimozli - sung by music experts in those temples. He was soon to have the fortune of hearing
them. That was not just it -- he was soon to attain favors beyond his wildest dreams. He was to
personally meet Emperor Paranthaka Sundara Chozla, who was comparable to the God Velan in
valor; who was as handsome as Manmatha the God of Love. Furthermore, he was soon to meet
the Emperor's beloved daughter, an incomparable jewel among women, the Younger Pirati
Hopefully there would be no interruptions along the way. So, what if there are obstacles? I have a
spear in hand, a sword at my waist, armor on my chest and courage in my heart. But the orders
of the Commander-in-Chief, my Prince, are strict: do not enter into any skirmish until the
assigned task is completed. It is pretty trying to obey that order! I have followed it thus far in my
travels. A mere two-day journey remains. I must be patient until then.
Travelling with the intention of reaching Kadamboor Fort before sunset, Vandiya Devan soon
reached the Vaishnava temple in the town of Veera-Narayana-Puram. Since it was the day of the
Aadi Festival, a large crowd of people had gathered in the woods and glades around the temple.
Vendors selling jack-fruit, banana, sugar-cane and various other edibles had set up shops. Others
sold flowers such as lotus buds for worship of the Gods as well as blooms to decorate the braids
of women. Mounds of tender coconuts, myrrh, candy, jaggery, betel leaves, pressed rice and
puffed grain were on display for sale. Fun-games and other amusements were in progress here
and there. Astrologers, expert palm readers, soothsayers and magicians who cured poison-bites:
of these there was no dearth. Amidst all this Vandiya Devan noticed a large gathering standing on
one side and he heard loud noises of argument among people in its middle. An immense urge
rose in him to find out what the argument was about. He could not control it! Stopping his horse
by the roadside near the crowd, he dismounted. Signaling the horse to wait, he parted the crowd
and walked right in.
It surprised him to find only three persons involved in the debate. Even though they were merely
three men, the crowd around them periodically cheered their chosen favorites rather loudly.
Vandiya Devan realized the cause for this commotion and watched to find out the reason for the
One of the debaters seemed to be an exceptional follower of the Vaishnava faith: he wore the
sandal-paste namam markings of the sect all over his body; he had styled his hair into a topknot
on his forehead. A short staff was in his hand; his short, squat frame seemed quite strong.
The other was a follower of Shiva, wearing broad ashen marks on his devout body.
The third wore ocher robes and had completely shaved all the hair off his head. He was neither a
Vaishnava nor a Saiva: he seemed to be an Advaita philosopher beyond any sect.
The Saiva devotee was saying, "Oh you Azlvar-adiyan Nambi! Give me an answer to this! Did
not Brahma try to find Shiva's head and Vishnu search for His feet? Unable to see neither head
nor foot did not both seek the sanctuary of Lord Shiva's auspicious feet? That being so, how can
your Thirumal Vishnu be a greater God than Lord Shiva?"
Hearing this Azlvar-adiyan pounded his staff saying, "Well fella! You fanatic Saiva dustworshiping priest! Stop your nonsense. Recall that your Shiva gave boons to the ten-headed
Ravana, King of Lanka. Did not all those boons turn to sawdust when confronted by Sri Rama, an
incarnation of our Thirumal Vishnu? When that is so, how can your Shiva be a greater God than
At this the ocher-clad monk who believed in the One-supreme Being, intervened to say, "Why do
you both argue wastefully? There is no end to your arguments about Shiva being a bigger God or
Vishnu being greater. Only while you are involved in these pagan rituals of devotion will you
quarrel about Shiva and Vishnu. The path of Knowledge is greater than devotion. Then there is
the state of Absolute Knowing, beyond even Knowledge. When you reach that state there is no
Shiva and no Vishnu. All existence is the Supreme Being. Do you know what Sri Sankara the
Teacher says in his dissertation on the scriptures ...."
At this point Azlvar-adiyan Nambi interrupted, "Stop it you fellow! Do you know what your
Sankara who wrote all those explanations for the Upanishads, the Bhagavat Gita and other
scriptures finally say?
Sing of Govinda, Sing of Govinda,
Sing of Govinda, Oh foolish mind!
“He said it three times! It is to dumbheads like you that he refers when he mentions foolish
minds.” The crowd responded to this with thunderous clapping, mocking laughter and loud
cheers of "Aha, oho".
The monk did not stay quiet. "Hey you with the topknot on the forehead! It is correct that you
refer to me as a foolish mind. You hold an ordinary wood-staff in your hands; you are surely a
wood-brained wastrel. It is surely because of my foolish mind that I have come to talk with a
wastrel like you."
"Oh Sir! This is not an ordinary wood-staff. If need be, it has the power to break open your
shaven head," and saying this Nambi raised his staff as the crowd cheered him.
The Philosopher interrupted. "Dear fellow! Stop it! Keep the staff in your own hands. I shall not
be angry even if you hit me with your stick. Neither will I dispute with you. That which hits, is
Supreme! That which is hit is also Supreme! If you lay hands upon me, it is like hitting your own
Upon hearing this Nambi announced, "All of you watch! The Supreme is going to serve the
Supreme a hallowed-hit. I am going to hit myself with this staff," swirling his staff he moved
towards the monk.
Watching all this, Vandiya Devan wondered if he should grab the staff from the fellow with the
topknot on his forehead and serve him a few smacks from it. However, the monk seemed to have
suddenly disappeared. He mingled into the crowd and vanished! At this the Vaishnava supporters
in the crowd cheered even louder.
Azlvar-adiyan turned towards the Saiva devotee, "You, foot-dust worshipper, what do you say?
Will you continue this debate or would you too run away like the monk?" he said.
"Me? I shall never run away like that philosopher spouting mere words. Did you think of me also
as your Kannan (Krishna)? Is not your Krishna the same fellow who received beatings from the
butter-churn because he stole butter from the homes of milkmaids? ..." Before the Shiva
worshipper could finish, Nambi interrupted.
"Why sir? Did not your Shiva carry loads of dirt for the sake of dry pudding and get beaten on his
back? Have you forgotten that?" Swirling his staff, he approached closer.
Azlvar-adiyan was a stocky, well-built brute. The Shiva devotee was an emaciated man. The
cheering supporters in the crowd were ready to enter the tussle. Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan felt
that he must stop this absurd rumpus.
He came forward and said, "Sirs why are you arguing? Do you have nothing better to do? If you
itch for a fight, why not go to Lanka? There is a big war going on there."
Saying, "Who is this fellow trying to make peace?" Nambi quickly turned towards him. Some
people in the crowd liked Vandiya Devan's fearless mien and charismatic face.
"Thambi! You tell them." They cheered, "Tell these quarrel mongers the truth. We will support
"I will tell the facts I know. There seems to be no quarrel between Lord Shiva and Lord VishnuNarayana. Those two seem to be quite friendly and pleasant towards each other. Then why are
these two men arguing?" Hearing these words of Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan the people
The Shiva devotee commented "This boy seems to be intelligent. But jovial words cannot end the
argument. Let him answer this question: is Lord Shiva a greater God than Vishnu or is he not?"
"Shiva is a great God. So is Thirumal Vishnu. Both are equal. Worship whomever you want.
Why quarrel?" said Vallavarayan.
"How can you say that? Where is the proof that Shiva and Vishnu are equal?" chided Azlvaradiyan.
"Proof? I will give you proof. Last night I had been to Vaikunta, the abode of Vishnu. At the
same time Shiva came visiting. Both were seated on equal thrones. They seemed to be of equal
height. Still, to avoid any doubt, I measured their height with my arm ..."
"Young man! Are you mocking me?" roared Azlvar-adiyan.
"Yes, Thambi yes. Tell us more!" applauded the crowd.
"Upon measuring them, I found both to be of exactly the same height. Without stopping at that I
asked both Shiva and Thirumal directly. Do you know what they said? `Hari and Shiva are one
and the same. Those who don't know this should have their mouths filled with dirt!' Saying it
they gave me this fistful of dirt to throw in the mouths of the idiots who quarrel about it."
Vandiya Devan opened his fist to show a handful of dirt. He then threw it among them. Upon this
all hell broke loose. The men in the excited crowd started picking up dirt and rubble and began
throwing it at each other. Azlvar-adiyan also entered the fracas with shouts of "Idiots!
Unbelievers!" and used his staff. A great disturbance and commotion were about to erupt.
Luckily, a stentorian announcement thwarting all this, was heard nearby.
"Best of warriors, bravest of the brave, he who destroyed the very roots of the Pandiya army by
attacking furiously, he of the victorious spear, he who engaged in twenty-four combats and wears
sixty-four battle-wounds on his sacred body, the Chozla Minister for Finance and Food, the lord
who can levy taxes, The Elder Lord of Pazluvoor, is announced. Make way! Make way!" A
thundering voice made the announcement.
The heralds who made these announcements came first. Then came the drummers. Behind them
came men carrying the palmtree-flag. Next marched several smart footmen bearing lances and
spears. Behind all these men came a dark, well-built man seated on a finely decorated elephant.
The sight of the warrior on the elephant looked like a dark cloud resting atop a mountain peak.
People stood on both sides of the roadway and watched. Vandiya Devan guessed that the man
seated on the elephant was Lord Pazluvoor.
Behind the elephant came a palanquin with silken drapes pulled close. Before he could wonder
who could be inside, Vallavarayan saw a fair hand with a gem encrusted bracelet come out and
slightly part the curtains. The dazzling face of a girl could be seen inside the palanquin: like the
moon shining forth from behind a shifting cloud cover.
Though he was a connoisseur of the beauty of womankind, though her captivating face seemed
like the radiating full moon, for some reason, Vandiya Devan was not happy to see that face. An
irrational fear and disgust took hold of him. At the same time the woman's eyes focused on
something near Vandiya Devan. The next instant the perturbed sound of a girl's scream was
heard. The screens pulled shut once again!
Vallavarayan looked around him. His intuition said that the lady had screamed upon sighting
something nearby. He searched around again. Azlvar-adiyan was leaning back on a tamarind tree
just behind him. He saw that the fanatic Vaishnava's face had turned indescribably hideous and
ugly. His heart filled with irrational surprise and revolt.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 3 -- Vinnagara Temple
Sometimes trivial incidents lead to events of great significance. One such incident now occurred
to Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan. Remember, he was standing by the roadside to watch the
procession of the Pazluvoor Lord and his entourage? His horse stood a little away from him.
Some of the men walking towards the end of the Pazluvoor retinue sighted the horse. "Dear chap!
Look at this mule!" said one of them.
"Don't say mule. Say mare," corrected the other. "Set the semantics research aside! First, find out
if it is a donkey or a mule!" said a third man. "Let's check it out!" said yet another as he
approached the horse. He tried to jump on its back, but the intelligent horse realized that this was
not its master; it refused to let him mount.
"Hey! This is a troublesome horse. It will not let me mount! Perhaps only a prince of wellestablished lineage can ride it! Well then, Tanjavur Muthuaraya will have to come back!"
His friends laughed at this witticism. Tanjavur Muthuaraya's dynasty had vanished a hundred
years ago! Now, a flag bearing the tiger symbol of the Chozlas flew over Tanjavur.
"The horse may think so. However, if you ask me, I would say that a fully alive Thandavaraya is
better than a dead Muthuaraya from Tanjavur," said another undaunted man named
"Thandavaraya, find out if this pesky horse that won’t let you come near is really a horse!
Perhaps it is a dummy dance-horse come in for the temple festival," said another prankster.
"Ok, let's examine it," saying this Thandavaraya twisted the horse's tail. The proud horse kicked
its hind legs several times and began running amok. "Hey, the mule is running away! It really is a
mare!" shouted the man and with cries of "Ooi, ooi," they began to chase the horse even further.
The horse began running helter skelter amidst the festive crowd. People trying to avoid its hooves
moved away in a hurry. Even so, some of them were kicked down. The horse ran wild. All this
happened within a few seconds right in front of Vandiya Devan. From the expression on
Vallavarayan's face, Azlvar-adiyan, the Vaishnava, surmised it to be his horse.
"Thambi, did you see the work of those Pazluvoor brutes? What happened to the boldness that
you showed in front of me? Could you not show your valor against them?" he pointed out.
Vandiya Devan felt a piercing outrage. Yet, he grit his teeth and remained patient. The Pazluvoor
men were a large group. There was no point in confronting the whole lot. Neither did those men
wait for him to pick a fight. Laughing over their pranks with the horse they had quickly marched
Vandiya Devan started walking in the direction in which the horse had gone. He knew that his
horse would run for a while and then stop. So, he did not worry about it. He felt that one day he
should settle the score with those arrogant men of Pazluvoor and the idea became firmly etched
in his mind.
His horse stood in a clearing beyond the tamarind grove, wearing a saddened expression. As he
approached it, the horse neighed; the speechless creature seemed to say, "Why did you part from
me and subject me to these travails?" He quietened the horse by patting its back and then led it
back towards the road.
Several persons of the festive crowd asked, "Thambi why did you bring this unruly horse here?
See how it has kicked us?" Others pacified them with words like "What will this young man do?
What could the horse have done? We have to blame those Pazluvoor rogues for this mishap."
Azlvar-adiyan waited by the roadside. Vandiya Devan frowned. What nuisance is this... It seems
as if this fellow will not let go.
"Thambi, which way are you going?" asked Azlvar-adiyan.
"Me? I plan to go a little way west and then a bit to the south; then go around east to travel
"I am not asking all that. I meant, where do you plan to stay tonight?"
"Why do you ask?"
"Perhaps, if you were planning to stay at the fort of Kadamboor Sambuvaraya, I have an
assignment to be done there ..."
"What! Do you know magic or witchcraft? How did you know that I was going to Kadamboor
Palace?" asked Vandiya Devan.
"What is so surprising about it? Tonight, several dignitaries from various places are going there.
Lord Pazluvoor and his retainers are also going there."
"Is that true?" said a surprised Vandiya Devan.
"Yes, it is true. The elephant, the horses, liveried footmen, and other honors were from
Kadamboor. They came to receive Lord Pazluvoor; all such protocols are always observed
wherever he goes."
Vandiya Devan became thoughtful. The opportunity to stay in the same lodgings as Lord
Pazluvoor was not easy to come by. He may even chance to make the acquaintance of that
esteemed warrior. However, the experience with the unruly retainers of that Lord still rankled
Azlvar-adiyan interrupted these thoughts in a begging voice, "Thambi, will you do me a favor?"
"How can I help you? I am new to these parts."
"It is a task that is possible for you. Take me along to Kadamboor Fort tonight."
"Why? Is some fanatic Saiva coming there? Are you going to debate about the greatness of Shiva
and Thirumal to conclude who is the greater God?"
"No. No. Did you think that getting into arguments was my only occupation? Tonight, there will
be a lavish banquet at Kadamboor. After the feasting there would be several entertainments:
music, pantomimes, miracle plays, gypsy dancers and mystic oracles. I wish to see the gypsy
dance and hear the oracle."
"Even then, how can I take you along?"
"Say that I am your servant."
Vandiya Devan felt that his earlier doubts were confirmed. "Find someone else for such
deception and fraud. I do not need a servant like you. Anyway no one will believe it; from what
you say, I doubt if they would even let me into the fort tonight."
"Aha! That means you are not going to Kadamboor upon invitation!"
"Well, I have an invitation of sorts. Kandamaran, the son of Lord Sambuvaraya, is my close
friend. He has invited me several times to come and stay at his palace if I come to these parts."
"Is that all! Then even your situation is kind of doubtful tonight!"
Both kept walking onwards, silently, for a while. "Why are you still following me?" asked
"I was about to ask you the same question. why are you following me? Why don't you go your
"Well, it is because of not knowing which way to go. Where are you going? Perhaps to
"No. You said you cannot take me there. I am going to the Vinnagara temple."
"To the presence of the deity Veera-Narayana-perumal?"
"I too would like to go to that temple and worship that perumal."
"I thought that you would perhaps not come to a Vishnu temple. It is a temple that should be
seen; a deity worthy to behold. The priest Eshwara Munigal offers services at the temple. He is a
"I too have heard this. But it is very crowded. Is there some special celebration at the temple
"Yes, today is the day of the Saint Andal. It is also the Aadi Festival of Padhinettam Perukku. All
these festivities are because of this. Thambi, have you heard any of the invocative poems of
"I have not heard any."
"Don't. Don't ever listen to her poems!"
"Why this hatred?"
"It is not hatred. Nor is it enmity. It is for your benefit that I say it. If you ever happen to hear any
of the melodious hymns of Andal, you will drop your swords and spears; like me, you too will
fall in love with Kannan and start upon a pilgrimage to all the Vishnu temples."
"Do you know any of these hymns of Andal? Can you sing them?"
"I know some. I also know some of the poems of Nammazlvar who translated the Vedas
(scriptures) into Tamil. I am going to sing some of them at the shrine. If you wish, you can listen.
Here comes the temple." By now they had reached the Vinnagara temple.
Paranthaka Chozla I, a grandson of Vijayala Chozla, had won the title Conqueror of Madurai and
Lanka. He was the monarch who established the foundations of the Chozla Empire. He achieved
historical fame because he covered the roof of the temple at Chidambaram with gold. Besides
titles like Jewel among Chozlas, Greatest of Warriors, he also had the honored name of Veera
During Paranthaka's times, the Rashtrakutas in the north were powerful monarchs. He expected
them to come from Manyaketa (present day Maharashtra / Karnataka) and invade the territories
of the Tamils. Therefore, he stationed a huge army, led by his eldest son Prince Raja-aditya, in
the Thiru-Munaipadi Territories north of the Cauvery.
Prince Raja-aditya had a brilliant idea while his large numbers of soldiers waited in idleness, with
nothing to do. Using them he wished to fulfil a major undertaking for the benefit of the
population. Enormous quantities of flood waters flowing in the Kollidam river were going
wastefully into the sea. Wishing to make use of these waters, he made his soldiers build a huge,
spreading reservoir. In honor of his distinguished father, he named it the Veera Narayana Lake.
He then established the town of Veera-Narayana-Puram on its shores and also built a Vinnagara
The Sanskrit term Vishnu Griha meaning Abode of Vishnu, became Vinnagara in Tamil. Does
not Sri Narayana, i.e., Vishnu recline upon the primeval waters in sublime meditation? Therefore,
it was customary in those days to build Vinnagaras on lake shores so that the deity would protect
the reservoir. Therefore, the Prince constructed a temple for Veera-Narayana at Veera-NarayanaPuram.
It was to this temple that Vandiya Devan went in Azlvar-adiyan's company. At the sanctum
sanctorum Azlvar-adiyan began singing. He sang a few devotional poems by Andal. He then sang
a few verses of Nammazlvar:
Praise, praise, praise the Lord,
Gone is the curse of this wretched life;
There is nothing left here for Lord Yama,
Who created the hells of despair and death;
These creatures of the ocean-colored Lord,
Reckoned on this earth, the sorrows of these times;
See, they have come to worship him,
Serve him with dance and song;
We saw, we saw, we saw,
We saw things pleasing to the eye;
Come, Come all ye worshippers!
Come adore him, come here to salvation;
Follow the path of these souls dear to Lord Madhava,
Live on this earth with dance and song of his glory.
When Azlvar-adiyan sang these songs, tears overflowed from his eyes and streamed down his
cheeks. Vandiya Devan listened attentively. Though tears did not stream from his eyes, he was
very moved. His biased opinions about Azlvar-adiyan were somewhat transformed. This fellow is
very devout, he thought.
Several others listened to the songs with interest. The temple trustees came to listen. The priest
Eshwara Munigal heard them with tear laden eyes. The priest's son, a mere child, stood nearby
and listened with rapt attention. Azlvar-adiyan sang ten such poems and then stopped with these
These be merely parts
Of Thennan Gurukoor Maran Sadagopan's
numbering one-thousand and twenty
which would melt any devout heart.
The priest's son whispered something into his father’s ears. Wiping his tear-laden eyes the priest
came forward to ask, "Sir, it is said that Gurukoor Sadagopa known as Nammazlvar has sung
more than thousand such poems. Do you know them all?"
"I do not have that fortune. I know just a few of his ten-liners," replied Azlvar-adiyan Nambi.
"I entreat you to teach this child all the songs you know," requested the priest.
In later years this town was to attain several honors. The boy with the childlike face shining with
devotion would grow up to be known as Naadamuni Adigal the foremost of Vaishnava teachers.
He would go to Gurukoor, the blessed town from where Nammazlvar hailed; search and collect
all thousand poems; set them to music; sing them and along with his disciples popularize those
songs all over the country. Alavandar who would be born as the grandson of Nadamuni Adigal
would perform several miracles.
Even the great Saint Sri Ramanuja himself would come to visit this hallowed place of their birth.
When he comes, he will be amazed by the Veera Narayana Lake and its seventy-four irrigationgates. He would wish to establish seventy-four monastic seats to spread the holy word of Lord
Narayana's grace and benevolence to all the populace in the same fashion that the reservoir
distributed its bountiful waters through seventy-four irrigation canals for the welfare of the
people. Later seventy-four such monastic-teaching-seats or pitams would be established.
Let us leave it to scholars to describe all these magnificent happenings of Vaishnava history and
return to our hero Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan.
When they came outside the temple after their worship, Vandiya Devan said "Sir, Mr. Nambi! I
did not realize that you were such a devout and learned person. If I had annoyed you with my
impudence, please forgive me."
"I forgive you Thambi. Say, will you now do me a favor?"
"Did I not say that I cannot help you on your request? Did you also not agree?"
"This is something else. I will give you a small note. If you stay at Kadamboor Fort, you must
find an appropriate time to give it to someone."
"To the person who was in the closed palanquin behind Lord Pazluvoor's elephant."
"Mr. Nambi! Whom do you take me to be? Am I the fellow for such activities? If anyone but you
had uttered such words to me ..."
"Thambi! Don't be agitated. If it is not possible you can let it be. Go your way. However, if you
help me in this matter, my help might be useful to you at some later time. There is no harm done.
You can go."
After this Vandiya Devan did not tarry any longer. He jumped on his horse and sent it galloping
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 4 -- Kadamboor Fort
The horse had by now rested well and become quite energetic. Within a few hours it reached the
gates of Kadamboor. Lord Sengannan Sambuvaraya was an important Chozla nobleman in those
days. His castle gates resembled the entrance of a large city-stronghold. The towering walls on
both sides of the gate curved around like a fortress.
A number of elephants, horses, large bullocks as well as grooms to hold, feed and water these
animals stood near the gates. Here and there men stood with flaming torches to provide light; oil
pourers were ready to add oil to the lighted torches. Sighting all these bustling activities, Vandiya
Devan felt a bit dismayed and hesitant. Something special seems to be taking place here; why
have I come here now ... At the same time, he felt an overpowering urge to find out what the
special occasion was. The fortress gates were wide open although men holding long lances stood
near the gates. They looked like the messengers of Yama, the Lord of Death.
The dauntless youth decided that the best thing to do would be to ride boldly and go in; any
hesitation on his part would alert the guards to stop him. He translated his thoughts into action.
But what a disappointment?! As soon as the horse neared the gates, lances crossed in front to
obstruct the way and stop him. Four men came forward and held onto the horse's reins. One of
them peered at Vandiya Devan. Another held up the flaming torch to light his face.
With anger darkening his face, Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan asked "Is this customary in your
town? Stopping guests at your gates ...?"
"Who are you? Impudent fellow. Where do you come from?"
"Are you asking me my name and town? Thiru-Vallam in the Vaanakapadi Kingdom is my town.
Once upon a time, soldiers in your country were proud to tattoo the names of my ancestors on
their breasts. My name is Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan! Do you know?"
"Why did you not bring a liveried herald to announce all this?" said the gate-keeper. Others
around him laughed.
"Whoever you are, you cannot enter! All the expected guests have already arrived. The Master's
orders are to not let in anyone after that," said their leader.
Hearing this altercation, some footmen who were standing nearby came closer. "Hey! Is this not
the same mule that we chased into the festival crowd?" said one of them.
"Donkey, not mule," corrected another. "Look at the starched-up fellow sitting on his donkey,"
Vallavarayan heard these words. He had been thinking, why get involved? Perhaps I should go
away quietly. Maybe I should show the token bearing the seal of Prince Aditya Karikala and then
go in. When I have the signet of the Prince, the Commander-in Chief of the Northern Armies,
none in the regions between River Pennar and Cape Comorin can impede my way. It was in the
midst of these ponderings that he heard the mocking words of the Pazluvoor lackeys.
Immediately deciding his course of action, he said "Let go of my horse. I am going back."
The gate-keepers let go of the reins. Vandiya Devan employed both his legs to apply a sudden
pressure to the underbelly of his horse. At the same time, he drew his sword from its scabbard at
his waist. The swirling sword flashing like swift lightning in his hand appeared like God Vishnu's
spinning Chakra (discus). The horse galloped forward into the fortress. The men in the way
seemed to suddenly fall down. Lances and spears were thrown apart, clanging noisily. The horse
flew amidst the gossiping men of Pazluvoor. The totally unexpected, lightning attack scattered
the men in all four directions.
Several other actions took place immediately: The fortress gates banged shut thunderingly.
"Catch him! Hold!" shouts arose; spears rubbed against swords making a "clang, clang" noise.
Suddenly the drums announcing danger, boomed "dadam, dadadam". Several men -- maybe
twenty, thirty, fifty or even more -- surrounded Vandiya Devan and his horse. He jumped down
to the ground; swirling his sword in all directions he shouted "Kandamara! Kandamara! Your
men are killing me!"
Hearing his words, the men were stunned into hesitation and moved away a little.
At the same time a thundering voice was heard from the upper balcony of the palace tower.
"What is that noise out there? Stop it!" Several persons were standing there, looking down on the
"Master! Some fellow has broken our guard and entered here. He is shouting the young master's
name," replied the gate-keeper. "Kandamara, go find out what the commotion is about," said the
thundering voice from the tower. Vandiya Devan surmised the voice to be that of Lord
He and the men surrounding him waited for a while. "What is all this about?" a young voice said.
The men parted to make way for a youth coming hurriedly. He noticed Vandiya Devan who
stood there twirling his sword, like God Muruga after killing the Demon Soora.
"Vallava! Is it truly you?" he said in an emotional voice and ran forward to heartily embrace his
friend. "Kandamara because you repeatedly insisted, I came to your house. I received this warlike
welcome here," Vallavarayan pointed to the men around him.
Kandamaran said to his men, "You idiots! Move aside. Your brains are like budding shoots on a
Kandamaran took hold of his friend's hand and led him hastily into the castle. His feet did not
stay put on earth; and his heart danced with joy. What can captivate the heart of a youth more
than a true friendship from his youthful days? Yes, of course there is a thing called kaadal (love).
But being in love has as much sadness and pain as joy and pleasure. In the cheerful friendship of
youth there is not even a shadow of sadness. All is heart pleasing happiness.
"Kandamara, what is all this hustle and bustle about? What is happening here today?" asked
"Oh! I'll explain what's happening here afterwards. Remember the days when you and I were at
the army garrison near the Pennar river? Remember your wishes `We must meet Lord Pazluvoor,
I must get the acquaintance of the great Lord of Mazluvoor, I must meet that one and this one'?
That lord, this lord, every fellow - you can meet them all here tonight," said Kandamaran.
He then took his friend up to the upper chambers where the guests were seated. He presented him
to his father Lord Sambuvaraya and said "Father! I have mentioned several times about my friend
Vandiya Devan of the Vaanar Clan. This is he." Vandiya Devan bowed and greeted him with
reverence. However, Lord Sambuvaraya did not seem too happy about it.
"Is that so? Is he the fellow who created all that disturbance at the palace gates below?" asked the
"He was not the cause for the disturbance. It's those idiots we have for gate-keepers," said the
"Still, he need not have arrived in this sensational manner; today of all days and that too hours
after darkness," said lord Sambuvaraya.
Kandamaran frowned. He did not wish to continue the debate with his father. He led Vandiya
Devan aside. He presented his friend to Lord Pazluvoor, seated on a lofty throne amidst the other
guests, and said "Uncle! This is my dear friend Vandiya Devan. He is from the noble Vaanar
clan. He and I were on guard duty at the army base north of the Pennar river. In those days he
would often express a wish to `See and meet the bravest among warriors, the great Lord of
Pazluvoor' and would often ask `Is it really true that he has sixty-four war-wounds on his body?' I
would tell him `One day you can meet him and count them'."
"Is that so Thambi? Will you not believe it unless you personally count them? Such distrust?
You suspect that none but one of the Vaanar clan can be brave?" said Lord Pazluvoor.
Both friends were startled. They had not expected the nobleman to thus misconstrue their words
of praise. Vandiya Devan felt irritated. Without showing his feelings he said "Sir! The fame of
the brave Pazluvoor clan has spread from Cape Kumari to the Himalayas. Who am I to doubt it?"
"Good reply. Intelligent fellow" muttered Lord Pazluvoor.
With a feeling of having escaped with that, the friends went out. Lord Sambuvaraya called out to
his son and whispered, "Serve your friend some food as early as possible and tell him to go and
sleep in some secluded spot. He seems tired after a long journey!" Kandamaran shook his head
angrily and walked on.
Later Kandamaran took his friend to the inner chambers of his mother. Several women were
gathered there. Vandiya Devan bowed low and greeted Kandamaran's mother. He surmised that
a girl hiding shyly behind her was Kandamaran's sister. He had imagined all sorts of things based
upon Kandamaran's descriptions of his younger sister. In a way, he was now disappointed. His
eyes searched around among those women, with an eagerness to find the lady who had come in
the palanquin with Lord Pazluvoor.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 5 -- The Gypsy Dance
Both friends came out from the inner chambers. A voice from inside called out, "Kandamara!
"My mother is calling me. Wait right here. I'll be back instantly," said Kandamaran as he went
inside once again. The voices of several women talking all at once, the sound of questions being
asked one upon the other and Kandamaran answering them with some confusion could be heard.
He also heard the women inside laughing gaily. The thought that they were perhaps laughing at
him caused some shame and anger in Vandiya Devan. When Kandamaran came out, he took hold
of his friend's hand and dragged him onwards saying, "Come let us look around our palace."
He showed him all the beautiful moonlit terraces, music rooms, dance halls, storage rooms, wellfurnished chambers, living quarters, audience halls, turrets, towers, stables and other places. After
a while Vandiya Devan asked, "Kandamara, you made me wait outside your mother's chambers
and went in again. At that time what was so special to provoke the laughter and joy inside? Were
the women so happy to see me, your friend?"
"They were all very happy to meet you. In fact, my mother and others liked you a lot. But they
were not laughing about you..."
"Then why the laughter?"
"You know the Lord of Pazluvoor? At this age, after all these years he has recently married a
very young girl. He has brought her here in a covered palanquin. Apparently, he has kept her
locked up in his own chambers without sending her to the inner apartments in the palace. One of
the maids who saw the girl by peeping in through the window, came and described her beauty.
That is the cause for the laughter. They were discussing if she was a Singhala girl, a Kalinga lady
or perhaps a maiden from Chera Country. You know that the ancestors of the Pazluvoor clan
originally came here from the Chera country?"
"I have heard it too. Perhaps you had told me earlier. That's OK! Kandamara, how long is it since
Lord Pazluvoor married this mysterious beauty?"
"It must be less than two years. He has not left her alone for even a short while from the time he
married her! He takes his ladylove along wherever he goes; in a closed palanquin! In truth there
has been a lot of sniggering about it all over the country. Vandiya Deva, won't there be ridicule
and derision if men who are past a certain age get involved in such entanglements with women?"
"I do not think that is the reason. Kandamara, shall I tell you the real reason for the laughter?
Generally, women are envious. Don't think I am belittling the women in your family. All
womankind is like that! The women of your household are dark-colored beauties. However, Lord
Pazluvoor's beloved is rosily-fair and golden hued. That is why these women do not like her; they
are making up stories about her...!"
"Hey! What is this wonder? How do you know about her complexion? Why? Have you seen her?
Where? How did you see her? If Lord Pazluvoor knows of this, your life is not yours!"
"Kandamara, I am not afraid of all that. You know it. Moreover, I have not done anything
improper. I was watching, one among the crowd on the roadside, when Lord Pazluvoor and his
retinue went past. The elephant, horses, livery, footmen, drummers -- I believe all these were
honors sent by your family to receive him. Is that true?"
"Yes, we had sent all those accolades. So, what ...?"
"So what? Nothing. I was just comparing the reception that you accorded to Lord Pazluvoor and
the welcome given to me; nothing else ..."
Kandamaran laughed lightly, "We gave him the tribute and honor due to the official who levies
taxes. A welcome appropriate to a great warrior was given to you! Sometime, with God Muruga's
grace, when you become the son-in-law to our house, we shall give you the honors due to a
bridegroom and welcome you."
He then added, "But you were about to say something else; we were sidetracked. Oh yes! You
were saying that Lord Pazluvoor's beloved was very fair and light in color. How did you know
"Lord Pazluvoor was coming seated on the dark, huge elephant from Kadamboor Fort: like
Yama, the God of Justice seated upon a huge water-buffalo! All my thoughts were concentrated
on him. While I was building dream-empires about one day becoming famous and powerful like
him, a covered palanquin followed him. Even as I wondered about who could come in a covered
palanquin, a hand from inside parted the curtains. I could barely see the face within. The hand
and face were golden-hued. That was all I saw. From what you said just now, I realize that she
must be the beloved of Lord Pazluvoor."
"Vandiya Deva, you are a lucky fellow! It is being said that no man has glimpsed upon that
Young-Queen of Pazluvoor. You could at least see her hand and face for a second. From what
you saw, can you guess anything about the nation which gave birth to that beauty?" asked
"I did not ponder about it at that time. Now that I think of it, she is perhaps a woman from the
Kashmir country; or she is a beauty who hails from the distant lands across the sea like Java,
Kadaram (Malaya), Yavana (Greece-Rome). Maybe she is a princess from Arabia: I believe that
women in that country are hidden behind veils from birth till death."
At that moment, the sound of musical instruments could be heard somewhere nearby. Several
kinds of drums, flutes, pipes and instruments like salli, karadi, parai, udukku were being tuned
together. "What is that noise?" asked Vallavarayan.
"The Kuravai Koothu (gypsy dance) is about to begin. The drums and flutes are being tuned in
preparation. Would you like to watch the gypsy dance? Or, would you like to eat early and sleep
Vandiya Devan recalled Azlvar-adiyan mentioning the gypsy dance. "I have never seen the gypsy
dance; I must surely see it," he said.
When they walked ahead a little and turned, they could see the stage being set for the dancers.
The guests were gathering in front of the stage. The stage for the gypsy dance was set in a wide
courtyard spread with clean-white sand and situated in a spot surrounded by the palace walls and
the towering battlements of the fort. The stage was decorated with colorful drawings of cocks,
peacocks, swans and parrots. They had further decked the stage with several fragrant flower
garlands, red-rice popped white, colored millet, yellow turmeric and other powders, kunrimani
(small red berry-beads), and other vivid decorations. Tall oil-lamps and flaming torches tried to
drive the darkness away. But the swirling fragrance from smoldering frankincense and smokey
torches created a misty screen dimming the lights. The musicians sat on both sides and in front
of the stage and played their instruments with gusto. The fragrant flowers, sweet smelling incense
and the drum beats all together made Vandiya Devan feel light-headed.
After all the important guests were seated, the nine maidens who were to perform the gypsy
dance came on the stage. They wore the tight-fitting clothes and ornaments suitable for dancing;
they had bell-filled anklets on their feet; brilliant red hued flowers of the hill country, flowers
favored by the God Muruga, decorated their hairstyles. A long garland woven with such flowers
thrown upon their shoulders, seemed to bind them to each other as they stood upon the stage. In
their hands they daintily grasped beautiful parrots made of sandalwood painted a vivid green.
After greeting the audience, they began to sing and dance. They first sang a few verses in praise
of God Muruga. They sang of the brave deeds of Muruga; and they sang of his victorious spear
which killed the demons Soora-padma and Gaja-mukha and then dried up the vast ocean. They
sang of how he chose for his bride, a maid from the Tamil country, a gypsy maid from the hills
who was guarding the millet fields, even as heavenly nymphs offered prayers to marry the young
warrior-God. Their song celebrated the grace and benevolence of Velan, Murugan who bears the
spear. The lyrical songs, the fast-paced dance, the quick drum-beats, enchanting flute all in
combination bewitched those who were watching. With the following words of prayer, the dance
Let hunger and disease be destroyed;
Let enmity be routed;
Let rain and fertility increase;
Let bounty grow boundless.
The maidens stepped off the stage and moved away.
Next, a man and woman dressed as oracles -- thevar-aalan and thevar-aatti, came on stage. The
divine-man and divine-woman wore blood-red clothes. They had brilliant garlands made of
blood-red oleander flowers. They had painted their foreheads with bright red kumkum powders.
Even their lips seemed blood-red because they had chewed the betel leaf and areca-nut. Their
eyes seemed blood-shot!
The Velan Attam or oracle dance, began calmly enough. They danced by themselves and with
arms linked together. As time passed the tempo and passion increased. The divine-woman picked
up a spear from the side. The man tried to pry it from her hands; and she would not let go. The
dance became more frenzied: finally, the man leaped across the resonating stage, jumping high,
he plucked the spear from his companion. With an expression of fear on her face she moved
away behind the screens.
The divine-man now danced all by himself with more and more rapid movements. He acted the
part of the God Velan killing the demon Soora. Soora's head was chopped off repeatedly. But the
severed-head grew back again and again. Velan grew angrier and angrier as the head came back
again and again. Sparks flew from his eyes. In the end Soora fell dead. Thevar-aalan threw his
By now all musical instruments were quiet. Only the little hand-held drum, the udukku could be
heard. A priest stood near the stage fanatically beating the hand-drum. Each part of Thevaraalan's body shuddered. Those in the audience whispered to each other: "The spirit has
Soon the priest looked at the frenzied Thevar-aalan and said, "Vela! Muruga! Commander of the
Gods! Lord who killed Soora! Please reveal your divine predictions to us, your devotees."
"Ask fellow! Ask whatever you want! I will reveal all!" replied the delirious man. "Will the rains
be good? Shall we have plenty of water? Will the land be bountiful? Will our desires be
fulfilled?" asked the priest.
"The rains will be in season. The waters would be abundant. The land will be fruitful and desires
will be fulfilled! But you have not made offerings to my Mother! The Goddess desires a sacrifice.
The Mother-Goddess wants a sacrifice!" shouted the dancer in delirium.
"What sacrifice?" asked the priest.
"Will it be offered if I ask?"
"Yes, we will offer it. We shall surely offer the sacrifice."
"She wants the blood of royalty! She thirsts for the blood of a prince from a thousand-year-old
dynasty!" shouted the frenzied dancer in a horrible voice.
The dignitaries seated in front of the stage -- Lord Pazluvoor, Lord of Mazluvoor, Lord
Sambuvaraya and others, they looked at each other. Their eyes seemed to talk a secret language.
Lord Sambuvaraya seemed to make a sign to the priest.
The priest stopped beating his hand-drum. The dancer dropped upon the stage like a felled tree.
The woman dancer ran in to help him out. The audience dispersed silently. Somewhere outside,
the howling of wolves could be heard.
Vandiya Devan, who had been watching all this with some worry, looked towards the direction in
which the howling wolves were heard. There, atop the outer ramparts of the fortress, he saw a
It was Azlvar-adiyan's head. For a second, he was subject to a horrifying feeling. It appeared as if
the severed head of Azlvar-adiyan had been placed upon those walls. He blinked his eyelids to
look again: the head was no longer there! He felt ashamed about the worthless fear that had taken
hold of him. Several other emotions beyond his experience seemed to agitate his thoughts. ***
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 6 -- Midnight Meeting
After the gypsy dance and the oracle dance, there was a lavish feast for the guests. Vallavarayan
Vandiya Devan could not enjoy the banquet. His body was tired and his mind was agitated. His
friend Kandamaran, seated next to him, pointed out the several dignitaries with pride.
Besides Lord Pazluvoor and Lord Sambuvaraya, there was Thennavan Mazlava-raya Lord of
Mazlapadi Mazluvoor; The Elder and largest land-holder of Kunratoor had come; then there was
triple-crowned Pallava-raya. The Lords Thanthongi Kalinga-raya, Vanangamudi Munai-raya,
Deva-senapati Poova-raya; that fearless lion, Lord Muthu-raya, double-canopied Raajali, and the
chief land-holder of Kolli Hills -- all these men were there at the banquet. Kandamaran whispered
their names into Vandiya Devan's ears and pointed them out discretely.
These dignitaries were not ordinary men; nor was it common to see them all assembled together
in one place like this. Each of them was a territorial chieftain; or they had earned the distinction
of territorial chieftains because of their bravery. In those days, the title araya or raya which was
derived from the Sanskrit word raja or Tamil word arasa (meaning king) denoted nobility or
royalty. Territorial chieftains and noblemen of equal rank were entitled to add the suffix rayan or
arayan to their names. They were also called by the name of their town with the added title. (In
fact, our hero Vandiya Devan bore the name Vallava-rayan because he was born in the noble
family of Vallam.)
But these chieftains did not bear their titles merely because of their noble birth and thereby enjoy
the comforts and indulgence of palace life. Only those men who were able-bodied and brave
enough to enter the battle-field could safeguard their titles and territories. Therefore, each of
these men had not only participated in several campaigns but they also bore the wounds of such
warfare on their bodies. Now, all these men governed their territories or kingdoms under the
suzerainty of Emperor Sundara Chozla of Pazlayarai. Many of them were important officials of
the Chozla government.
Normally, Vandiya Devan would have felt immense elation at having seen all these noblemen in
the same place. However, he felt no joy about it. Why have all these men gathered together here?
The question occurred to him again and again. All sorts of garbled doubts filled his mind.
With his mind filled with such confusion, he sought his bed in the isolated spot readied by
Kandamaran for him. Because the palace was hosting several important dignitaries, a tiny,
covered terrace was allotted to him as a bed-chamber.
"You seem to be very tired. Lie down and sleep well. I will take care of the other guests and later
come to sleep in this terrace itself," said Kandamaran before going away.
As soon as he lay down, sleep swirled into Vandiya Devan's eyes. Nitra Devi, the Goddess of
Sleep took hold of him completely. But what use? There is Mind which cannot be conquered
even by the Goddess of Sleep! Even though his body remained still and his eyes stayed tightly
shut, thoughts buried deep in the mind blossomed into dreams. Several meaningless incidents,
happenings beyond reason took place in that dream world.
Somewhere in the distance a lone wolf howled. One wolf became ten wolves; hundred wolves;
they all howled together. While howling they came nearer and nearer and nearer. In that pitch
darkness their eyes burned like tiny embers. They came closer and closer. Vandiya Devan tried to
turn around and run away to escape. But on the other side there were tens, hundreds, no
thousands of dogs -- barking loudly, rushing towards him. The eyes of those hunting dogs glowed
like embers. What will happen to me if I am caught in between these mad dogs and wolves?
thought Vandiya Devan and shivered.
Luckily there was a temple right in front. He ran into the temple and pulled the door shut, bolting
it hurriedly. When he looked around it seemed to be a temple of the Mother Goddess. A statue of
Kali stood there with a horrible face and tongue hanging out. A priest rose from behind the
statue. He held a terrible machete in his hands. "Oh! You have come," he said as he came closer
"What is the history of your noble family? For how many generations have your clansmen ruled
their kingdom? Tell the truth!" said the priest.
"The Vallava Rayas of the Vaanar family had ruled for three hundred years. During my father's
times we lost all our lands to the Vaithumba kings," replied Vandiya Devan. "Then you are not
the right sacrifice. Run away," said the priest with disgust.
Suddenly Kali turned into a statue of Krishna! Two delightful maidens came in, singing the
hymns of Saint Andal and danced with abandon in front of the statue. While he was enchanted
with these sights, he heard the song "We saw, we saw, we saw things pleasing to the eye," behind
him. Turning around he saw Azlvar-adiyan Nambi. Yes, it was him singing. Oh no. Not him; it
was just his head that sang. The severed head was placed on the sacrificial alter!
Unable to bear this sight, Vandiya Devan turned away. Upon turning, he banged his head upon
the pillar. The dream melted away. Eyes opened. But he saw a sight that seemed to mix reality
In a spot directly in front of his terrace, he could see the fortress walls of Kadamboor palace; he
could see a head on top of these walls. It was the head of that very same Azlvar-adiyan Nambi.
This time he realized that it was neither a dream nor a hallucination. Because, however long he
stared at it, the head remained there. It was not merely a head, there was a body behind it. He
could easily detect both hands of Azlvar-adiyan holding on to the wall. In addition, the fellow
was staring rather intensely at something below, inside the wall.
What is he looking at so earnestly, inside there? ... There is some kind of deception and intrigue
in this. Azlvar-adiyan could not have come here with good intentions. He must have come here
with vile plans to perform some evil deed. Is it not my duty, being Kandamaran's dearest friend,
to stop this wickedness? How can I sleep in idleness without guarding the house of these folks
who have fed and housed me tonight? Vallavarayan jumped up. He picked up a knife in its sheath
lying on his side and stuck it in his waist-band. He walked towards the direction in which he saw
Remember, he was sleeping in a corner of the upper terrace? From there as he walked towards
the outer walls of the palace, he had to go around several turrets, pillars and decorative rooftops.
After walking on for a while he suddenly heard the sound of voices talking somewhere nearby.
He hesitated. Hiding himself behind a pillar he peeped down below.
In a narrow courtyard enclosed by tall walls he saw about ten or twelve men seated comfortably.
The towering walls hid the rising moonlight. However, an iron oil-lamp buried in the wall gave
some light. All the men seated there were the dignitaries he had met at the banquet earlier; the
chieftains and elder officials of the Chozla Empire.
They must have gathered in this midnight conference to discuss some important matter. Azlvaradiyan must be trying to spy upon what they were saying and doing, by hanging on the outer
walls. There is no doubt about the fact that Azlvar-adiyan is a very shrewd and clever fellow.
From where he was positioned on the wall, Azlvar-adiyan could more or less see all the men
seated in conference below. He could hear their talk very well. But the men seated there could not
see Azlvar-adiyan. The courtyard and palace wall were situated in that fashion! Somehow, the
fellow had chanced upon such a perfect spot.
Capable fellow. No doubt! But all his cleverness will not work with this Vandiya Devan of the
Vaanar clan. Somehow, I must get hold of that masquerading Vaishnava fanatic .... but if I am to
catch him, I cannot do so without attracting the attention of the men assembled below. I have to
cross the courtyard before I can reach those walls. There may be some danger in crossing the
courtyard in full view of those men.
He recalled the words of Sambuvaraya saying "He need not have come here, today of all days."
These men are gathered here to discuss something important. It is clear that they do not want
anyone to know what their discussions are about. In such a situation if they suddenly see me, they
will start suspecting me. By the time I explain about Azlvar-adiyan he would have jumped off the
wall and escaped. All that will remain is the doubt about me. If they ask, "Why did you, who
were supposed to be sleeping, come here?" what can I reply? I will definitely put Kandamaran in
a delicate position. There! Even Kandamaran is part of this meeting; he is seated at the back. If I
ask him in the morning, I can know all.
As these thoughts ran through his mind, Vandiya Devan saw a covered palanquin resting in one
corner of the courtyard below him. Is this not the same palanquin that came behind Lord
Pazluvoor and his elephant? That lady who was in it, who parted the curtains to peep outside, I
wonder where she is now. I believe the old man did not even send her to the women's apartments.
This is the predicament if somewhat older men marry very young girls. Suspicion drains their
very life. They cannot bear to be parted from their young wives even for one moment! Perhaps
even now, Pazluvoor's Young-Queen is in this palanquin! Goodness gracious! Look at the fate of
this great warrior! At this age, he is enslaved by a slip of a girl and is on tender-hooks. She is not
all that great a Rathi, Menaka or Ramba (heavenly beauties).
No, Vandiya Devan had not forgotten the feeling of distaste which he experienced when he had
seen her by the roadside. I wonder what this brave Lord Pazluvoor sees in her? More surprising
is this Azlvar-adiyan's madness. Maybe he is waiting on that wall because this palanquin is here.
What is the relationship between him and her? How can I know? Perhaps she is his sister; or
maybe his sweetheart. Maybe Lord Pazluvoor forcefully abducted her. He is capable of doing
such things. Maybe this fellow is wandering around trying to find an opportunity to meet her and
talk to her. Why should I bother about all this? Let me go back to sleep, thought Vandiya Devan.
Just as he made this decision, he heard his name being uttered down below. Immediately he
began to listen with some interest.
"That fellow who came in saying that he was a friend of your son? Where is he sleeping? He
should not hear anything that we utter here. Remember that he serves the Commander-in-Chief of
the Northern Armies. Till all our plans are complete and the time for action arrives, no one should
know about our plans. Even if there is the slightest suspicion that this fellow knows something,
he must not be let outside this fortress. Indeed, it would be better to put a complete end to his
Our readers can guess how Vandiya Devan felt upon hearing these words. But he did not move
away from the spot. He made up his mind to listen to all their talk.
Who was the Northern Commander-in-Chief? It was none other than the eldest son of Emperor
Sundara Chozla. None other than the Crown Prince, next in line for the throne. Why should these
fellows object to my serving that Prince? What is it that they are planning that must be kept secret
from the Prince?'
At that moment Kandamaran intervened for his friend: "Vandiya Devan is sleeping peacefully in
the corner terrace. He cannot hear the discussions in this meeting. He will not interfere in things
that do not concern him. Even if he hears something he will not hinder your plans in any way. I
will be responsible for that."
"I am happy that you trust him so much. But none of us know of him or his credentials. That is
why I warned you. What we are going to discuss now is about the rights of succession to a large
empire. Even if one whisper gets out because of carelessness it may lead to severe consequences.
All of you must remember this," said Lord Pazluvoor.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 7 -- Laughter And Hatred
Vandiya Devan made up his mind as soon as he heard the words `Right to the empire' uttered by
Lord Pazluvoor. What are these men going to say about the rights to succession? Who are they to
discuss it? I must definitely find out what is happening here. I better sit right here; there cannot
be a more convenient hiding spot. Let the Nambi go do what he wants. Why should I bother
Vandiya Devan had surmised earlier that something mysterious was taking place in that palace.
The cryptic words of Azlvar-adiyan, the arrogant behavior of the gate-keepers, the frightening
words of the frenzied soothsayer -- all these had raised several doubts. Here was an opportunity
to clear all those apprehensions! Why not utilize the heaven-sent chance?
Well! Even Kandamaran, who I considered a dear friend, has not told the truth. He sent me to bed
and has come to this secret midnight-meeting. I must not let him off easily tomorrow!
By now, Lord Pazluvoor had started talking. Vandiya Devan listened carefully. "I am here to
announce a very grave news to you all. That is why Sambuvaraya has convened this meeting.
Right now, the health of Emperor Sundara Chozla, is cause for great concern. I have secretly
asked the palace Doctors: they have said `There is not much hope now. He is not likely to live
much longer.' Therefore, we have to decide upon the next course of action." So said Lord
"What have the astrologers said?" asked one of the men.
Another replied "Why ask the astrologers? Hasn't the long-tailed comet been appearing in the
evening skies for several days? Is that not enough?"
Lord Pazluvoor replied to this: "We have consulted the astrologers also. They postpone the time a
little. That is all. Anyway, we have to now think about who is eligible to succeed to the throne ..."
"What is left to think about now? Was not Aditya Karikala coronated as the Crown Prince two
years ago itself?" declared a hoarse voice.
"True. But I would like to know if any one of us was consulted before the coronation took place.
Each one of us gathered here belongs to well established clans that have strived for more than a
hundred years, for more than four generations, to acquire the eminence of this Chozla Empire.
My great-grandfather died in the battle of Thiru Puram-biyam. My grandfather lost his life during
the war in Vellur. My father sacrificed his life at Thakkolam. In a similar fashion, ancestors to
each of you have given their lives to establish the greatness of this Chozla Empire. Young men
from our families have died in the battlefield. Even today, sons from our family and clan are
engaged in warfare in Lanka. But the Emperor did not consult our opinion for the decision about
a successor to the throne. Even Emperor Dasaratha of the Epic convened an assembly of his
advisors before deciding to crown Lord Rama as the Crown Prince; he consulted his ministers,
advisors, army commanders and chieftains under him. But our Sundara Chozla did not consider
it necessary to consult anyone ..."
"It is correct to say that he did not consult any of us. However, it is not accurate when the Lord of
Taxes says that the emperor did not consult anyone! The opinions of the Elder Pirati Sembiyan
Madevi and that of the Younger Pirati Kundavai Devi were asked for. Can Lord Pazluvoor deny
this?" When a member asked this in a mocking voice, some others of the group laughed.
"Well! You all laugh! I do not know how you can think of laughter. My very heart burns when I
think of it; my blood boils. I wonder why I should safeguard my life and live without any sense
of shame. The soothsayer who danced in frenzy said that the Goddess is asking for a sacrifice. He
asked for a human sacrifice; of a prince from a thousand-year-old dynasty. Give me up as the
sacrifice. My family is more ancient than a thousand years. With a blow across my throat, each of
you with your swords offer me as the sacrifice. The Mother Goddess will be satisfied; my soul
will be satisfied."
Lord Pazluvoor spoke the above words with as much rage as the frenzied soothsaying-dancer.
Silence prevailed for a short while. The whistling of the western breeze and the whispering of the
trees near the wall were the only sounds.
"I beg for the patience and forgiveness of the Pazluvoor King for having uttered some words in
ignorance and the thoughtless laughter that followed. You are our leader without any equal. We
here, are all ready to carry out any of your commands. We will walk in the path you direct us.
Please grant forgiveness," spoke an emotional Sambuvaraya.
"I too lost my composure. You should forgive me. Think of one thing. Two hundred years before
today, Vijayala Chozla broke the power of the Muthuaraya kings and captured Tanjavur. During
the battle of Thiru-Puram-biyam, he helped the Pallava army and destroyed the legions of
Madurai Pandiya. From that moment, the Chozla Kingdom has been growing and expanding dayby-day. The Chozla's had not acquired this greatness even during the times of historic Karikala
Valava who built the embankments for the Cauvery. Today, the empire spreads from Cape
Comorin in the south to the Thungabadra-Krishna rivers in the north. The Pandiya Kingdom,
Nanjil Kingdom, the Chera Kingdom which has not been subjugated by anyone so far, Thondai
Territories, Paagi, Gangapadi, Nulampadi, Vaithumba Territories, the Chitpuli nation, Bana
lands, Kudagu Hill Territories where river Ponni rises, -- all these lands are now under Chozla
control and are paying tribute. The Chozla tiger-flag flies in all these countries. By now, even
Lanka in the south as well as Vengi and Rashtrakuta in the north should have come under our
sway. I do not have to give you the reasons for them not being vanquished; you know the reasons
Lord Mazluvoor intervened: "Yes. All of us know the reason. There are two reasons for Lanka,
Vengi, Kalinga and Rashtrakuta not coming under our suzerainty. One cause is the Northern
Commander-in-Chief, Prince Aditya Karikala; the other is the Commander of the Southern
Armies, Arulmozli Varma."
"I agree with the reasons given by Lord Mazluvoor. For the last hundred years the practice for
appointing a commander in the Chozla Kingdom was different. Brave warriors, with the
experience of several campaigns would be selected as Generals of the army and as Commandersin-Chief. But what has happened today? The elder Prince is a commander for the northern armies.
What is he doing? He is not planning campaigns against the twin territories of the Rashtrakutas or
against Vengi (modern Eluru of Andhra) in the northeast. He sits in Kanchi, building a Golden
Palace! I ask you, the bravest warriors born in the best of clans: till now, has any king in the
Tamil Nation built a Golden Palace for his own dwelling? Even the most famous Emperor
Paranthaka, who conquered Madurai and Lanka and is now in his heavenly abode, did not build
himself a Golden Palace. He merely covered the roof of the temple in Chidambaram with gold.
But Prince Aditya Karikala builds himself a Golden Palace in Kanchi, for his residence!
Apparently, the huge palaces from which great Pallava monarchs ruled their empires for several
generations, are not adequate for the prestige of our Prince! He builds a Golden Palace! He
embeds rubies and diamonds in the walls of that palace. Not a copper coin from all the treasures
captured from our campaigns in the Gangapadi, Nulampadi and Kudagu Territories has he sent
back to the treasury in the capital till now."
"Has the construction of this Golden Palace been completed?"
"Yes. My spies tell me that it has been completed. In addition, letters arrived for the Emperor
from his beloved elder son! He wants the Emperor to come and stay for a while, in that newly
constructed Golden Palace."
"Is the Emperor going to Kanchi?" asked another alarmed voice.
"You need not have any concern about that. I am there to take care that nothing like that will take
place; my brother, the Commander of Tanjavur is also there. None can enter the fort of Tanjavur
without the consent of the Younger Lord Pazluvoor. None can interview the Emperor without my
knowledge; nor can they give letters. Twice or maybe thrice, I have stopped letters that arrived
"Long life to Lord Pazluvoor! Hail the Chanakian political astuteness of the Pazluvoor king!
Long life to his bravery!" such shouts arose.
"Please listen a little longer! Much more than the deeds of the Crown Prince, the activities of
Prince Arulmozli Varma who has gone to Lanka are peculiar. What do we know of the rules of
warfare? For generations and over several hundreds of years, what policy have our ancestors
followed? If our armies invade enemy territories, the food supplies and payments for our armies
have to be procured from those enemy lands. The wealth to pay our army must be captured in
those enemy regions. Excess treasures should be sent back to the government treasury in the
capital city ... But do you know what Prince Arulmozli is doing? He wants food supplies to be
sent from here, by ships, to feed our soldiers in Lanka! For the last one year, ten times, I have
sent such shiploads of supplies."
"Most unusual and peculiar! We cannot tolerate such illegalities! Never heard of such behavior!"
rose several voices.
"Listen to the reasoning of Prince Arulmozli for this peculiar behavior. If we try to procure
supplies for our armies from the territories we invade, we would cause a lot of inconvenience to
the civilians and gain the displeasure of the farmers in that land. Our dispute is with the royalty of
Lanka; not with Lankan populace. Therefore, we should not harass them in any way. After
winning our battles against their royalty, we should rule with the full approval of those people.
Therefore, the food and monies must be sent from the homeland."
Someone from the meeting intervened by saying, "We should not demand anything from the
nations we have conquered! We should fall at their feet and worship their people! I have never
heard of such conduct in warfare."
"Ask me about the consequences of such activities! Because of these undertakings of both the
Princes, the treasury and granary in the royal palace at Tanjavur often become empty! I am
compelled to levy more taxes on you and also collect tributes from all of you. Perhaps that is why
the Chozlas have appointed me as their Tax Official. If I had not considered the welfare of this
country as most important, I would have given up my positions long ago!"
"Oh no! Never! Your holding these positions gives us several assurances. Why have you not
spoken about these things to the Emperor?"
"Why not? I have personally spoken to him about it several times. Every time I am put aside with
words like, `Ask the Elder Pirati. Ask the Younger Pirati.' Remember I told you earlier, the
Emperor has lost the capability of thinking for himself. Neither does he ask our opinion on
important matters. The words of his elder aunt, the Elder Pirati Sembiyan Madevi, are gospel to
him; after that he wants me to consult with his beloved daughter the Younger Pirati Kundavai. I,
who have grown grey in the service of this nation, I, along with other ministers, have to go and
stand in the presence of that slip of a girl -- a girl who has not crossed the River Kollidam in the
north or River Kudamuruti in the south -- and then consult her opinion. How is this story? From
the days of this Chozla Kingdom being established, I have never heard of such interference from
women in the politics of the nation. How long can I tolerate such humiliation? If all of you
unanimously agree, I shall give up my official positions which trouble me to levy taxes and fill
the treasury, and go back to my own city."
"No! Never. Lord Pazluvoor should not forsake us like that. The Chozla Empire has been
established with the aid of thousands of brave men shedding their blood over four generations;
such a nation will be torn apart in confusion within a short time if he does that,” said Lord
"Well then, you should all give me your ideas about what to do in this situation. What is the
solution to this women's rule which is worse than the power of the mythical Queen Alli?" asked
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 8 -- Who Is In The Palanquin?
For a while, the men in that meeting talked and argued amongst themselves. Since several voices
were raised at the same time, Vandiya Devan could not hear anything clearly.
In a louder voice, Lord Sambuvaraya said, "Don't we have to answer the requests of the King of
Pazluvoor? What is the point of each one talking like this? It seems to be hours past midnight.
Look at the moon!"
"I have a certain doubt. Some others also, like me, may have a similar reservation. If Lord
Pazluvoor promises not to be angry, I would like to ask about it," said a hoarse voice which had
spoken once before.
"Is it Vananga-mudi Raya, who is talking? Please, let him come forward into the light," said Lord
"Yes, it is me! Here, I have come up into the light."
"It is customary for me to show all my anger in the battlefield and against my enemies. I have no
anger against friends. Therefore, please ask any question without any hesitation."
"I will surely do so. The allegations against Emperor Sundara Chozla, those very same
accusations are placed against Lord Pazluvoor by some people! I may not believe them, but I
would like some clarification," said Vananga-mudi Munai Raya.
"What are they? What charges? Please explain."
"We all know that Lord Pazluvoor married a young girl about two years ago..."
With an angry voice, Lord Sambuvaraya interrupted: "We object to such words by Munai Raya.
It is totally indecorous to ask such improper questions of our beloved leader, our chief guest."
"I request Lord Sambuvaraya to please remain patient. Let Munai Raya express his reservations
freely. It is better to voice one's opinions in the open than bury them in the mind. It is true that I
married a young girl after my fifty-fifth year. I certainly accept that. But I never declared myself
as a reincarnation of Lord Rama who vowed to have only one wife! I never said that I will wed
only one maid. I love that girl; she returned my sentiment. According to the ancient tenets of this
Tamil country, willingly, we married each other. What is wrong in that?" asked Lord Pazluvoor.
"Nothing wrong!" replied several voices.
"I never said there was anything wrong about his marriage. Who amongst us is monogamous?
But ... but ..."
"But what? Ask without reluctance."
"Some people say that in all matters Lord Pazluvoor consults and acts according to the wishes of
the Young-Queen he married recently. They say that he acts according to her direction even in
matters of the state. It is said that he takes his Young-Queen along wherever he goes."
A laugh was heard in their midst.
Lord Sambuvaraya jumped up. "Who laughed? Let him come forward and explain why he
laughed!" he roared while drawing his sword from its scabbard.
"I laughed! Don't be agitated Sambuvaraya!" said Lord Pazluvoor. He then continued, "Munai
Raya! Is it a crime to take my legally wedded wife wherever I go? It is true that I take her with
me to visit several places. But it is inaccurate to say that I consider the Young-Queen's opinion in
matters of the state. I have never done that."
"If so, I request Lord Pazluvoor to clear just one more doubt. Why has this palanquin, which
should have stayed in the women's courtyard, come here to our confidential meeting? Is there
someone inside the closed palanquin or not? If there is no one inside, how is it that I heard
somebody clearing their throat? Was it the jingle of bangles that I heard inside, a little while
When Munai Raya asked these questions, a curious silence prevailed amidst that gathering.
Since these doubts had occurred to most of them, none spoke against the words of Munai Raya.
Lord Sambuvaraya was muttering something to himself. But nothing was said.
Tearing the silence apart, in a distinct voice, Lord Pazluvoor said, "Good question. I am obligated
to give an answer. I shall clear your misgivings before we conclude our meeting. Can you wait
another half an hour? Do you have that much trust in me?"
"Yes we do. We have complete trust in you, Lord Pazluvoor," said Sambuvaraya.
"Let no one think that my reverence or loyalty to Lord Pazluvoor is less than that of anyone else.
Since he invited us to speak freely, I asked. Apart from that I am ready to obey all his orders. I
shall give up my very life if he commands it!" said Vananga-mudi Munai Raya.
"I know about Munai Raya. I also recognize the trust you have all placed in me. Therefore, let us
now come to a conclusion about the matter for which we convened this meeting. Let Emperor
Sundara Chozla Paranthaka live long in this world and rule this Chozla Empire for a long time.
However, unfortunately, if something happens to him: if the words of the palace doctors' come
true, if the omens forecast by the comet appearing in the sky come true -- we have to decide who
is eligible to succeed to the Chozla throne."
"We request that you state your opinion on this matter. There is no one here who has anything to
say against your views."
"That is not correct. Each one of you must think and then express an impartial opinion. Permit me
to recall some old history to your memories. Twenty-four years ago, King Gandara Aditya who
was a great philosopher and devout soul, died unexpectedly. When he died, his son,
Madurandaka, was a one-year-old child. The Queen-consort of Gandara Aditya, the Lady
Sembiyan Madevi, announced to us, the wishes of the King: his younger brother Arinjaya was
to accept the Chozla throne after him. Therefore, we crowned Arinjaya as the Chozla monarch.
However, fate did not decree that Arinjaya should sit on the throne for more than a year. When
Arinjaya died, his son, Paranthaka Sundara Chozla, was a youth of twenty-four. Considering the
welfare of the nation, all of us -- the ministers, advisors, territorial chieftains the heads of all the
clans and leaders of the cities and districts -- decided unanimously, and crowned Sundara Chozla.
None of us had cause to regret this. Because, until two years ago, he ruled the nation with justice;
he respected our wishes and opinions and ruled this country lawfully. Because of him the Chozla
power grew to include all neighboring nations under its sway.
"Now, the health of Sundara Chozla is cause for concern. In this situation, who is eligible to
succeed the Emperor? Madurandaka, the cherished son of King Gandara Aditya, is now grown
up; he has the intelligence, education, the character, the devotion to God, all the qualities of a
person worthy of the throne. Sundara Chozla's son, Aditya Karikala, who is younger to him by
one year, is stationed in Kanchi as a Commander-in-Chief. Who between these two has the right
to succeed to the throne? What is the code of inheritance among the clans? What is the law?
What is the ancient tradition of the Tamils? Is it justice if the elder brother's son, Madurandaka
inherits the nation? Or, is it legal for the grand-son of the younger brother to succeed? Each of
you must consider this and clearly state your decision."
"Madurandaka, the son of the elder brother Gandara Aditya has the right to succeed. That is legal,
justice, tradition," said Lord Sambuvaraya.
"I agree", "That is my opinion too," so rose several voices.
"Your convictions are mine. Madurandaka deserves the throne. However, is everyone here ready
to support and further this belief? Are you all ready to sacrifice your lives, your wealth and very
soul for this cause? This very minute, are you all ready to swear in the name of Goddess Durga
and take an oath of allegiance?" When Lord Pazluvoor asked this question his voice had a
certain harshness, not heard till then.
Silence prevailed for some time. Lord Sambuvaraya then said, "We are ready to take such an
oath of support. Before that, we need one clarification. What are the feelings of Prince
Madurandaka? Is he ready to accept the throne and rule this Empire? We have heard that the
cherished son of Gandara Aditya has forsaken the pleasures of worldly life and is fully involved
in the devotion and worship of God Shiva. Several persons have said that he has no interest in
worldly kingdoms. We have also heard that his mother, the Elder Pirati Sembiyan Madevi is
totally opposed to his ascending the throne. We wish to know the truth about this from you."
"A good point and you raised it at the correct time. I must clarify this question. I should have
explained earlier -- forgive me for not doing so," with this long introduction Lord Pazluvoor
spoke as follows: "The whole nation knows that the Lady Sembiyan Madevi discouraged her only
son from having any interest in affairs of the state and raised him as a Saiva ascetic. But neither
nation nor people know the reason behind such behavior. The Elder Pirati feared that his very
life would be in danger if her son Madurandaka had any wish to rule the empire ... "
"Aha! Is that so!"
"Yes! To any mother, the wish that the son to whom she gave birth should stay well and alive is
greater than a desire that he should sit upon the throne of the Kingdom. Young Prince
Madurandaka, who considered the words of his mother as gospel, turned his mind in the path of
devotion and asceticism. Nevertheless, for some time, his mind has slowly undergone some
transformation. `This Chozla Empire is mine; it is my duty to rule the nation!' such thoughts have
taken root and grown in his heart. If he knows that all of you are ready to support his cause, he is
ready to come forward at a suitable time and openly declare his intentions."
"What proof do we have for this?"
"I will, without delay, produce proof that will satisfy all of you. If I furnish such proof, will each
of you take an oath of allegiance to this cause?"
Several of the men said "We will! We will!"
"I hope no one has any other kind of reservation?"
"Then, I shall show proof. I shall also clear the doubts raised by Lord Vananga-mudi Munai
Raya." With this declaration, Lord Pazluvoor rose from his seat. Walking majestically, he neared
the closed palanquin.
"Prince! Please part the curtains and grace the outside with your appearance. Permit these brave
warriors, who are ready to sacrifice their very life, wealth and soul for you, to gaze upon your
face." Lord Pazluvoor spoke in a very deferential voice.
Vandiya Devan, who was sitting behind the pillar on the upper terrace and listening to all these
discussions with an overpowering curiosity, now peeped down carefully. As before, a hand
parted the curtains of the palanquin. It too was a golden hand. It seemed to be the very same fair
hand he had seen once before. But he now realized that he had surmised the golden bracelet worn
by royalty to be a bangle. A dazzling face, comparable to the full moon, could be seen the very
next instant. A handsome figure, comparable to Manmatha, the God of Love, stepped out of the
palanquin and smiled.
Aha! Is this Prince Madurandaka, son of Gandara Aditya Deva? I mistook him to be a woman? I
concluded that it must be a girl, because of the closed palanquin!? But did Azlvar-adiyan Nambi
also make the same mistake? Vandiya Devan looked around to see if Nambi was still thrusting
his head above the wall. That spot of the palace wall was now shrouded by shadows cast by the
trees. He could see nothing.
By now he heard some shouts from below. "Long Live Madurandaka! Praise the Crown-Prince
Madurandaka! Victory to our brave spears!" They were passionate outbursts. Vandiya Devan saw
that all the men in the courtyard were now standing; they held their swords and spears high up
above their heads and cheered. Thinking that it would be dangerous to remain any longer in that
spot, he turned around and hurried back to his terrace and laid himself down.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 9 -- Wayside Chitchat
Vandiya Devan had spent all his life until that day, in the dry lands north of the River Paalaar.
Consequently, he did not know how to swim in a flowing river. Once, when he was in the army
on border patrol along the banks of the North Pennar, he waded into the river for a bath. He was
caught in a swollen whirlpool. That sinister and devilish whirlpool made him go round and
round. At the same time, it dragged him downwards. Very soon the whirlpool had drained all his
strength. I cannot escape now; I have to drown in this whirlpool and die! -- just as he lost hope he
was thrown out, by God's grace. The waves threw him on the shores and saved him.
When he went back to bed that night in Kadamboor, he experienced the same feeling he had
while caught in the whirlpool. He felt that with no choosing of his own, he had fallen into the
huge whirlpool of a political conspiracy. Could he escape from this swirling treachery just as he
had escaped from that whirlpool?
The information he had gleaned from the midnight meeting at Kadamboor baffled him. The
dangers from external enemies to the Chozla Empire had been overcome only a few years ago.
Prince Aditya Karikala -- brave, expert in warfare, a veritable Chanakya in politics; with his
intelligence and optimum use of the capable Chozla armies, he routed the powers of the
Rashtrakuta monarch, King Krishna, from the Thondai lands. In a way the external enemies were
destroyed. Now, internal disruption and intrigue were raising their head. What would be the
consequence of this internal discord which is more dangerous than external strife?
Are not the important officials, ministers, chieftains and famous warriors of the Chozla nation
involved in this frightening endeavor? What kind of persons are the Lord of Pazluvoor and his
brother? What is their power? How much prestige do they have? What about the others who met
here today? They are all powerful, distinguished and eminent personalities. Is this the first
meeting of this kind? I wonder; to how many other places has the Prince been taken in a closed
palanquin by Lord Pazluvoor? Aha! The fact of being married to a young girl in his old age has
served him so usefully in this conspiracy!
Until that day, no doubt about Prince Karikala's eligibility to the Chozla throne had risen in
Vandiya Devan's mind. He had not even dreamed that a challenge would arise. Of course, he had
heard of Madurandaka, the son of King Gandara Aditya. He had heard that, like the father the son
was an ardent worshipper of God Shiva. But he had never heard anything about his rights to the
succession or that he would demand his rights. In fact, Vandiya Devan had never thought about
What is the legality, the justice? Who is truly eligible to succeed to the throne? Karikala?
Madurandaka? The more he thought about it, he felt that both sides had equal justification. If it
really comes to a confrontation, who will come out victorious? What is my duty in this situation?
Aha! I started on this journey from Kanchi while building all sorts of dream fortresses. I desired
to attain eminent positions in the Chozla Empire by pleasing the Crown Prince Karikala! I even
hoped that in due course I would regain the ancestral territories of my Vaanar clan. The very limb
that I caught hold of, to achieve all these dreams, seems ready to drop! ... Thinking of all such
things when he came to bed the second time that night, Vandiya Devan suffered with
sleeplessness for a long time. In the end, towards the late hours of the night just as the eastern
skies were turning light, he somehow went to sleep.
The next morning, Vandiya Devan did not get up even when the golden-red rays of the rising sun
fell piercingly upon him. He was jolted awake when Kandamaran came and shook his shoulders.
With the courtesy shown to any guest, Kandamaran asked, "Did you sleep well?" And then he
added, "After all my other guests had gone to sleep, I came up here and checked; you excelled in
service like Kumbakarna (a mythical hero who slept half his lifetime)!"
Stifling everything that he remembered, Vandiya Devan said, "All that I recall is coming up to
bed after the gypsy dance. I am just getting up! Oh, ho! It is already so late: it must be several
hours past sunrise. I have to start immediately. Kandamara, tell your servants to get my horse
"This is really fine! How can you leave so soon? What is the hurry? You must stay here for at
least ten days before you go on," said Kandamaran.
"No, my dear fellow! I had news that my uncle in Tanjavur was in a bad shape; his survival itself
is doubtful. I have to go quickly to see him before he is gone. I must leave immediately."
Vandiya Devan said this with total conviction, without any hesitation.
"You must then stay here for a while, at least when you go back."
"Why not? We shall think of it at that time. Permit me to leave now."
"Don't be in such a hurry. We can start after the morning meal. I shall accompany you till the
banks of River Kollidam."
"How can you do that? You have all sorts of important guests. How can you leave them and ..."
"I have no guest more important than you ..." saying this Kandamaran stopped suddenly. "Yes,
the guests are important people. But my father can take care of them. The other officials of this
palace can do that. I could not chat with you even last night. I can rest in peace only if I chitchat
with you for a little while, along the road. I shall certainly come with you till the Kollidam."
"I have no objection. Your wish. Your convenience," said Vandiya Devan.
After more than two hours, both friends mounted on two horses started from Lord Sambuvaraya's
palace. The horses cantered quite slowly. The ride was rather pleasant. The friends did not seem
to mind even the road dust sprayed upon them by the swift northern wind. They had lost
themselves in old remembrances. After some time Vandiya Devan said: "Kandamara! Even
though I spent just one night in your house, it was very useful to me. Just one disappointment.
You used to recount all sorts of things about your sister, while we were on the banks of the North
Pennar. I could not even see her properly! When she peeped from hiding behind your mother, I
could glimpse about one-eighth of her face! Your sister seems to possess a shyness and modesty
that is more than any one girl's share."
Kandamaran's lips twitched as if to say something. But no words came out.
"Still, no regrets. You have invited me to stay with you for a few days on my way back. I can
make her acquaintance at that time. By that time your younger sister may be able to overcome her
shyness about me. Kandamara, what is your sister's name?"
"Oh! What a delightful name! If her temperament and beauty are like the name..."
Kandamaran intervened and said in a forlorn voice, "My friend! I beg this one thing of you.
Please forget my sister. Please forget all that I mentioned about her to you. Do not even utter her
"What is this Kandamara? Everything seems topsy-turvy? Even last night you hinted that I may
become a son-in-law to your clan!"
"It is true that I said it. Since then, the situation has changed. My parents have arranged to wed
my young sister elsewhere. Manimekalai has also agreed."
Vandiya Devan cheered within his heart: "Long live Manimekalai." He did not have any trouble
guessing who was selected to wed Manimekalai. They must have pledged her to Madurandaka
who stepped out of the closed palanquin. They are perhaps arranging such marriage alliances in
order to gain strength for the Prince's cause. Lord Pazluvoor is a dangerous and capable
"Oh! You have contracted one of your rich guests who came last night as the bridegroom.
Kandamara, I have no surprise about this; nor am I really disappointed. In a way it was
"Expected? How is that?"
"Who would give their daughter to a destitute-orphan like me? Which maiden will agree to marry
a poor fellow who has neither house nor land. What is the use now if my ancestors had ruled
kingdoms long ago?"
"My dear friend! Enough of this, stop! Don't think so shoddily of me or my family. What you
think, is not the reason. There is something much more important. You will agree if you know of
it. But I cannot reveal the reason now. When the time comes you will know."
"Kandamara, what is this? You have been talking quite mysteriously today."
"Forgive me for that. It is a big secret that I cannot reveal even to you. Whatever happens, trust
me that nothing will come between our friendship. When it is time to reveal plans, I will run to
you and disclose all the details. Trust me until then."
"Thanks for the pledge! But what is the situation wherein you may have to forsake me? And, I
am not one to live upon my faith in somebody else. I trust my own sword and spear."
"There may be an opportunity to use that sword and that spear soon. At that time, I hope we will
fight side by side. Your dreams also may then be fulfilled."
"What is this? Are you soon expecting some war? Or, are you planning to enter the battlefields of
"To Lanka? You will be surprised if you hear the details of the ridiculous campaign in Lanka. I
believe we must supply the rice and other foodstuffs from Chozla country for the soldiers
fighting in Lanka. Shameful! I am talking about something else. Be patient for a while. I will tell
you at the right time. Don't kindle my mouth now."
"Alright. If you don't wish, don't tell me anything. Don't even open your mouth. I think I can see
the river ahead of us."
They could really see the torrents of the immense River Kollidam at the end of the road. Within a
few minutes the friends reached the river bank.
The fresh floods of the spring month filled that great river. The far side seemed very distant.
Trees on the other shore seemed like small bushes. Reddish silt laden waters, filled with rapids
and whirlpools drawing fantastic pictures, thundering joyously, celebrating with a loud roaring
sound, trying to break through the high banks on both sides, rolling and tumbling towards the
eastern sea, rushing onwards -- Vandiya Devan looked upon this sight and stood there in
A ferry boat waited near the landing wharf. Two boatmen with long poles in their hands waited
readily. One gentleman was already seated in the boat. He appeared to be of the Saiva sect.
Catching sight of the two men coming upon the bank, a boatman asked, "Sirs! Are you both
coming in this boat?"
"Yes. He will come. Wait for a while."
Both friends jumped off their horses. "I came without thinking. What can I do with this horse of
mine? Can it go in the boat?" asked Vandiya Devan.
"No need. There! Look! Two of my footmen are following us. One of them will lead your horse
back to Kadamboor. The other fellow will come with you in this boat. He will procure another
horse for you on the other shore," said Kandamaran.
"Aha! How thoughtful. You are my true friend."
"You must have thought of the Kollidam as comparable to the Paalaar and Pennar rivers. You
wouldn't have known that you cannot cross this river with a horse."
"Yes. Forgive me for under-estimating the rivers of your Chozla lands. Gosh! What a river! What
floods? It seems to roar like the ocean."
The two friends took leave of each other with a hearty embrace. Vandiya Devan walked down the
river bank and got into the boat. One of Kandamaran's footmen also climbed into the boat. The
boat was ready to leave. The boatmen thrust their long poles deep into the water.
Suddenly, from a distance they could hear shouts: "Stop! Stop the boat!" said a voice. The
boatmen hesitated without pushing their poles. The fellow who shouted came running up the
bank. With one glance, Vandiya Devan recognized him. He was Azlvar-adiyan Nambi.
Recognizing the newcomer as a follower of the Vaishnava sect, the gentleman in the boat said
"Go! Let the boat go! I will not come in the same boat as that imposter. Let him come in the next
But Vandiya Devan looked at the boatmen and said, "Wait a bit. Let him also come. There is
plenty of room in this ferry boat. Let us take him." Vandiya Devan wished to question Azlvaradiyan and learn more about the happenings of last night.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 10 -- The Astrologer Of Kudanthai
River Ponni, born and raised in the Kudagu Hills, after her childhood was past, wished to meet
the Ocean King, her chosen husband. She went swiftly, crossing hill and dale, rocky mountain
and canyon. As she came closer and closer, the joyous anticipation of meeting her beloved Lord,
the Ocean King, made her thrive and grow. She went even further. Two arms grew to embrace
the lover. Spreading her arms wide, she leaped and surged forward. Two arms were not sufficient
for her ardent enthusiasm. Her loving arms grew into ten, twenty, hundred! Stretching out all
these arms in eagerness she neared the Ocean King. She was the bride meeting her beloved.
Chozla women, her bridesmaids, dressed her in such wondrous ways. They clothed her in the
beautiful greens of rice-fields. They decorated her with colorful flowers; and showered her with
fragrant woods. How can we describe the enchanting kadamba and punnai trees on both her
banks: they covered her with pearls and rubies of flowers.
Who would not be overjoyed to cast their eyes upon you, dear Ponni? Which maid will not be
beguiled by this, your bridal attire? It is but natural that attractive young girls should gather
around you just as bridesmaids surround a ravishing bride.
One of the arms stretched out by Ponni or Cauvery, to reach out for her Lord the Ocean King, is
known by the name River Arisil. The beautiful Arisil flows to the south of and very close to
River Cauvery. One could not easily view this petite river from a little distance. The groves of
trees, growing thickly on both its banks hide the river. One could consider the Arisil as a princess
who never stepped out of the enclosed courtyards of a royal palace. There is no comparison to
this beautiful virgin river.
Let our readers forget that it is the inner courtyard of a palace and come with us to the banks of
the Arisil river. Let them enter these woody groves on its banks. Oh! What an enchanting sight
meets our eyes! It seems to add radiance to beauty; to add sweetness to nectar.
Who are these divine women, seated on the beautifully carved barge, constructed like a floating
swan? Who is the radiant jewel among women, seated in their midst, like the full moon among
twinkling stars, like a queen born to rule all seven worlds? Who is the gentle damsel seated next
to her, playing the veena (lute like instrument)? Who are these heavenly beauties coming down
the stream, mixing the pleasant melody of their music with the gurgling noises of the river?
One of them had large eyes shaped like darting fish; the other was blue eyed; yet another had a
face like the blossoming lotus; another girl had wide dark eyes shaped like the petal of a blue lily.
Ah! The girl playing the musical instrument, one could watch forever, her soft fingers dancing
over the taunt strings of the veena.
What can we say about the sweetness of the song they sang? Even the water in the river seemed
to be still as it listened to their melodious music. Even the cuckoos and parrots on the trees
listened quietly. We humans, blessed with the fortune of being able to listen, why should we not
be enchanted by their song? Let us listen to them:
Walk slowly, walk shyly,
Praise to you, dear Cauvery;
Dress yourself in beautiful clothes:
Fragrant gardens full of humming bees;
Open wide, those large dark eyes:
Dancing fish of deep dark seas;
Dancing does not melt a lover’s heart:
Like a good monarch's mace of justice;
When nightingales sing in deep woods;
And peacocks dance amidst flower groves;
Dance gently, dear Cauvery:
You disturb the garlands on Kama's shoulders.
The garlands at his waist are all asway;
What caused it? The very name of your dear Lord:
An expert spear like dart;
Walk slowly, walk shyly,
Praise to you, dear Cauvery.
Where have we heard this delightful Tamil poem? Oh yes, is it not from The Silappadikaram (an
ancient poetical work)? The poem seems even more enchanting and delightful when these maids
sing it. Perhaps they are the maids of honor in River Arisil's court? Or is this the magic of some
sorcerer? It entices every beholder.
The barge floated down gently till it stopped near a landing amidst the woods. Two maidens are
getting down. One is that dignified lady, comparable to a queen of the seven worlds; the other is
her companion who was creating the enchanting harmony while playing the veena. Though both
are beautiful, there was a difference between the two of them. One has the dignity of a lotus
blossom in full bloom. The other has the pleasantness of the night-time water lily. One is the
radiant full moon; the other is the young crescent of late evening. One is the dancing peacock; the
other is a singing nightingale. One is a queen of the Gods; her friend is Rathi, the beloved of
Cupid. She is the fast-flowing turbulent Ganga. Her companion is the gentle Cauvery.
Without further ado, without leaving our readers in further suspense, let me introduce these two
ladies. The lady with a certain dignity in her posture is Kundavai, the beloved daughter of
Emperor Sundara Chozla. She is the elder sister to Arulmozli Varma who would later attain
historic fame as Rajaraja I. She is the lady revered by the people as the young royal princess, the
Younger Pirati. A distinguished daughter of the Tamils, she laid the foundations for the greatness
of the Chozla Empire. She is the capable lady who will raise and mold the ambitions of Rajaraja's
son Rajendra and make him the greatest of monarchs in South Indian history.
Her friend is Vanathi, a noblewoman from the clan of Kodumbalur chieftains. She came to enjoy
the fortune of being a part of Kundavai's household. In the future she would attain greatness
unparalleled in history. She is now a young girl, full of modesty and a pleasant gentleness.
After both had alighted from the barge, Kundavai turned to her other companions and said, "You
can all wait here. We will be back in an hour."
All those maidens, who were her companions, were noblewomen from the households of the
aristocrats and chieftains in the Chozla nation. They had come to the Pazlayarai Palace,
considering it a fortune to be included as maids of honor to Kundavai. Now, when Kundavai
went ashore with just one girl from among them, saying, "I'll come after a while," a certain envy
and disappointment could be discerned in their eyes.
A horse drawn chariot awaited their pleasure on the shore. "Vanathi! Get into the chariot," said
Kundavai. When both were seated, the chariot moved swiftly.
"Akka! Where are we going? Can you tell me?" asked Vanathi.
"Why not? We are going to the house of the Kudanthai Astrologer," said Kundavai.
"Why are we going to an astrologer's house, Akka? What do we have to ask him?"
"What else? To ask about you! For some months now you seem to be a girl possessed, lost in
some dream world, losing weight. We are going to ask him if you will be cured of these fantasies
and become healthy once again. We are going to ask him all these things!"
"Akka! Let good fortune be showered upon you! There is nothing wrong with my health. We
don't have to ask him anything about me. Let's go back."
"No, my dear no! I am not going to ask him anything about you. I shall ask him about me!"
"What do you have to ask about yourself? What is there to ask an astrologer about yourself?"
"I am going to ask him if I would ever be married; or am I going to spend all my life a virgin
"Akka! Why ask the astrologer about it? You must ask your own heart! Just nod your gracious
head: princes from all the fifty-six kingdoms from Cape Comorin to the Himalayas would come
running, vying with each other. Why, even princes from across the seas from Yavana and
Kadaram will come. I wonder which of these princes will have the fortune of receiving your
hand. You have to determine that!"
"Vanathi, even if I accept all that you say as truth, there is one obstacle. If I marry any one of
these princes from an alien nation, I will have to go with him to his kingdom. My dear, I have a
great dislike to go away from this delightful Chozla Kingdom where the Ponni flows! I have
taken an oath that I will not go to another kingdom from here. ..."
"That is no obstacle! Any prince that marries you will stay at your feet as your slave. If you order
him to stay here, he will remain here."
"Oh, dear Lord! That will be like picking up a rat and tying it up in your waistband! How can we
retain an alien prince in our lands? Do you know the consequences of such activity?"
"Anyway, whatever you say, a person born as a woman will one day have to be married. Is that
"No law says that my dear. Vanathi, think of the Lady Avvaiyar. Did she not live for a long time
as a queen among poets but a virgin maiden?"
"Because of a boon from the Gods, Avvaiyar became an old maid in her young age. You are not
"Well, if I do have to be married, I think I shall choose an orphan Chozla warrior for my consort.
That fellow will not have any kingdom. He will not demand that I go to another nation. He will
remain here itself, in this Chozla country."
"Akka, does it mean that you will never leave these Chozla Territories?"
"Never will I leave. Even if they offer to crown me as a queen of the heavens, I will not leave!"
"Now I am quite happy."
"How is that?"
"If you move to another kingdom, I will have to follow you. I cannot be parted from you. At the
same time, I have no heart to leave this bountiful Chozla land!"
"If you are married, won't you have to leave?"
"I am not going to marry anyone, Akka."
"My dear girl! What happened to all the advice you were giving me just now?"
"Am I like you?"
"You deceiver! I know everything! Are you trying to throw dust in my eyes? You have no great
love for this Chozla land. The Chozla nation you love is bearing sword and spear and has gone to
Lanka to conduct a campaign! You think that I do not know your secrets?"
"Akka! Akka! Am I so foolish? Where is the sun? and where is the morning dewdrop? What is the
use, if a dewdrop wishes for the friendship of the fiery sun?"
"The dewdrop is small! And the sun is mighty and bright! Still, does not the dewdrop impound
the bright sunshine in itself? Tell me?"
Vanathi now replied in a voice filled will cheer and eagerness: "Are you saying that? Can a mere
dewdrop attain the sun?" Then suddenly she felt depressed. "The dewdrop wishes to do so; in
fact, it enslaves the sunray! But what use? Within a short time, it is severely punished. It dries up
in the bright sunlight and disappears without a trace!"
"That is wrong, Vanathi. The sun recognizes the love of the dewdrop and merges her into
himself. He thinks that his beloved maid, the dewdrop, should not be seen by other men. He lets
her out again after darkness. Doesn't the hidden dewdrop appear again every morning?"
"Akka, you are telling me all these stories to cheer me up."
"So! You do say that you need cheering up. There is some sadness in your heart. All these days
you maintained that `Nothing is wrong'. That is why I am going to the Astrologer of Kudanthai."
"If there is a sadness in my heart, what is the use of asking an astrologer about it?" sighed
The house of the Kudanthai Astrologer was situated in the outskirts of that city, in an isolated
spot, besides a Kali temple. The chariot did not enter the city, but went around and reached that
house. From the way the charioteer drove his chariot without any hesitation or doubt, it appeared
that he had driven there several times before.
The Astrologer and one of his disciples waited readily outside the house. The Astrologer
welcomed his visitors with great reverence and courtesy.
"Great lady! A reincarnation of both Kalaimagal (Goddess of Learning) and Thirumagal
(Goddess of Wealth)! Welcome. Welcome. It is the fortune of my humble abode that you have
come in search of me once again!"
"Mr. Astrologer! I hope that nobody else will come in search of you at this time?" asked
"No one will come Thaye! Not many people come in search of me these days. Only when
troubles in the world increase will people seek the astrologer. Nowadays, under the rule of your
esteemed father -- The Emperor Sundara Chozla -- the people have no troubles at all! They
possess all the comforts and luxuries and live life with happiness. Who will come in search of
"Do you mean to say that I have some troubles and therefore, I have come to consult you?" asked
"No. Great lady, no. Which blind fool will say that the beloved daughter of Sundara Chozla who
possesses immense wealth, has any troubles? Since the people have no troubles, this poor
astrologer is cast into misfortune. Nobody takes care of him. Therefore, you have come here like
a Goddess with solicitude for my troubles. Please enter and grace my humble house. Look at me,
talking while I detain you here on the doorstep!" said the resourceful Astrologer.
Kundavai turned to the charioteer and said, "Take the chariot to the shade of the banyan tree
behind the temple and wait."
Kundavai and Vanathi entered the Astrologer's house as he led them inside. The Astrologer
turned to his disciple and said warningly, "Wait outside and guard the entrance carefully. Even if
accidentally, someone happens to come by, do not let them enter."
The parlor in the Astrologer's house was decorated to receive his royal visitors. In an alcove in
the wall was a decorated figure of the Goddess Devi. Two seats were made ready for seating the
visitors. A tall metal lamp was lit. The floor gleamed with intricate kolam decorations. Several
tablets and palm leaf charts with the scribbles and symbols of the astrologer's trade were scattered
about. After both ladies were seated, the Astrologer sat down.
"Madam, please tell me why you have come?"
"Sir! Can you not find out even that by your astrology?" asked Kundavai.
"So be it, Thaye!" said the Astrologer and closed his eyes. He muttered some incantations and
after a while looked at them saying "Lady, you have come here today, mainly to ask about the
horoscope of this young girl. That is what the grace of the Goddess reveals to me."
"Aha! Remarkable! How can we praise your powers? Yes sir! I have come to ask about this girl.
She came to the Pazlayarai Palace about a year ago. For the first eight months she was very
cheerful and happy. Amongst my companions she was the most joyous, most filled with playful
laughter. For the last four months, something has happened to her. Often, she seems depressed.
She seems to live in some abstract world. She has forgotten her laughter. She says that nothing is
wrong with her health. If her parents come and ask me tomorrow, what reply can I give?"
"Thaye! Is she not the beloved daughter of the Lord of Kodumbalur? Is her name Vanathi Devi?"
asked the Astrologer.
"Yes; you seem to know everything."
"I even have the horoscope of this young Lady. I have it in my collection. Please wait a little."
The Astrologer opened an old casket by his side and searched awhile. He then picked up a palm
leaf notation of a horoscope and peered at it.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 11 -- Sudden Entry
The town known as Kumbakonam, was known as Kudanthai or Kudamooku during the times of
our story. Besides the virtue of being a pilgrimage center, it was also famous because of the
Astrologer of Kudanthai. A little distance to the south of Kudanthai, a majestic view of the
interim capital of the Chozla's, Pazlayarai, with its temple towers and palace turrets reaching the
skies, could be glimpsed. The Astrologer of Kudanthai had collected the horoscopes of all the
royal family living at the Pazlayarai Palace. He had searched amidst this collection and found the
horoscope of Lady Vanathi of Kodumbalur. After peering at the palm leaf notation of the
horoscope for a while, he stared at the face of Vanathi; then again looked at the notation. He was
peering and staring one after the other, but did not open his mouth to utter a single word!
With a little impatience Kundavai asked, "What Sir? Are you going to say something or not?"
"Thaye! What can I say? How can I say it? I had studied this horoscope once before and could
not believe it myself. I doubted if anything could be like it and kept it aside. Now, when I behold
the divine face of this Lady and see her horoscope at the same time, I am astounded!"
"Be amazed! Be astounded! After you have been astounded enough, say something in particular."
"Madam, this is a very fortunate horoscope. I am saying it with the belief that you will not
mistake my words. This is one step better than even your horoscope! I have never, till now, seen
such a lucky horoscope."
Kundavai smiled. Vanathi said with some shyness, "Akka! He is calling this most unfortunate girl
the luckiest person in this world! Everything he utters will be like this."
"Amma, what are you saying? If my statements are incorrect, I will give up my practice!" said the
"No. Mr. Astrologer, no. Don't do anything like that. Keep predicting such good things to the
people. But you are uttering generalities; you have said nothing in particular. That is why she
"You want me to say something specific? Here, I will say it. Four months ago, something that
appeared to be an ill omen occurred. Something slipped and fell. But in truth, that is not an ill
omen. It is from that incident that this Lady will obtain all her good fortune."
"Vanathi, remember what I said? See?" said Kundavai Devi.
"You must have told him about it before!" said Vanathi.
"Sir, look at the way this girl talks?"
"Let her talk Thaye, let her say whatever she wants now. Tomorrow when she marries the king of
"Yes, talk about such things! Young girls will listen happily if you speak to them about
"That is what I have been saying too. If I suddenly raise the topic of marriage, people will say
`This old man has lost his senses.' That is why ..."
"Where will her husband come from? When will he come? What is his identification? Can you
tell us all these things from the horoscope, Sir?"
"Oh yes! Why not? I can say it very well." The Astrologer peered into the horoscope once more.
Whether he examined it carefully or pretended to do examine it, none can say!
Then looking up decisively he said, "Madam! A husband for this maiden does not have to come
from very far! He is quite nearby. However, that brave warrior is not in this country now. He has
gone across the seas."
Upon hearing these words, Kundavai looked at Vanathi. Vanathi tried to contain the happiness
that bubbled in her heart; but could not do so: her face showed it.
"Then, who is he? What clan? Any signs to recognize him?"
"Oh yes. Very clear signs. A prince fortunate enough to marry this girl, will have the sign of the
conch and discus on his palms."
Once again Kundavai looked at Vanathi. But Vanathi was looking down, almost hiding her face.
"Won't there be some signs or significant lines on her palms also?" asked Kundavai Pirati.
"Thaye! Have you ever seen the soles of this girl's feet? ..."
"Sir! What are you saying? Are you asking me to touch her feet?"
(Note: Greeting a person by touching their feet denotes extreme humility, or servitude.)
"No! Oh no! I am not saying anything like that! However, sometime in the future, thousands of
princesses, queens and empresses will pray for the fortune of touching this noble lady's feet."
"Akka! This old man is teasing me. Is it for this, that you brought me here? Please get up; let us
go” Vanathi said this with some real anger.
"Why are you agitated my dear? Let him keep saying what he wants ..."
"I am not saying anything. I am just explaining the notations in this horoscope. Poets often talk
about lotus feet. Please ask this Lady to show me her feet a little bit. Her sole will surely have the
line of the red-lotus."
"Well! That's enough Sir. If you say anything more about this girl, she will get hold of my hands
and drag me out. Tell us something about the man who is to be her husband."
"Yes. Of course, I shall do so. The fortunate youth who will take her hand will be the bravest
among brave; he will wear the victory garlands from fighting in the forefront of hundreds of
campaigns. He will be a king of kings. With the praise and support of thousands of kings, he will
sit upon the throne of an emperor for a long time."
"I do not believe your words. How is that possible?" asked Kundavai. Several emotions --
eagerness, happiness, fear, doubt, worry -- danced on her face.
"I too don't believe it. He is thinking of something else and saying all this. He is uttering such
words to make you happy!" said Vanathi.
"If you don't believe my words today, there is no harm. One day you will believe it. Don't forget
this poor astrologer on that day."
Vanathi asked once again: "Akka, shall we go?" Two tear drops peeped at the corners of her dark
"I have to tell you just one more thing. Please hear that also and then leave. There will be several
obstacles and dangers for the young man who is to marry this Princess. He will have several
"But all the dangers and obstacles will fly away in the end. Enemies will be totally destroyed; the
Lord who attains this Lady will cross all impediments and achieve great positions. There is
something much more important than even this ... Thaye! I am an old man. Therefore, I can
reveal all without hiding anything. You should look at the stomach of this girl sometime. If you
do not find the lines and sign of a banyan (ficus) leaf on her stomach, I will give up my practice
"Sir, what is so special about the sign of the banyan leaf?"
"Don't you know who the Lord who reposed on the banyan leaf is? A son with the aspects of that
great Vishnu will be born to her. Her Lord is likely to have all sorts of dangers, obstacles,
impediments, and bad periods. But the son who is to be born of this Lady will have nothing that
is a deterrent. All that he thinks of will be concluded; anything he undertakes will be completed;
his touch will be golden; wherever he steps will be under his sway; whatever he sees will have
the tiger-flag flying over it. Madam, the armies led by her son will flow in all directions, with no
hinderance, like the fresh floods of the Ponni. The Goddess of Victory will be his bonded slave.
The fame of his native lands will spread across the worlds. The fame of his clan will last as long
as this world exists!"
When the Astrologer spoke these words as if in some frenzy, Kundavai was looking at him with
rapt attention, listening to every word he uttered. She was startled to turn around upon hearing the
distressed call, "Akka!"
"Something is happening to me," said Vanathi in further distress. Suddenly she fainted and fell to
"Sir! Please fetch some water quickly," saying this, Kundavai lifted Vanathi onto her lap. The
Astrologer brought some water. Kundavai sprinkled the water on her friend’s face.
"Nothing will go wrong, Amma! Do not be concerned," said the Astrologer.
"I am not worried. This is her habit. This has happened four or five times till now. She will open
her eyes and get up after some time. Upon waking she will ask if this is the earth or paradise,"
Then, in a much softer voice she asked "Sir! I came to ask you something very important. Have
you any news?"
The Astrologer's manner changed; he said some words to her very precisely and quickly.
Then, Kundavai Pirati asked, "I hear that people in the countryside and cities are talking about all
sorts of things. The long tailed comet has been appearing in the skies for some time. Is there
some meaning to all this? Is there some danger to the empire? Will there be any change,
"Lady, don't ask me about that. There is no horoscope for kingdoms, nations or political events;
neither can I predict anything by astrology about them. I know nothing about such matters
through the science I practice. Perhaps the seers and philosophers or the devout and ascetic may
be able to foresee something. This poor fellow does not have such powers. In politics the stars
and planets of astrology have no power." The Astrologer spoke these words with a certain
emphasis, looking at Vanathi who seemed to be stirring.
"Sir! You talk very skillfully. You don't have to study the horoscope of a nation. But can you not
reveal particulars about my father and my brothers? Isn't studying their horoscopes like looking at
the horoscope of the nation?"
"I will look into them at leisure and tell you. Thaye, in general this period is full of confusion and
danger. All of us have to be a little careful."
"Sir! About my father..., the Emperor ... I am quite worried ever since he moved to Tanjavur from
"I have told you earlier, Madam. This is a period of grave danger for the Emperor. All your
family must face great danger. With the grace of the Goddess Durga all will be overcome."
"Akka, where are we?" asked the faint voice of Vanathi.
Vanathi, who had her head on Kundavai's lap, blinked her eyelids several times like the buzzing
bee, and looked around.
"Darling, we are still on this earth. The flower-laden flying-chariot has not yet come to take us to
the heavens. Get up! Let us get into our mere horse drawn chariot and go back to the palace."
Vanathi sat up and asked, "Did I faint?"
"No. You did not faint. You took a little nap on my lap. I even sang you a lullaby. Did you not
"Please do not scold me Akka. Without my awareness, I felt dizzy."
"Yes. You will feel dizzy. Quite dizzy. If this Astrologer had predicted all those grand fortunes
for me, even my head would feel dizzy."
"Not because of that Akka. You think I believed everything he said?"
"I don't know if you believed it or not? But this Astrologer was quite worried about you. I should
not take a poor-spirited person like you, anywhere, anymore."
"I said that I did not want to come to this astrologer. You insisted ..."
"It is my fault. Get up. Let us go. Can you walk to the doorstep? Or, should I carry you on my
"No. No. I can walk very well."
"Please have a little patience Thaye! I shall give you some sacrament-offerings of the Goddess.
Please receive them before you go," said the Astrologer as he tidied his papers.
"Sir, you described all sorts of things for me. But you did not say anything for Akka?" asked
"Amma, I have told everything to the Younger Pirati. What is there to say afresh?"
"About the bravest of warriors who is to marry Akka ...."
"That dauntless gallant ...." interrupted Kundavai with some surprise.
"Doubtless. A very capable prince..."
"He who has all the thirty-two signs of good looks; Jupiter in wisdom; a veritable Saraswati
(deity of learning) in knowledge; handsome as Cupid, Oh no, as Arjuna (epic warrior)!"
"When will that handsome prince, deserving of the Younger Pirati come and where will he come
"How will he come? Upon a horse? On a chariot? By walk? Or, will he rip open the roof and
jump down from the skies?" asked Kundavai with a mocking voice.
"Akka, I can hear the hoof beats of a horse," Vanathi said this with some agitation.
"You will hear most wonderful things unheard by anyone else."
"No. I am not joking. Listen."
By now all three could hear the quick gallop of a horse on the road outside.
"What if you hear it? Won't horses gallop along the road?" said Kundavai.
"No. It seems to be coming here, to this house."
"OK. Get up. Let us go."
At this time, they could hear some confused noises outside the door. Voices could be heard.
"Is this the Astrologer's house?"
"Yes; who are you?"
"Is the Astrologer home?"
"You cannot enter."
"I will do so."
"I cannot let you."
"I must see the Astrologer."
"I cannot come later; I am in a great hurry."
"Hey! You! You fellow! Stop! Stop!"
"Damn it! Move away! I'll kill you if you stand in the way."
"Sir! Sir! Please! Please! Don't enter! Don't go in."
The confused shouts came closer, and closer. The wooden front door opened with a bang. With
all this great commotion, a young man made a sudden entry.
Another fellow was trying to drag him back by pulling at his shoulders. The youth shook off the
hands, stepped across the doorway and came into the room.
Our readers would have guessed the identity of the newcomer! Yes, it was our youthful hero,
Vandiya Devan. All the three pairs of eyes inside the house looked at that warrior.
Vandiya Devan also looked at the people inside; no; he looked at only one person inside. Not
even that. He did not see even Kundavai Devi completely. He just saw her golden face. Did he at
least see her face completely? -- not even that! He saw the petals of her coral red lips, opening
slightly with surprise; he saw her wide-open eyes brimming with mischief, surprise and laughter;
he saw the dark eyelashes and eyebrows; he saw the sandalwood-colored forehead; he saw the
rosy dimpled cheeks; he saw the throat shaped like a smooth conch-shell. He saw all these at the
same time and individually! They became embossed in his heart.
All this was for just a second. He quickly turned towards the Astrologer's disciple and said, "Why
man, inside ... Why didn't you say that these ladies were inside the house? If you had said it,
would I have come in like this?" With these words he pushed the man outside and crossed the
doorstep once again. Even then, he turned to look at Kundavai once more, before going out.
"Dear me! It seems like the quiet after a raging storm!" said Kundavai Pirati.
"Listen. The storm has not stopped!" said Vanathi of Kodumbalur.
The debate between the Astrologer's disciple and Vandiya Devan was still continuing.
"Sir! Who was that?" asked Kundavai.
"I do not know, Thaye. Seems like a foreigner; looks as if he is a rough fellow."
Kundavai suddenly thought of something and laughed brightly. "Why are you laughing, Akka?"
"Why am I laughing? We were talking about my bridegroom -- if he would come on horseback,
riding an elephant or jump down from the roof; I thought of that and laughed!"
Vanathi was also possessed of an uncontrollable laughter now. Their laughter rose like waves on
the ocean shore. Because of their laughter even the noises of the dispute outside stopped.
Immersed in silent thought the Astrologer gave kumkum to both ladies. After receiving it both
women rose and walked outside. The Astrologer went along.
Vandiya Devan who was standing aside near the doorstep, saw them and said loudly, "I beg
pardon. This genius did not tell me that you ladies were inside. That is why I entered in such a
hurry. Forgive me for that."
With a pleasant face and mischief- filled, teasing eyes, Kundavai looked up at him once. She did
not say a single word in reply. She took hold of Vanathi's hand and walked towards her chariot
under the banyan tree.
"The women of Kudanthai seem to have no manners. Can they not utter even one word in reply
to a gentleman who accosts them?" The words of Vandiya Devan spoken in a loud voice could be
heard by everyone.
After helping them both be seated, the charioteer also climbed to his perch. The horse drawn
chariot moved swiftly towards the banks of River Arisil. Vandiya Devan stood watching till the
chariot disappeared from sight.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 12 -- Nandini
Don't we have to disclose how Vandiya Devan, whom we had left in a ferry-boat on the banks of
the Kollidam, arrived at the doorsteps of the Astrologer of Kudanthai?
The Saiva gentleman, who objected to having Azlvar-adiyan in the boat, turned towards Vandiya
Devan and said, "I let this fellow get in because of you, Thambi. However, as long as we are in
this boat, he should not utter that eight-letter word. If he says it, I shall demand that he be thrown
into this Kollidam! These boatmen are my men!"
"Sir! Devout Mr. Nambi! Did thy hallowed ears hear it?" asked Vandiya Devan.
"If this fellow does not utter the five-letter word, I too shall not utter the holy-name of eightletters,” said Nambi.
(Note: The eight-letter word is the name of Vishnu -- na-mo-sri-na-ra-ya-na-ya -- worshipped by
the Vaishnava sect; the five letter word -- na-ma-si-va-ya -- denotes Shiva worshipped by the
"Who is this fellow to object to my uttering the five-lettered holy name of the great God Shiva?
Though you may be bound by chains
and thrown into the deepest seas,
Your only companion and hope is
the name na-ma-si-va-ya!"
These words were uttered in a roaring voice by the Saiva gentleman. Upon hearing it, Azlvaradiyan began singing in a louder voice:
I searched, and upon searching found
the holy name,
Saying the words, "Siva, Siva, Sivaa!" the gentleman stuck both his index fingers into his ears!
When Azlvar-adiyan stopped singing, he took his fingers out of his ears.
Azlvar-adiyan looked at Vandiya Devan and asked, "Thambi, you ask that fanatic Saiva fellow.
He is in such agony when he merely hears God's name! Does not this river Kollidam wash the
lotus feet of God Narayana who reposes in Srirangam and then come down here? Is it not because
these waters, which have touched the feet of Narayana, have become hallowed, that Shiva
performs penance while immersed in these waters at Thiru-Anai-kava?"
Before he could conclude this long story, the Saiva zealot became very furious and rushed
towards the equally fanatic Vaishnava Nambi. Since both entered into a fist fight at one end of
the boat, it seemed as if the ferry-boat would soon capsize! One of the men and Vandiya Devan
intervened and separated them.
"Oh, you great and best of devout souls! Both of you seem to have a wish to drown in the floods
of this Kollidam and go directly to paradise! But I have several other engagements left on this
beautiful earth," said Vandiya Devan with some disgust.
One of the boatmen articulated his opinion, "I am not sure if one would definitely enter paradise
if he falls into the Kollidam! But I guarantee that you would enter the innards of a crocodile!
Look over there!" His finger pointed at a big crocodile with its terrorizing, wide open jaws.
"I am not one bit scared about those crocodiles. Would he not come to my aid, Lord Narayana the
original God, who saved the elephant Gajendra from such a crocodile? Where would he go?" said
"Where would he go? Perhaps he is hiding in the sari-folds of the milkmaids of Brindavan!"
"Perhaps Shiva is entangled in another predicament: just like that time when, having given boons
to the demon Bhasma, he was running around with terror; perhaps Thirumal has gone to save him
from yet another such predicament," retorted Nambi. The fanatic Saiva replied: "Perhaps this
fanatic ignoramus does not remember how Vishnu's pride was demolished during the burning of
"Why do you argue like this? I don't know! Why don't each of you worship the God to whom you
are devoted?" said Vandiya Devan.
It would be appropriate to explain to our readers at this time, why the Saiva devotee and Azlvaradiyan argued in this fashion and why there was a similar wordy duel at Veera-Narayana-Puram.
In the ancient Tamil land, for almost six hundred years, (up till about the tenth century AD) the
religions of Buddhism and Jainism held prestigious sway. Because of these religions, the Tamil
land gained several advantages. Sculpture, painting, poetry, literature, and other such arts were
nurtured and developed. Emphasis was on Sanskrit. Later the Azlvar's (Vaishnava saints) and
Nayanmar's (Saiva saints) appeared. They sang melodious poems -- devotional songs in nectarsweet, divine Tamil. They fostered and developed the Vaishnava (of Vishnu) and Saiva (of
Shiva) sects of Hinduism. Their preaching was quite powerful. They utilized the power of art,
sculpture, and music for their missionary work. Several others set their songs to divine music and
sang them. Those who listened to these musical poems were enticed, enamored and subject to
fanatic devotion. The Shiva and Vishnu temple-towns mentioned in such devotional songs
acquired new merit and fresh holiness. Temples, which till then were built with wood and brick,
were renovated and rebuilt with stone and sculpture. Such holy renovation-works were
undertaken even since Vijayala Chozla's times by the Chozla monarchs and members of their
family as well as other nobility.
At about the same time an important event occurred in the Kerala nation. A great soul was born
in the village of Kaladi. At a very young age he gave up worldly pleasures and became an ascetic.
He studied all the sciences and literature in the northern language (Sanskrit) and became an
expert. He then established the foundation for the Advaita philosophy, based on the principles
gained from the Hindu scriptures -- Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavat Gita and Brahma Sutras
because of his expertise in Sanskrit. He, Sankara the Teacher, traveled all over the Indian subcontinent and established eight religious-seats for propagating Advaita philosophy. Ascetics who
espoused his philosophy spread his word all over the country. (Advaita meaning non-dual,
advocates the non-dual nature of existence; that God is only one; and that God and man are one
and the same.)
Thus, in the Tamil lands, during the times of our story (tenth century AD) there was a great
religious revival and awakening. Certain harmful consequences, arising out of this revival, also
spread throughout the countryside. Fanatic Shiva devotees and fanatic Vishnu devotees rose here
and there. They entered into fights wherever they met each other. Sometimes, Advaita
philosophers also entered into these disputes. Wordy duels often turned into fistfights and brawls.
There is an interesting story that reveals the extent of this rivalry between the religious sects of
those times. A man from Srirangam, of the Vaishnava sect, was once walking along the outer
walls of the Shiva temple at Thiru-anai-kava. Suddenly a stone hit his head. He was wounded and
bleeding. The Vaishnava man looked up towards the sky. He saw a crow sitting atop the old
temple tower and surmised that a piece of brick from the dilapidated spire dislodged by the crow
must have fallen on his head. Immediately he forgot his wound and pain and became quite
delighted. He said, "Oh you devout Vaishnava crow from Srirangam! Good that you are
demolishing this Shiva temple completely!"
In those days, this fanatic rivalry between the Vaishnavas and Saivas was widespread. Knowing
about this will be very helpful to readers who may have the intention of reading further chapters
in this story.
When the boat reached the other shore, the Saiva gentleman looked at Azlvar-adiyan and cursed
him with these words: "May you loose all prosperity and become utterly destitute," before he
went on his way.
The footman from Kadamboor who had come with Vandiya Devan went away towards the
nearby village of Thiru-Panan-thaal, saying that he would come back with a mount for him.
Azlvar-adiyan and Vandiya Devan sat down under a large banyan tree on the river bank. Several
kinds of birds roosting in the thick, leafy branches of that wide-spreading, large tree raised a
pleasing musical sound. Both of them, Devan and Nambi, tried to pry the secrets from each
other's mouths. For a while they talked of this and that in a round-about fashion.
"Well, Thambi, you did go to Kadamboor without taking me with you?"
"Even my entry into that fortress was fraught with great difficulty, Mr. Nambi."
"Is that so? How did you go in? Perhaps you did not go at all?"
"I did enter. I did go in. If I make up my mind to do something, will I take a backward step? The
gate-keepers stopped me. I goaded my horse to gallop inside and all the men obstructing my way
fell away in confusion. Before they could rise and surround me, my friend Kandamaran came to
my rescue and took me inside."
"That's what I thought. You are a very courageous fellow! And then, what happened? Who else
had come there?"
"All sorts of dignitaries had come. I do not know their names. Lord Pazluvoor had come. His
young bride had also come. Dear me! How shall I describe the beauty of that lady!"
"What? Did you see her?!"
"Yes. Why not? My friend Kandamaran took me to the inner courts of the women. I saw her
there. Amidst all those women, the Young-Queen of Lord Pazluvoor was the greatest beauty.
Among all the dark-colored beauties, that queen's face shone like a radiant full-moon. All the
heavenly beauties: Ramba, Urvasi, Tilottama, Indrani, Chandrani -- all of them must be
mentioned only after her."
"Dear me! You describe her with such rapture! Then, what happened? Did you see the gypsy
"Yes. It was very captivating. I thought of you at that time."
"I was not fortunate to see it. What happened after that?"
"The velan attam (oracle-dance) took place. The `divine-man' and `divine-woman' came upon the
stage and danced with frenzy."
"Did the spirit manifest? Did they declare any oracle?"
"Oh, yes! `All endeavors will be achieved. The rains will be good; the land will be bountiful,'
said the soothsayer."
"Is that all?"
"He then said something about political affairs. I did not listen to that carefully."
"Dear, dear me! Is that so? You should have noticed Thambi! You are a young man; you seem to
be brave and courageous. If anybody talks about political affairs at any place, you should listen
"You say the truth. I too felt the same thing this morning."
"Why feel so in the morning?"
"This morning my friend Kandamaran and I talked all along the way as we rode to the banks of
the Kollidam. I believe that after I had gone to bed last night, all the dignitaries who were at
Kadamboor convened a midnight-meeting to discuss some important political affairs."
"What did they discuss about?"
"That, I do not know. Kandamaran said something in a cryptic fashion but he did not explain
clearly. He said that some event was to take place very soon and that he would explain at that
time. All his statements were rather mysterious. Why Sir! Do you know anything?"
"Everybody in the countryside and city is talking about it? A comet can be seen in the skies and
the empire may be subject to some grave danger; there may be a change in the Chozla monarchy;
this and that ... Such talk has been heard even in the Thondai lands. Also, I believe that all sorts
of important officials meet together quite often, to discuss about the `Rights to the succession' of
the Chozla throne. What do you think? Who is likely to succeed to the throne?"
"I don't know anything about such matters. What connection do I have with political affairs? I am
a devout Vaishnava; I am a slave to those who serve the Azlvar saints; I sing the devotional songs
that I know and go from one holy place to the other."
After uttering these words Azlvar-adiyan began singing the following words:
I spied upon his golden presence;
I saw his divine grace.
Vandiya Devan interrupted him, "Let good fortune be yours. Please stop this."
"Dear me! You ask me to stop singing these divine Tamil hymns!"
"Mr. Azlvar-adiyan Nambi! I have a suspicion. Shall I disclose it?"
"You will not come to beat me up with your wooden-staff?"
"You? Is it possible for me to hit you?"
"I think that all your devotion, your Vaishnava fanaticism, your hymn singing -- everything is
one big deception. I suspect it to be a big masquerade!"
"Oh! Oh! What talk is this? Offense! Abuse!"
"No offense and no forgiveness. You put on such guise to hide your womanizing! I have seen
some others like you: who wander around with an obsession for womankind. What you find in
such women, that I do not know! I seem to dislike any woman I see.
"Thambi, I too know of some men who are crazy about women. But don't mix me up with such
fellows. I am not a masquerader. Your suspicions are incorrect."
"Then why did you ask me to deliver your note to the girl who came in the palanquin? That too,
how can you lose your heart to a woman who is married to another? Did you not want to come to
Kadamboor mainly to see her? Don't deny it."
"I won't deny it. But your reasoning is not correct. There is a much more appropriate justification.
It is a long story."
"My horse hasn't arrived yet. Tell me that story. I can listen."
"By `story' I do not mean an imaginary tale. It happened truly. An astonishing account. You will
be shocked if you hear it. Do you want me to recount it?"
"If you would like to."
"Alright. I shall tell you. I am in a great hurry to go someplace else; nonetheless, I will tell you
that story before I go. I may need your help sometime later. You won't refuse it then, will you?"
"If it is justified, I will help you. If you do not like it, don't tell me anything."
"No. No. I must surely tell you the story. The young bride of that demon, Lord Pazluvoor, the girl
to whom I asked you to carry a note, her name is Nandini. You will be surprised if you hear what
I have to say about Nandini. You will wonder if there can be such atrocities in this world." With
this preamble, Azlvar-adiyan started narrating the story of Nandini.
Azlvar-adiyan Nambi was born in a village on the banks of the River Vaigai, in the Pandiya
Kingdom. All his family were ardent Vaishnava devotees. One day, his father was walking in the
gardens along the river bank when he found an orphan baby girl who was abandoned in the
garden. He brought the infant home. Because the child was very attractive and beautiful, all the
members of his family loved and nourished her. Since the child was found in a garden
(nandavan), they named her Nandini. Nambi, considering her a younger sister, loved and
As Nandini grew in years, her devotion to God Vishnu also grew. All the people around them
believed that she would become another Andal (Vaishnava saint) to captivate all their hearts.
Azlvar-adiyan believed it more than anyone else. After his father's death, he took up the
responsibility of raising that girl. The two of them travelled from one town to another, singing
Vaishnava poems and spreading the belief in devotion to Vishnu. People who heard Nandini,
wearing basil-leaf garlands and singing the hymns of the Azlvar saints, were enchanted.
At one time Azlvar-adiyan had to go on a journey to Thiru-Venkadam (Tirupati). His return was
delayed. A mishap occurred to Nandini.
The final great-battle between the Chozla and Pandiya kings was fought near Madurai City. The
Pandiya armies were totally destroyed. King Veera-pandiya had fallen in the battlefield with
wounds all over his body. Some of his personal servants found him: they tried to revive him and
save his life; they brought him away from the battlefield and into the house of Nandini which was
nearby. Nandini, upon seeing the condition of the Pandiya king, was filled with pity and she
nursed him in the sickbed. However, the Chozla soldiers soon found this out. They surrounded
Nandini's house, entered inside and killed Veera-pandiya. Lord Pazluvoor, captivated by the
beauty of Nandini whom he found there, imprisoned her and took her away with him.
All this happened three years ago. After that Azlvar-adiyan could not see Nandini at all. From
that day, Azlvar-adiyan was trying to meet and talk to Nandini. If she wished it, he would free her
and take her away. He had not succeeded in that endeavor so far. Upon hearing this tale, Vandiya
Devan's heart was touched. For a second, he considered telling Nambi that the person inside the
covered palanquin in Kadamboor was not Nandini; that it was Prince Madurandaka. Something
in his heart prevented him. Perhaps all this tale was the fertile imagination of Azlvar-adiyan.
Therefore, he did not reveal the secrets he had learned at the Kadamboor fortress. By now they
could see the footman from Kadamboor coming back, leading a horse.
"Thambi, will you do me one favor?" asked Azlvar-adiyan.
"How can I help you? Lord Pazluvoor is capable of controlling all this Chozla Empire. I am a
single fellow with no powers. What can I do?" Vandiya Devan answered him carefully. Later he
asked, "Mr. Nambi, are you saying that you do not know anything about political affairs? Can
you say who is eligible to succeed to the Chozla throne if something happens to Sundara
Chozla?" After saying this he examined Nambi's face eagerly to see if there was any change in
his expression. There was not an iota of change.
"What will I know of such matters, Thambi? Perhaps, if you ask the Astrologer of Kudanthai, he
may be able to tell you something."
"Oh? Is the Astrologer of Kudanthai that capable?"
"Very capable. He will make predictions based on astrology; he will know your mind and explain
the future. He knows all the worldly activities and will base his predictions accordingly."
Vandiya Devan made up his mind to see the astrologer before he went any further! From ancient
times humanity is fascinated in finding out about what will happen in its future. Princes have this
fascination; paupers have it too. The most learned and knowledgeable have it; the foolish and
ignorant ones also do so. There is no surprise about the fact that our youthful hero, Vandiya
Devan, who was travelling upon secret government affairs across cities and nations, had such a
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 13 -- The Waxing Moon
The Astrologer led Vandiya Devan into the house after the chariot carrying the princesses had
disappeared from view. He seated himself on his best seat. He asked the youth who was looking
around to sit down and examined him from head to toe.
"Thambi, who are you? Where have you come?"
Vandiya Devan laughed.
"Why are you laughing, my son?"
"Nothing. You are such a famous astrologer. You ask me such questions! Can you not find out by
your astrology about who I am and why I came here?"
"Oh! Is that so? I can find out. But if I find out and predict things on my own behalf, I am
wondering who will pay for my services."
Vandiya Devan smiled and then asked, "Sir! Those two who came here before me, who are
"Ah! Them? I realize whom you are asking about. I know Thambi, I know. Are you not asking
about the persons who were in here when you dragged my disciple and made a sudden entry into
my house? You are asking about them, aren't you? Those two, who left in that swift chariot
raising the road dust behind them, you are asking about them?" said the Astrologer in a rambling
"Yes. Yes. I am asking about them..."
"OK. Ask. Ask as much as you wish. Who said not to ask? Those two persons were two women!"
"That was obvious even to me! Sir, I am not blind. I can differentiate between men and women.
Even if it is a man masquerading as a woman I can find out."
"Then, why did you ask ..."
"Women means, who are they, what kind? ..."
"Oh ho! You are asking about that! According to the science of beauty, women are classified into
four kinds: padmini, chittini, gandarvi, vidyadari. You seem to have some expertise in the study
of beauty! According to that fourfold classification those two women belong to the padmini or
"What, my son?"
"If I call out to God, why do you answer?"
"What is wrong in that? Haven't you heard that God is everywhere? It seems that you have not
kept company with learned people. God is in me. God is in you too. My disciple, whom you
dragged inside, God is in him too..."
"Enough. Enough. Please stop!"
"God asked me to talk all this time; and now God commands me to stop!"
"Sir! Mr. Astrologer, those two women who left just now -- who are they? What is their family?
Where do they come from? What is their name? -- that is what I asked. If you can answer me
without rambling like this ..."
"If I answer you, what will you give me, my son?"
"I shall offer you my thanks gladly."
"You can keep the glad offering to yourself. If you are willing to give some gold offering, let me
"Will you answer clearly, if I make a gold offering?"
"I will answer only if an answer is possible. Thambi, listen to this. Several persons will come and
go from an astrologer's house. One should not talk about one visitor to another. I will not tell you
anything about the persons who left just now. Neither will I disclose a single word about you, to
any person who may come later and ask about you."
"Ah! Everything that Azlvar-adiyan Nambi said about you seems to be true!"
"Azlvar-adiyan? Who is he? A person with that name?"
"What, don't you know him? He talked as if he knew you very well. Have you never heard of
"Perhaps I know the man. Don't remember the name. Describe him a little, let me see."
"He is short and squat. He wears his hair in a topknot on his forehead. He wears his vaetti (loose
lower garment of men) tightly around his young paunch. Making a paste of sandal powder, he
wears it in vertical marks all over his body; readily enters into fiery fights with devout Saivas; if
he sees an Advaita philosopher, he raises his wooden staff. Sometime ago you said `You are God;
I am God.' If Azlvar-adiyan had heard it, he would have raised his staff and rushed over to beat
you, by saying `God is hitting God.' He ..."
"Thambi, From what you say, I think you are talking about Thirumalai."
"Does he go by other names like that?"
"That fanatic Vaishnava has a different name in different towns."
"Does he also disguise himself in different garbs for different persons?"
"Oh yes! He will put on masquerades appropriate for the occasion and time."
"Will everything he utters be mixed with fancy and falsehood?"
"About seven eighths of what he says will be full of imagination. The rest may be gospel truth."
"So, you say that he is a very wicked fellow."
"One cannot say that! He is good to the good; bad to the wicked."
"That means we cannot trust his words and do anything."
"Believing or not believing depends on the words uttered."
"For example, he said that if I come to you and asked you for astrological predictions, you will
give expert answers..."
"Did I not say that about one eighth of his speech will be gospel truth? That statement belongs to
"Then predict something for me by your astrology; foretell something. It is getting late and I have
to go in a hurry."
"Where do you have to go in such a great hurry, my son?"
"Can you not reveal that also from your astrology? Where should I go? Where should I not go? If
I do go, will my endeavor be successful? -- I came to ask you all these things."
"I need some basis to foretell or predict by my astrology; I need a horoscope to study; if there is
no horoscope, I must at least know the day and star under which you were born. If you do not
know even that, I need a name and address."
"My name is Vallavarayan."
"Aha! Of the Vaanar clan?"
"Yes I am that very same Vandiya Devan Vallavarayan."
"Say it like that! Thambi why did you not say this before? I think, I even have your horoscope
with me. If I search for it I can find it."
"How is that Sir?"
"What other occupation do astrologers like me have? We collect the horoscopes of men and
women born in noble families..."
"I am not from any such famous noble family."
"How can you say that? Do you not know of the fame and prestige of your clan? How many
poets have sung the praises of the Vaanar clan in how many poems? Perhaps you have not heard
"Recite one such poem. Let me hear it."
The Astrologer immediately sang the following poem:
Are there lips that do not speak of your fame:
oh noble Vaana?
Are there chests that do not have your name tattooed on:
oh brave Vaana?
Are there flagpoles that do not bear thy colors:
oh victorious Vaana?
Are there domains that stand beyond your survey:
oh majestic Vaana?
When he sang, it was quite obvious that the Astrologer was not a musical expert. Nevertheless,
he sang the poem clearly and with involvement.
"How is the poem?" he asked.
"The poem is pleasing to the ear! But now, I have to tie my colors to the horns of some bull! I
have to stand atop the branches of a banyan tree to survey my domain. Even that is doubtful. My
weight might break the branch and throw me down!" said Vandiya Devan.
"Today your situation is like that. How do we know what can happen tomorrow?"
"I thought that you might know; that is why I came here."
"What can I know Thambi? Like everybody I am a short lived human being. But the planets and
stars foretell the future. I have learned to understand a little of what they say and then explain it
to those who seek me."
"What do the planets and stars foretell about me, Mr. Astrologer?"
"They foretell that you will grow day by day."
"Dear me! That is pretty good! The height that I have now is itself quite too much. I had to bend
low as I entered your house! What can I do if I grow taller? There is no use of such generalities.
Say something specific."
"If you ask me about something particular, I can answer more specifically."
"Tell me, the enterprise on which I am going to Tanjavur, will it succeed?"
"If you are going to Tanjavur on your own behalf the endeavor will succeed; if you are going on
someone else's behalf, I have to see that person’s horoscope before I answer."
Vandiya Devan shook his head in astonishment and placed a finger upon his nose. "Sir, I have
never encountered as astute a fellow as you."
"Do not flatter me, Thambi."
"Ok. I shall ask what I want clearly. I wish to meet the Emperor in Tanjavur. Is that possible?"
"There are two astrologers greater than me in Tanjavur. You have to ask them."
"Who are they?"
"One is the Elder Lord Pazluvoor; the other is his brother the Younger Lord Pazluvoor."
"It is said that the health of the Emperor is in a bad state. Is that true?"
"People will say all sorts of things. Why not? Don't believe all that they say; neither should you
repeat such things."
"Can you tell me who has the right to succeed to the Chozla throne if something happens to the
"That throne is not for you nor for me. Why should we bother about it?"
"From that fate we are saved!" said Vandiya Devan.
"It is true Thambi. The rights of succession to an empire is not an ordinary matter. It is a very
dangerous topic. Is that not so?"
"Sir! At present the Prince who is in Kanchi, the Crown Prince Aditya Karikala..."
"Yes, he is there; you have come on his behalf. Haven't you?"
"You have found that out in the end; no harm done. What about his fortune?"
"I don't have his horoscope in my hands now Thambi. I have to study it."
"What about the fortunes of Prince Madurandaka?"
"His, is a peculiar fortune; similar to that of womenfolk. His fortunes are always subject to the
power of others."
"Even now people say that the Chozla Empire is under Women's Rule. They say that it is worse
than the rule of the Queen Alli?"
"Thambi, where do they say such things?"
"To the north of the Kollidam."
"Maybe they are talking about the power of the new bride married by the Elder Lord Pazluvoor."
"I heard differently."
"What did you hear?"
"They said that the beloved daughter of the Emperor, the Younger Pirati Kundavai, is the one
ruling like that."
The Astrologer peered into Vandiya Devan's face carefully. He tried to read the face to find out if
he was saying these words after recognizing Kundavai, who had left his house a little earlier.
There was no sign to support the doubt.
"Totally wrong Thambi. Emperor Sundara Chozla is in Tanjavur. Kundavai Pirati lives in
Pazlayarai. Moreover ..."
"Moreover what? Why did you stop?
"During the daytime one must look in all four directions before speaking; at nighttime not even
that. But there is nothing wrong in telling you, I think. What power or influence does the
Emperor have these days? All the authority is held by the Lords of Pazluvoor." After saying this
the Astrologer examined Vandiya Devan's face once again.
"Sir! I am not a spy of the Lords of Pazluvoor. You do not have to suspect me of that! A little
while ago you talked about the impermanence of kingdoms and royal dynasties. You gave me the
example of my own Vaanar clan. Please tell me the truth. How is the future of the Chozla
"I can tell truthfully without any uncertainty. Towards the end of spring the River Cauvery and its
tributaries will be filled with new floods. The people living on the river banks know very well
that it is a flood that will rise day by day. Till the beginning of the summer months the flood will
keep rising. By the autumn months the waters start receding. The people living along the bank
realize it to be a ebbing flood. The Chozla Empire is now like the fresh flood of springtime that
grows day by day. For several more hundreds of years it will grow and spread. The Chozla
Empire is now a Waxing Moon. The day of the Full Moon is far away. Therefore, the Chozla
power will expand more and more."
"After talking all this time, you have said one thing explicitly! Thanks! If possible, just tell me
one more thing. I have a great desire to go on a ship and travel to distant lands..."
"That wish will definitely be fulfilled. You have the fortune of the wheel. You will be travelling
constantly, as if you have wheels on your feet. You will go by walk; ride upon horses; go on
elephants and you will also travel aboard ships. You have the fortune to go on a sea voyage very
"Sir, about the Commander of the Southern Armies, Prince Arulmozli Varma who is now
conducting a campaign in Lanka -- what do the planets and stars say about him?"
"Thambi, those travelling by ship use an instrument made of the magnetic stone to find their
directions. Lighthouses also help these sailors. But do you know what aids the ship in the midst
of the wide open seas? What is the constant friend of the sailors? It is the pole star seen in the low
northern skies. The other stars and planets all keep moving from their positions. Even the group
of the `seven seers' (little dipper) travels in a circle. But the pole star is never shaken from its
fixed position. The younger son of the Emperor, Prince Arulmozli, is like that pole star. He has
the firmness of mind unshaken by anything. In addition to the virtues of selflessness and
morality, he possesses the goodness of bravery and chivalry. He excels in worldly knowledge as
much as in learning. He has a charming face, like that of a young babe which calms the aches of
those who gaze upon it. He is the darling son of the goddess of good luck. Just as sailors take
direction from the pole star, it will be very useful, if youths like you who embark on the
adventure of life, take direction from Prince Arulmozli."
"Dear me! What is all this that you describe about Prince Arulmozli? It appears like a lover
describing his beloved?"
"Thambi, if you ask any fellow of the Chozla country on the banks of the River Ponni, he will say
"Many thanks Mr. Astrologer. If the need arises, I shall follow your advice."
"Because I saw that your lucky planets are also on the rise, I said this."
"I shall take leave of you Sir! Along with my heartfelt thanks, offered gladly, please accept this
small tribute of gold offered to you." Saying this, Vandiya Devan placed five gold coins in the
palms of the Astrologer.
"The benevolence of the Vaanar clan has not died even now!" said the Astrologer as he hid the
coins in his waistband.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 14 -- A Crocodile On The River Bank
In those days, those who wished to reach Tanjavur from Kudanthai, travelled along the banks of
the rivers Arisil or Cauvery and reached the town of Thiru-vai-aru. From there, they would turn
south to go towards Tanjavur. Convenient ferries or fords to cross the rivers Kudamuruti, Vettar,
Vennar and Vadavar were available only along that route. Vandiya Devan who started from
Kudanthai, first went towards the banks of River Arisil. The sights that he saw along the way
astonished him, being more exquisite than what he had heard about the Chozla countryside. Any
beautiful sight appears more striking when it is viewed for the first time!
Emerald green rice fields, gardens of ginger and turmeric, plantations of sugarcane and banana,
groves of tender coconut palms; streams, rivulets and brooks; tanks, pools and canals; all these
made a mosaic of the landscape. Water-lilies bloomed in profusion in the creeks; Lotus and bluelily were in riotous display on still-water ponds and pools. The large red-, white-, and blue-lotus
flowers dazzled his eyes. He had never seen such flowers before! White storks and herons flew in
large groups like soft clouds. Red-legged cranes stood on one leg and performed penance. Crystal
clear water rushed frothing along conduits. Farmers ploughed their rice paddies -- muddy fields,
darkened with good fertilizer and rotting leaves -- even deeper. Women transplanted seedlings in
the well tilled fields. As they were bent on their task they sang pleasant folk-songs.
Sugar mills were established next to the cane plantations. They fed the mature, dark cane of the
previous year's harvest into those mills and extracted sweet-juice. The aroma of the fresh juice
and boiling molasses being made into sugar-candy and jaggery filled the air and tingled the nose.
Small cottages with roofs thatched with coconut palm-leaves and houses with tiled roofs were
found amidst the palm groves. In the villages, they had cleaned the streets and front porches to a
mirror brightness and decorated them with beautiful drawings of rice-powder. On some front
porches they had spread the new paddy to dry in the hot sun. Hens and roosters came and pecked
at the grain and ran hither and thither with cries of "Koko ro ko, koko ro koro!" The little girls set
to guard the grain did not seem to bother: `How much grain can the tiny hens eat?' - they thought
in disdain as they continued with their board games with cowrie shells.
The smells and smoke of cooking rose from chimneys on rooftops. The fragrance of paddy being
cured, millet-grain being parched, and meat being roasted mingled with each other. Such smells
made Vallavarayan's mouth water.
Blacksmiths had their shops along the roadside. The fires in such smithies burned bright with
glowing embers. The sound of hammers striking iron could be heard loudly. The smithies were
filled with implements essential to farming, such as plough-share points, wheel-pins, shovels,
hoes and rakes as well as sharpened spears, lances, swords and shields; farmers and soldiers vied
with each other to buy these instruments of their trade.
Small temples could be spied in the midst of tiny villages. The sound of drums being beaten and
pipes being played inside the temples mingled with the pleasant music of religious chanting and
singing of devotional poems like Thevaram.
Priests carried the guardian deities of the village, like Mariamman, on little cots and pots
balanced on their heads; they danced the Karagam in tune to the beat of little udukku drums held
in their hands as they sought alms of grain and produce.
Men, tired of their work behind the ploughs, rested beneath shady, wide spreading mango trees.
They entertained themselves by setting sharp horned goats to fight each other.
Pea-hens roosting on housetops called out to their mates in a shrill voice; the pea-cocks lifted
their long, beautiful tails with difficulty and flew up to them majestically. Turtle-doves shook
their heads and danced with cooing sounds. The parrots and cuckoos -- poor creatures shut up in
cages -- sang sweetly.
Vandiya Devan rode upon his horse rather slowly, enjoying such scenes. His eyes had plenty to
occupy them. His heart also enjoyed all the sights. But his inner mind dwelt upon the picture of a
girl, covered in mist.
Aha! Why didn't that girl open her reddened lips and utter a few words? What would she have
lost by uttering a few sentences? Who could she be? Whoever she is, shouldn't she have some
manners? Do I seem like a fellow to be ignored? -- That wily old astrologer never did reveal who
that girl was! He is clever; very clever. How he measures the depth of one's heart! Such
experienced words he utters! Of course, he did not predict anything sensible or specific. About
political affairs ... he escaped without disclosing anything! He merely repeated things known to
everybody in a fascinating manner. But he did make the good prediction about my lucky-stars
being on the rise ... Let the astrologer of Kudanthai prosper in his trade.
Vandiya Devan rode onwards with such thoughts occupying his mind. The sights presented to
him, dragged him off and on from this dream world to reality. Finally, he reached the banks of
the River Arisil. After going a few yards, he heard the sound of women laughing and the jingle
jangle of their bracelets.
The women were completely hidden by the thick groves of trees growing on the bank. He peered
into the trees, trying to locate the women who made the noise. Suddenly he could hear the fear
filled screams "Oh dear", "Ai Oh", "Help", "Crocodile!" said the voices of several women. He
whipped his horse in the direction of the shouts. He soon spied several maidens in a clearing
between the trees close to the water. Their faces were filled with fright. But -- surprise of
surprises -- two of them seemed to be the very same women he had seen in the astrologer's house!
Vandiya Devan recognized all this within the fraction of a second.
That was not all. A horrible crocodile opening its jaws wide, could be seen at the foot of a thick
tree trunk, blending with the roots, half in the water and half on the bank. He had recently seen
one such fearful crocodile in the floods of the Kollidam. He had heard how dangerous the beast
was. Therefore, when he saw the reptile, his heart skipped a beat and his whole body froze with
agitation for a minute.
The crocodile was very near the girls who had been laughing merrily a few moments earlier. It
was opening its horrible jaws wide and appeared monstrous. The crocodile had to only move just
one step closer; one of the girls would be gone! She could not escape because of the thick tree!
However, confused his heart and mind, there was nothing wrong with his courage. He did not
even think beyond one second about what he should do. He took careful aim and swiftly threw
the spear in his hand. The spear pierced the crocodile's back, entered deep into its hide and stood
upright. Our hero, immediately jumped off his horse and drawing his sword he rushed towards
the reptile to finish it off in one stroke.
He heard the girls laughing once again, like before. The sound was repulsive to Vandiya Devan's
ears. Why do these foolish women laugh like this at this dangerous moment? he thought.
Having rushed forward, he stopped in shock and surprise for a minute. He saw the faces of those
women. He could see no fear or fright in them. He could just detect the signs of laughter and
mischief. He could not believe that they were the same girls who cried out for help a few minutes
One among them -- the maiden he had seen in the astrologer's house -- spoke in a pleasant,
elegant voice: "Girls, stop it! Why are you all laughing?" He heard her scolding as if in a dream.
He moved closer to the crocodile and then hesitated as he raised his sword. He turned to look at
the faces of those girls once again. A suspicion, which filled his heart with shame, humiliating his
very existence -- rose in him.
By now, that girl -- the lady who had dwelt in his thoughts for some time now -- parted from her
friends and came forward. She stood before him, in front of the crocodile, as if guarding it!
"Sir! I am very thankful to you. Please do not trouble yourself unnecessarily," she said.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 15 -- Vanathi's Tricks
We request our readers to please recall that earlier moment in our story when Kundavai and
Vanathi climbed onto the chariot and rode towards Kudanthai, leaving their friends on the banks
of the River Arisil. We shall now listen to the conversation of those maidens who were left
"My dear Tarika, look at this good fortune that has blown the way of that Kodumbalur female!
What is so fascinating about her for our Younger Pirati?"
"No fascination, no nothing! For the past four months that girl has been going around like one
deranged; she is often falling down in one of her fainting fits. The Younger Pirati is worried
because they have left that orphan girl in her care. She is taking Vanathi to the Astrologer to find
out what ails her. Perhaps it is because of some ghost or spirit? If it is so, don't they have to get
rid of it with some magic or spell?"
"It is no ghost and no phantom. Which spirit will come and posses her? She is capable of driving
away a hundred ghosts." A girl known as Varini uttered these words with some venom.
"All those fainting fits of Vanathi are one big deception my dear. That snake thinks that she can
capture the Prince in her coils if she does such things."
"What Niravati says is true. And that is not the whole story. Remember that day when the Prince
was leaving on his campaign, she dropped the platter with the lighted lamp? Even that, she did
mainly to attract the attention of the Prince. How can a platter carried in both hands slip like that?
Or is our Prince some sort of fearsome tiger or bear for her to be frightened?" continued Varini.
"And she pretended to fall into a faint immediately; How clever."
"More than all her tricks, the funny thing is that Kundavai Pirati and the Prince believed her!"
Mandakini offered the comment, "These are times for those who deceive and tell lies and
"The Prince who had already mounted his horse, leaving for the campaign; he came back into the
palace to look at her! What else does one need? See how successful her tricks were?"
"What you say about the Prince is of course true. There is none in the fourteen known worlds to
compare with him. There is none like him even in the imaginary tales and epics. But what I say is
something else. This Vanathi, -- who fainted -- do you know what that fainting is really about?
There is no need of going to an astrologer to find the cause! If anyone had asked me I would have
explained." Varini was sure of herself.
"What is that fainting? You can tell us, can't you?" asked Sendiru. Varini then whispered
something in her friend's ears. Niravati intervened, "Hey! What's the secret? Let us know it too!"
"I believe it is not an ordinary fainting fit! It is a lovelorn fit!" Upon hearing these words all the
girls laughed merrily. Hearing this noise, the birds upon the trees flew out with noisy wing-beats.
"When our Prince comes back from Lanka she will again try her magic tricks on him. We should
not give place for that."
"If this Vanathi does not go mad by the time the Prince returns, I shall change my name from
Tarika to Tataka (an ogress of the epic Ramayana)."
"OK! Let it go! Don't we have to complete the task assigned to us before the Younger Pirati
comes back? Come girls, enough of this," said Mandakini.
After that, two of them removed one of the loose planks at the bottom of the barge. In a long
alcove under it, they found a crocodile! That is, a dead crocodile preserved and stuffed with fibre
and cotton! They took it out. The girls then paddled the barge a little way along the bank and
pulled in near a clearing; a large mango tree grew along the bank with thick spreading roots.
They pulled the stuffed crocodile amidst the tree roots. It lay among the roots, half in the water
and half out. The girls bound a thin string to one of its legs and tied it to the root, preventing the
stuffed reptile from floating away!
Tarika asked, "Why did the Younger Pirati want us to leave the crocodile here, like this?"
"Don't you know? Vanathi is so timid and poor-spirited, frightened of each and everything. To
get rid of her fear and make her brave."
"If we consider all these things, it seems as if the Younger Pirati really intends to wed this
foolish Vanathi to our Prince!" exclaimed Niravati.
"If anything like that happens, I shall poison this Vanathi and kill her," said the jealous maiden,
"All this jealousy of yours is not warranted. All the kings of the world, the monarch of
Manyaketa in Rashtrakuta, the Emperor of Vengi, the King of Kalinga and even the Emperor of
Kanouj, are ready to give their daughters in marriage to our Prince. Who will care about this
Vanathi from Kodumbalur?" said soft spoken Mandakini.
"All those kings may be ready, like you say; but what are the wishes of our Prince? I believe he
always says `If I ever marry, I shall marry a girl from the Tamil lands.' Don't you all know this?
"Then, all is well. All of us should polish our charms and show our competence. What this
Vanathi can do, we can also achieve!"
Let us now explain the reason for such talk amongst these women.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 16 -- Arulmozli Varma
About a thousand and more years ago, the best of kings, Paranthaka Sundara Chozla (AD 957-
973), ruled as an Emperor without equal in South India. He had ascended the Chozla throne
several years before the times of our story. For the past several hundred years Chozla power had
been growing. Chozla Territories were spreading in all directions. Even so, when Sundara Chozla
ascended the throne, his enemies in the south and north were powerful.
Gandara Aditya who had ruled before him, was immersed in devotion to God Shiva; he had
merited the title Gandara-aditya who had knowledge of (knew) Shiva. He did not show much
interest in expanding his territories. After Gandara Aditya, his brother Arinjaya, who ascended
the throne, ruled for a short year. After Arinjaya's death at Atrur, his son Paranthaka Sundara
Chozla came to power.
Sundara Chozla had all the qualities essential for a great king. Being skilled in war, he led a
campaign to the southern region in the very beginning of his reign. A great battle took place
between the Chozla and Pandiya armies at a place called Chevoor. Mahinda, the King of Lanka,
had sent a large battalion to help his friend Veera-pandiya, who ruled at that time from Madurai
City. The large Chozla armies defeated the combined forces of the Pandiyas and the Lankans at
Chevoor. Veera-pandiya who lost his armies, lost his crown, lost his friends, saved his life and
ran from the battlefield to escape into hiding. He hid himself in the rocky caves of a desert and
bided his time.
Most of the Lankan army was destroyed in the Chevoor battle. Some soldiers who survived,
abandoned their fame and bravery and escaped to Lanka with their lives.
It had been the practice of the Lankan kings to send their men in support of the Pandiya kings, in
the clashes between the Chozlas and Pandiyas. Sundara Chozla wished to put an end to this
practice. He decided to send a Chozla contingent to land in Lanka and teach the island king a
lesson. He sent a large army to Lanka under the command of a chieftain of Kodumbalur, known
as Paranthaka the Younger Lord of Velir. Unfortunately, the Chozla army did not land in Lanka
all at one time. They did not have adequate shipping facilities for that.
The battalions which had landed first started advancing without any forethought. Mahinda's
Lankan army led by Commander Sena came out and surrounded the Chozla forces in a surprise
move. A terrible battle was fought. In that engagement, the Chozla Commander lost his life.
Stone inscriptions (deciphered in recent years) refer to him as the Younger Lord of Velir who fell
When Veera-pandiya who was hiding in the desert caves, heard this news, he gathered courage
once again and emerged. Again, he assembled a large army and entered the battlefield. This time,
the Pandiya legion was completely destroyed. Veera-pandiya also lost his life. Aditya Karikala,
the elder son of Sundara Chozla, took part in this final battle and performed various heroic deeds.
He also acquired the title `The Valiant Prince who wrung the head of Veera-pandiya.'
Despite all this, the Chozla Emperor and all his generals, advisors, ministers, and soldiers, did not
forget their wish to teach the Singhala King Mahinda of Lanka a lesson. A large force was
gathered in readiness for the campaign. The question "Who should lead this legion?" arose. The
Crown Prince Aditya Karikala - Sundara Chozla's elder son -- was at that time busy with his
troops in the northern border. He had captured the ancient city of Kanchi, after routing the armies
of the Rashtrakutas who had occupied the Thiru-munai-padi and Thondai Territories. He was
preparing to lead his armies further north.
In this situation, a fierce competition rose among the other generals in the Chozla nation for the
privilege of leading the Lankan campaign. Jealousy and accusations resulted from such rivalry. It
was very rare to find someone who did not wish to enter the battlefield in that ancient Tamil land!
The competition was about who should go to the war-front. Enmity and envy would often result
from such competition.
There was fierce rivalry amongst the Chozla generals about who should lead the Lankan
campaign and establish the Chozla fame by destroying the pride of the Singhala Kings. Prince
Arulmozli Varma, the younger son of Emperor Sundara Chozla, came forward to put an end to
this rivalry. "Father! I have spent enough time in the luxury of the Pazlayarai Palace, as the
darling child of my aunts, grandmothers, and mothers. Please appoint me as the Commander of
the Southern Armies. I shall go to Lanka and lead the Lankan campaign," said the young Prince.
Arulmozli Varma was barely nineteen years old at that time. He was Sundara Chozla's cherished
younger son; he was the beloved child of all the queens who lived at the Pazlayarai Palace; he
was the darling of the Chozla nation.
Sundara Chozla was possessed of a handsome countenance. His father Arinjaya had fallen in love
with her beauty and married Kalyani, Princess of the enemy kings of Vaithumba. The son born to
Arinjaya and Kalyani was named Paranthaka; however, the citizens and countrymen of the
Chozla nation who saw the handsome face of the Prince called him Sundara Chozla (sundara
meaning beautiful.) He came to be known by this name.
All the children born to this handsome Prince were attractive and beautiful. But the youngest
child, Arulmozli, surpassed all others in beauty. The charm of his handsome face was not of this
world; it seemed to be divine! When he was a baby, the queens of the Chozla palace would
repeatedly kiss his cheeks and make them flush. More than any other person, his elder sister
Kundavai cherished him. Though she was barely two years older to him, Kundavai felt that the
responsibility of rearing this divine child was hers! In his turn, Arulmozli returned all the love
and adoration that his sister showered upon him. The brother would not cross the line drawn by
his elder sister. The Younger Pirati had to merely utter one word; even if all the three great Gods
- Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva came together and said something against that, Arulmozli would not
consider their words. The elder sister's words were gospel to the younger brother.
The sister would often peer into her darling brother's face. Not just when he was awake; she
would gaze upon the face of her sleeping brother for hours together. There is some divine grace
in this boy; It is my duty to bring it to the forefront and make it shine! thought the young
Princess. When her brother slept, she would often pick up his hands and study the lines on his
palms. To her, those lines would appear to have the sign of the Conch and Discus. Aha! He is
born to rule this world! He will bring the whole world under one rule, she would think. But there
was no possibility of his ascending the Chozla throne. Princes elder to him -- eligible to ascend
the throne -- there were two others before him. Then, how could he acquire a kingdom? On which
throne could he sit? Who knows divine intentions? The world is big; several kingdoms and
territories exist on this earth. Have we not heard of princes and kings who ventured into alien
lands and by their prowess acquired kingdoms? Have we not read of such happenings in novels
and epics? That ancient prince who was thrown out of his kingdoms on the banks of the Ganga,
did he not sail the seas to reach Lanka and establish a mighty nation? Didn't his Singhala Dynasty
rule firmly in Lanka for a thousand years?
Kundavai thought of such things constantly. In the end she came to the conclusion that her
younger brother was the appropriate commander to lead the Lankan campaign.
She said, "Thambi, my darling brother Arulmozli! It will be difficult for me to part from you for
even one second. However, the time has come for me to send you on your way. You must lead
the Lankan campaign and leave for the island."
Arulmozli agreed joyously. He had waited for the day -- to escape from the life of luxury and the
smothering love of the maidens and queens in the palace. His beloved sister had now ordered him
to do so. What other worry could he have? What other impediment?
If Kundavai had made up her mind, there was nothing that would not take place in the Chozla
nation. The Emperor loved his beloved daughter to that extant! He trusted her implicitly!
Prince Arulmozli was appointed the Commander of the Southern Armies. He led his men into
Lanka, and conducted the campaign for some time. But the war would not end easily. There was
a difference in his method of campaigning and that of others. Supplies and support requested by
him did not come from his native land. Therefore, once in the midst of all his endeavors he came
back to Tanjavur. He spoke to his father and arranged matters to his satisfaction. He prepared to
depart for Lanka once again.
Kundavai had arranged for several auspicious ceremonies at the main palace in Pazlayarai, to bid
farewell to her darling brother. When Arulmozli stepped out, the victory drums in the palace
courtyard boomed; conches were blown; kettle-drums beaten loudly. Cheering shouts rose skyhigh.
All the royal ladies of the Chozla clan blessed their beloved Prince; they anointed his forehead
with holy ashes, and warding off evil eyes, sent him on his victorious journey.
All the maids-of-honor in Kundavai's court stood on the palace steps carrying golden patters
laden with a lighted lamp. These maidens were no ordinary folk. They were from the famous
noble families of the south. They had come to Pazlayarai, considering it a great opportunity, to
serve the Elder Pirati Sembiyan Madevi and to become companions to Kundavai Pirati. Vanathi,
a daughter of the Kodumbalur chieftain, the Younger Lord of Velir, was one among them.
When those girls saw the Prince coming down the palace steps, all of them felt a certain agitation
in their hearts. When the Prince came closer, they waved their platters with the lighted lamp
before him (to ward off the evil eye). At that moment Vanathi felt her whole-body shiver.
The golden platter in her hands slipped and fell with a "clang" to the ground. The thought, "Oh
dear! What is this ill omen!" rose in every mind. But when they saw the wick burning bright
even if the lamp had fallen, they felt it was after all a good omen. The elders assured them, "This
is a good sign."
Prince Arulmozli smiled at the girl who had dropped the plate for no apparent reason and
continued his descent down the steps. As soon as he moved ahead, Vanathi fell down in a swoon.
She had fainted with the mortification of having committed such an impropriety. Upon the orders
of Kundavai, the serving maids carried her into the palace. Kundavai hurried inside, without
even waiting to see her beloved brother mount his horse and depart; she went in, to revive her
Holding the reins of his horse, the Prince who had seen the girl faint, sent his footman inside to
find out "How is the girl who fainted?"
Kundavai sent the footman back with the words "Tell the Prince to come back here for a minute."
The brother who had never crossed the commands of his sister, came back accordingly. The sight
of his sister trying to revive the young girl lying on her lap touched his heart.
"Akka! Who is this girl? What is her name?" he asked.
"She is the daughter of the Younger Lord Velir of Kodumbalur. Her name is Vanathi; of a timid
"Oh! Now I understand why she fainted. Was it not her father who led the earlier campaign to
Lanka? Didn't he die in the battlefront over there? Perhaps she remembered that."
"Maybe. But don't worry about her. I can look after her. I called you back to wish you well. Go to
Lanka and come back victorious and soon. Send me news as often as you can!" said the Younger
"Fine! You too send me news if anything happens here."
By now, Vanathi was regaining consciousness; perhaps due to the pleasant sound of Prince
Arulmozli's voice! Her eyelids opened softly. Upon glimpsing the Prince, her eyes opened wider.
Her face gained some color and revived; coral red lips smiled; cheeks dimpled.
Along with her senses a shyness also returned. She sat up quickly. She was mortified upon seeing
the Princess behind her. She recalled everything that happened. "Oh! What have I done Akka?"
she asked with remorse.
Before Kundavai could reply, the Prince intervened, "Don't worry about that Vanathi! Anyone
can make a mistake. You have every reason to be agitated. I was explaining it to my sister."
Vanathi wondered if she was dreaming or if it was real. The Prince who never looked at any
woman was talking to her. He is consoling me and cheering me up! How can I bear this fortune?
- Look, how my whole body shivers, I am dizzy again....
"Akka, my men are waiting. Permit me to leave. When you send me news from here, let me know
how this girl feels. Look after this orphan girl carefully." He then departed.
The other maidens and companions were watching all these happenings from the windows and
balconies. The flame of jealousy began to glow in their hearts.
From that day onwards Kundavai showered a special affection upon Vanathi. She kept her by her
side constantly. She had her personal tutors teach her all the arts and learning she had. She took
Vanathi along wherever she went. She led her into the garden and talked secrets. She shared all
her dreams about her younger brother with her new friend. Vanathi listened to everything
After the above incidents took place, Vanathi fell into fainting fits four or five times. Kundavai
would revive her and soothe her. When Vanathi would sit up, with her chest heaving with sobs,
Kundavai would console her with words such as "My dear foolish girl! Why are you crying like
"I don't know Akka! Please forgive me," Vanathi would reply. Kundavai would embrace her and
All these activities further enraged the other maidens in the palace.
Therefore, was it not natural for those girls to talk in that fashion, when the two friends had gone
away in the chariot towards Kudanthai?
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 17 -- A Horse Galloped
Kundavai had decided that Vanathi was the appropriate bride for her incomparable brother. But
Vanathi had one fault: she was too timid. How could a girl who was to marry the bravest of brave
warriors, who was to give birth to a son to rule the whole world, be so fainthearted? Kundavai
wanted to change her timidity and make her brave and courageous. She had arranged for the
deception with the stuffed crocodile for this very purpose. But the Lady of Kodumbalur passed
that test easily.
Upon returning from the house of the Kudanthai Astrologer, Kundavai and Vanathi climbed into
their swan shaped barge. The barge floated downstream for a short distance. The girls would
often play in the water amidst the thick groves of trees. They reached their favorite spot and
disembarked. When everyone had climbed down, one of the girls screamed "Crocodile!" "Help!"
She was pointing beyond the tree near which they were standing. All the other girls soon took up
the cry and ran hither and thither.
But Vanathi, who was usually of a frightened disposition, did not exhibit any fear. She was not
scared even upon seeing the horrible crocodile, with its wide-open jaws, right next to her.
Vanathi was not afraid even when she saw the faces of the other girls who were pretending to be
afraid according to Kundavai's instructions.
"Akka, the crocodile is powerful only when it is in the water; it has no strength when it is on land.
Tell these girls not to be afraid!" said Vanathi.
"You deceiving thief! This is not a live crocodile; it is a stuffed carcass! Someone has already
told you that!" said one of the other girls.
"I am not afraid even if it is really alive. I am only afraid of lizards."
It was at this point, that Vandiya Devan arrived there to save those maidens from the terrifying
crocodile! He jumped off his horse and in one run threw his spear as he came rushing forward.
When Vallavarayan heard the words of the lady who stood in front of the crocodile, his whole
body became alert. His disappointment that she had not talked to him earlier at the astrologer's
house was now demolished.
But that crocodile behind her - with its gaping jaws -- somehow created an uneasiness in him.
Why is she standing in front of the crocodile? Why is she asking me not to bother? And why is
that horrible crocodile not moving from its spot all this time?
The lady continued: "Sir! In Kudanthai, you begged pardon for having entered the astrologer's
house in a hurry. We came away without giving you any reply. You might have perhaps
construed that all women of the Chozla country are mannerless creatures. Please do not think so.
I was a little confused because my friend had suddenly fainted in that house. That is why I did not
reply ... ..."
Oh, ho! What a pleasing voice this is? Why is my heart pounding like this on hearing her speak?
Why is my throat parched? Not even did the marching drums of the war, or even the sweet music
of the flute and lute fill me with such joy. Nothing shook me up like this. Why am I not able to
interrupt her and say something? Why is my tongue tied? Why has the gentle breeze stopped?
Why has the Arisil stopped flowing? And then .... this crocodile? Why is it still, like this?
While Vandiya Devan's heart was agitated in this manner, his ears could continue hearing that
girl's voice as if in a dream: "... even now, you did this Sir, thinking that you were saving us. You
threw the spear at the crocodile. It is rare to find gallants who can handle the spear with such
speed and accuracy..."
All the other girls standing under that tree now laughed sharply. The laughter shattered Vandiya
Devan's infatuated dream. The magic cords, -- that girl's speech -- which bound him, were cut
loose. He examined the crocodile again; moved aside from the girl in front of him and neared the
reptile. He shook the spear embedded on its back and pulled it loose. No blood gushed from the
hole made by his weapon: then? some plantain fiber and cotton came out.
Those wicked girls laughed again. This time they clapped their hands and applauded.
Vallavarayan's heart and body shrank with mortification. He had never met such disgrace ever
before. Such a great blow to his pride in front of all these women! Are these women? No, no!
they are ogresses! I should not tarry next to them. I should not look upon their faces. Damn this!
My darling spear! Is this your fate, to suffer such dishonor? How will I wipe out this blemish? ...
All these thoughts raced through Vandiya Devan's mind within one moment. If those who stood
there laughingly had been men, the clearing would have turned into a battlefield! Those who
dared to laugh would have lost their lives that very instant! River Arisil would have run red with
their blood. But they were women! What could he do to them? The only recourse was to run
away and escape!
Without even looking back at the face of the girl who had captivated his mind, Vandiya Devan
ran up the river embankment. His horse, which was standing up there, neighed. Vandiya Devan
felt that even his horse was laughing at him along with those girls. All his anger turned towards
the horse. He jumped upon its back and smacked it sharply, twice with his whip. The selfrespecting horse quickly galloped along the trail on the riverside.
For a while, Kundavai Pirati gazed in the direction in which the horse had galloped away. She
watched till the dust raised by the horse had settled.
Turning towards her companions, she said, "Girls! None of you have any refinement even now!
You shouldn't have laughed like that. When we are alone, we can laugh and tease as we wish.
Don't we have to show some decorum when a stranger is in our midst? What would that youth
think about the women of the Chozla country?" spoke Kundavai.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 18 -- Idumban Kari
We left Azlvar-adiyan, also known as Thirumalai, at the ferry landing near Kollidam. Let us
consider that Vaishnava zealot once again.
When Vandiya Devan sat upon his horse and rode away towards Kudanthai, Mr. Thirumalai
started mumbling these words to himself: "This youth is very sharp. If I enter through the sieve,
he squeezes in through the floor decoration. I have not been able to find the truth about whose
man he is, or why and where he is going. I don't know if he was part of the treasonable meeting at
Kadamboor Fort. Luckily, I mentioned the Astrologer of Kudanthai to him! Let us see if that old
man can find out what I could not ..."
"Hello Sir! Are you talking to that ficus tree -- or, are you talking to yourself?" Hearing a voice
behind him, Mr. Thirumalai turned around. The servant who had come from Kadamboor and
procured the horse for Vandiya Devan, was standing there.
"My good man! Are you asking me? I wasn't talking to myself; neither was I talking to the tree. I
had a little discussion with a vampire sitting upon this tree," said Mr. Thirumalai.
"Oh! Is that so, Sir! Is the vampire of the Saiva sect or of the Vaishnava sect?" asked that good
"That's what I was trying to find out. You interrupted and now the vampire has disappeared. ...
Let him go! ... What is your name, my good man?"
"Why do you ask, Sir?"
"You saved us in the middle of the Kollidam by preventing the ferry-boat from overturning.
Shouldn't I remember a commendable fellow like you?
"My name ... My name ... is Idumban Kari, Sir." He said it with some hesitation.
"Oh! Idumban Kari? I have heard it somewhere ... before..."
At that time Idumban Kari did something very peculiar! He placed the spreading palms of both
his hands one upon the other, and wriggled his thumbs. As he did this, he looked at Azlvaradiyan's face.
"My dear man! What is this sign? I don't understand ...?"
Idumban Kari's dark face darkened further. His eyebrows drew close in exasperation. "I? I didn't
make any sign," he said.
"You did. You did do so. I saw it. Exponents of the classical dance Bharata Natyam, hold a
certain posture when they represent the first incarnation of God Vishnu; you did something like
"The first incarnation of Vishnu? What is that, Sir? I don't know?"
"Don't you know of Thirumal's first incarnation? The Pisces!"
"Are you talking about fish?"
"Yes. My dear man! yes!"
"Very good Sir! Your eyes are something special! On an ordinary tree you can see a vampire and
empty hands look like the fish incarnation. Perhaps, Sir, you have an extra fondness for fish!"
"No. No. No such thing my dear man! Don't sidetrack me. If you wish, let us drop the matter. But
tell me this: do you remember that radical Saiva fellow who came with us in the boat? Do you
know where he went?"
"Do I know? Oh yes. I saw him; he came along the same road when I went to buy the horse. He
kept cursing you all along the way ..."
"What did he say?"
"He said that if he sees you again he would cut off your topknot and shave your head and ..."
"Ah! Does he know the barber's trade?"
"He said that he would wipe out all the namam marks of your sect from your body and cover you
"Is that so? Then, I must surely meet him. Do you know the name of his home-town?"
"He said that it was Pullirukum Vellur, Sir."
"Everything else must wait till I meet that zealot! My good man, where are you going now? Will
you be coming in that direction?"
"No. No. Why should I go there? I have to cross the Kollidam and go back to Kadamboor. Won't
the master pluck my eyes out, if I don't show up?"
"If that is so, go quickly my man! See, the ferry-boat is about to leave."
Idumban Kari looked back; what Azlvar-adiyan said was true. The ferry-boat was about to leave.
"That's fine Sir. I shall leave immediately." After uttering these words, he started walking quickly
down the embankment, towards the ferry landing. He looked back once, when he was half way
down. By then Azlvar-adiyan had done a strange thing: he quickly climbed the ficus tree on the
shore and reached the topmost branches of that huge tree. Idumban Kari could not see him.
Idumban reached the ferry landing and stopped. "Are you coming back to the other shore?" asked
"No. I shall come in the next ferry. You can go," said Idumban Kari.
"Ah! Is that all? The way you came running down, I thought you wanted to catch this boat!" The
boatman pushed his long pole into the water; the ferry slid into the deep currents.
By now Azlvar-adiyan had climbed into the thickest branches of the tree and completely
concealed himself. Aha! I thought correctly! This fellow did not go in that boat. He is going to
come back. I must see where he goes and what he does next. I clearly saw his hands make the
sign of the fish. What does it mean? Fish! Fish! Fish ...! What is represented by the sign of the
fish? Ah! isn't the fish a symbol on the Pandiya flag? Perhaps, ha! ... Could it be so? Let us wait
... Let me wait with some patience. The patient ones shall inherit the fields; the hasty will get the
forest! But these days it seems better to inherit the forest than the field. Anyway, let me be
patient... Azlvar-adiyan shared these thoughts with the invisible vampire in the tree.
Soon, his expectations came true. The ferry-boat left without Idumban Kari. Idumban looked up
at the ficus tree from where he stood. His eyes searched in all directions. After making sure that
Azlvar-adiyan was nowhere in sight he came back to the same spot under the tree. His eyes
searched around once again before he sat down. His eyes kept looking hither and thither as if
searching for someone or something. But he did not look up into the branches of the tree. Even if
he had looked up he would not have spotted Azlvar-adiyan easily for Thirumalai had hidden
About an hour passed in this fashion. Azlvar-adiyan's legs began turning numb. He could not
remain hidden amidst the tree branches much longer. Idumban Kari did not appear as if he was
about to leave soon. How to escape? However carefully he descended on the other side of the
tree, he was sure to make some noise. Idumban Kari would surely see him. He had a sharp knife
thrust in his waistband. What guarantee that he would not use it?
What can I do? Shall I make horrible noises like a ghost or demon and jump down on him? If I
jump like that he may think that the vampire is attacking him and fall down in a faint or run
away. I can then run away and escape! ... When Thirumalai Nambi Azlvar-adiyan was
considering these options, it seemed as if his patience would be rewarded.
A man could be seen walking up from the south west i.e., the Kudanthai road. Thirumalai's
intuition warned that Idumban Kari was waiting for that man. Soon, his intuition proved to be
Upon seeing the new man, Idumban Kari stood up. The newcomer made a sign like the one
Idumban had made before. That is, he placed the palm of one hand upon the other and wriggled
his thumbs, making the sign of the fish. On seeing it, Idumban made a similar sign with his
"What is your name?" asked the newcomer.
"My name is Idumban Kari. What is yours, Sir?"
"I was expecting you, Sir!"
"I too came in search of you."
"Where should we go?"
"To the enemy memorial."
"Near Thiru-Puram-biyam ... "
"Don't talk so loudly. If someone hears it?"
"There is no one here. I looked."
"If someone is hiding near-abouts?"
"OK. Let us leave. I don't know the way very well. You go first. I shall follow you at a little
distance. Stop and make sure that I am following you as you go on."
"Fine. It is not a good road. The path is full of stones and thorns. We have to walk through forest
and thicket. Watch and walk carefully."
"That's alright. You leave now. Even if it is a forest path, hide if you see anyone. Understand?"
"Yes. I know."
Idumban Kari started walking westward along the banks of the Kollidam. Soman Samban
followed him a little later. Azlvar-adiyan waited on the tree till both were hidden from his sight.
He had watched and heard everything!
"Ah ha! These are bad times! All sorts of unexpected things are happening. I think I am going to
find out about some mysterious activity. God's grace has given me the opportunity to find out.
Now, getting details depends on my resource-fulness. I could not get all the details at
Kadamboor. I should not be thwarted like that again. Thiru-Puram-biyam Memorial means they
are talking about the memorial temple for the Ganga King Prithvi-pathi. It is more than a hundred
years since that memorial was built. It is now dilapidated! The forest has encroached and
surrounded that area. The village is quite away from the memorial.
"Why are these men going there? If the matter is to be discussed between these two, they would
have talked about it here itself. There is no need to walk a league along a forest path. I am sure
some others are likely to come to that spot. Why? Why did one of them refer to the memorial of
King Prithvi-pathi as `The enemy memorial'? Whose enemy was Ganga Prithvi-pathi? Yes! My
surmise is likely to be true. Anyway, let me find out. They have walked along the banks of the
Kollidam. I shall walk along the River Manni. It doesn't matter if the forest is thicker along the
banks of the Manni. Why should I bother about the forest and hills or the stones and thorns? I am
used to them -- They have to be afraid of me!"
Muttering these words and thinking such thoughts, Azlvar-adiyan descended the ficus tree and
went a little southward. He came to the banks of the River Manni and started walking west. He
walked through forests meeting no one on the way and by about sunset he reached the memorial
temple near Thiru-Puram-biyam.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 19 -- Battlefield And Forest
It was a practice among the Tamils of the ancient times to erect a hero stone and raise a memorial
for great warriors who died bravely in the battlefield. If the memorial was marked merely by a
stone tablet the place was known as the stone monument of the warrior. If a statue of a divinity
was consecrated along with the marker, the place came to be called a palli padai or memorial
shrine and temple.
One such memorial-temple existed near the village of Thiru-Puram-biyam, on the northern banks
of the River Manni about half a league from Kudanthai. It had been erected in memory of a great
warrior, the Ganga King Prithvi-pathi who had died in a great battle near that village.
Those who read world history may recall that the great battles of Waterloo and Panipat changed
the very course of history. The battle of Thiru-Puram-biyam had a similar significance as related
to, South Indian history. That battle took place in the year AD 885, about a hundred years before
the times of our story. It is essential that all persons interested in the history of the Tamils should
know the details of that battle.
The early Chozla kings of the Sangam Age -- Karikala Valava, Ilan-chet-chenni, Perunar-killi,
Thodi-thot Sembiyan -- ruled with great fame and prosperity. For about five to six hundred years
after their times, a long eclipse clouded the fame of the Chozla's. The Pandiyas in the south and
the Pallavas of the north squashed the Chozlas into becoming petty chieftains. Towards the end,
the Chozlas had to give up their coveted capital city, Uraiyoor, to the Pandiyas and move east.
The Chozla chieftains who moved east made Pazlayarai, near Kudanthai, their new capital. But
they did not forget their rights to their long time capital, i.e., Uraiyoor. Neither did they give up
their title of Rooster Kings -- a title of monarchs who ruled from Uraiyoor which was also known
as Kozliyoor (kozli in Tamil means rooster.)
Of the Chozlas of Pazlayarai, Vijayala became famous as an incomparable, brave warrior. He had
fought in the forefront of various battles and had ninety-six war-wounds on his body. Latter day
poets sang his praises enumerating his wounds to be `Ninety and twice of three more' and said
that he `Wore on his brave body ornaments of battle-wounds numbering ninety and six.' His son,
Aditya Chozla was comparable to his father in bravery. He also took part in several great
campaigns. Vijayala Chozla had retired in his old age after crowning his son as the king.
At that time the enmity between the Pandiyas and Pallavas had grown to result in several
skirmishes and fights. The Pandiya king of that time was Varaguna. The Pallava monarch was
Aparajita. The battles between these two powerful rulers often took place on Chozla territory!
Just like the rooster caught in the midst of a clash between one elephant and another, the Chozla
people suffered: caught in the midst of the enmity of two super-powers.
King Vijayala tried to make the best use of these wars for gaining his own supremacy. In each
skirmish or battle he would join forces with one opponent or the other. Victory and defeat were
equal: but the warrior spirit of Chozla men became well established.
Several tributaries branch from the Cauvery to form a delta -- the fertile lands of the Chozla
country. All these tributaries branch and flow to the south of the Cauvery. There is only one
tributary between the Kollidam and Cauvery rivers. It is known as the River Manni.
The final test of strength between the super-powers took place as a great battle near the village of
Thiru-Puram-biyam situated to the north of the Manni. The armed strength of both sides was
more or less equal. Pallava Aparajita was supported by the Ganga King Prithvi-pathi. Aditya
Chozla also supported Aparajita.
Compared to the armies of the Pandiyas, Pallavas and Gangas the Chozla battalion was tiny. But
Aditya knew that if the Pandiyas were victorious this time, the Chozlas would be totally
destroyed. Therefore, like the Cauvery mixing into the mighty ocean, his tiny army joined the
larger Pallava forces.
The battlefield spread across one square league. The four divisions of the army -- chariot legions,
elephant brigade, cavalry and infantry were ready. When elephant clashed with elephant, like two
mountains hurled against each other, the skies thundered. Horses flew against horses like furious
storms thrown one against the other; lances and long spears held by the horsemen shone like
lightning. Chariot dashed against chariot: broken into smithereens and thrown in all directions.
The noise of the whistling arrows and clashing swords filled the skies and shook the four corners
of the world. After a fierce conflict lasting over three days, the field looked like a sea of blood.
Dead horses and elephants appeared like islands in that sea. Lifeless bodies formed dunes.
Broken chariots floated like driftwood from a sunken ship. Both sides had lost thousands, tens of
thousands of men.
After the first three days of battle, a very tiny battalion of the Pallavas remained intact. Those
men who lived were very tired. But Pandiya forces attacked again and again as if they owned
some divine spell against tiredness. A council-of-war was held in King Aparajita's tent. The three
kings -- Aparajita, Prithvi-pathi and Aditya together with their generals, met to discuss further
action. They decided that they could no longer oppose the enemy; it was best to retreat to the
north of the Kollidam.
At that point a miracle happened in the battlefield. Vijayala Chozla -- weak with old age, bearing
numberless war-scars over his body, having lost the power to use his legs because of wounds --
somehow came to the battle front. The old war-lion realized that if the Pallava forces withdrew
beyond the Kollidam, the Chozla entity would be completely wiped out. His roar instilled new
life in the remaining Pallava men.
"One elephant; give me just one elephant," shouted the old monarch.
"All our elephant brigade is lost. Not one elephant remains alive," they said.
"One horse. At least bring me one good horse," he asked.
"Not a single horse survived," replied the men.
"At least, have two brave warriors of the Chozla nation survived? If you are alive come forward!"
roared the brave soldier.
Instead of two, two-hundred came forward.
"Two men -- with courage in their heart and strength in their shoulders -- two among you lift me
up. The others follow two after two to take their place. If the two carrying me fall, those behind
come forward." The bravest of brave men spoke with a firmness.
Two giants came forward and lifted Vijayala onto their shoulders. "GO! Go to the war-front!" he
A battle was still being fought in one corner of the field. The southern forces were fighting
bravely, making the northerners retreat. Vijayala Chozla seated on the shoulders of two brave
men entered that fight. He rushed into the midst of the enemy legion, swirling two large swords
held in each hand; none could oppose him or stop him. Wherever he went dead bodies of enemy
men rose in piles on both sides. Men who retreated earlier came back to see this miracle. They
stood in shock to see the inhuman bravery of Vijayala Chozla. They cheered each other and came
back to fight.
And that was it. The fickle Goddess of Victory changed her mind; her favor was now bestowed
upon the Pallava army. The three kings gave up the idea of retreating beyond the Kollidam. They
too entered the battle field. Soon the Pandiya army began its retreat. They did not stop till they
reached the borders of their Pandiya Territories.
Ganga Prithvi-pathi performed various deeds of valor that day. He established his brave fame and
gave up his life in the field. They erected a hero stone in his memory in the battlefield. Later it
was built into a memorial-temple or palli padai.
That gory battlefield lay waste for a few years; not a weed grew on that land. People avoided
going near the place. After a while, forest began claiming the land for itself. Trees and creepers
began growing thickly around the memorial temple. Wolves took up abode among the bushes.
Owls and bats lived in the dark branches of tall trees. In the course of time, no one went near that
temple. Over the years the building began to crumble. Soon it turned into ruins. By the times of
our story, the place had become a totally deserted ruin in the middle of a forest.
Azlvar-adiyan reached the ruined memorial when darkness was setting in. The gargoyles carved
on the upper walls of the memorial stared at him and tried to frighten him. But that brave
Vaishnava Nambi was not one to be frightened easily. He jumped up and climbed on to the roof
of the structure. He then hid himself carefully amidst the branches of a tree that covered the roof.
He kept watch in all directions. Soon, his eyes were able to peer into the darkness and discern
various shapes. His ears were able to hear even the tiniest of noises.
One hour, two hours and even three hours passed after sunset. The darkness around him was
suffocating. Now and then he heard the rasping sound of forest trees: branches rubbed against
each other. There! a wild-dog was climbing a tree. An owl hooted; bats screeched. Birds
frightened by the wild-dog beat their wings loudly as they tried to perch on higher branches.
Wolves had begun to howl.
He heard a noise above his head: looked up. Some small animal -- lizard or squirrel jumped to a
different branch. A small patch of the clear sky could be seen through the branches of the tree.
Stars twinkled and peeped down. In that silent, dark forest the stars seemed to extend a friendly
smile towards him. Therefore, Thirumalai Nambi Azlvar-adiyan looked up at the stars and started
"Oh! My dear star friends! Today you seem to be laughing at the foolishness of these human
beings on this earth. You have good reason to laugh! You might remember that horrible battle
which took place in this very spot a hundred years ago; and how the whole area was a wretched
ruin of blood and death. Perhaps you were surprised at mankind and their petty enmities! You
wondered why they butchered each other to create rivers of red. It is called bravery! Even a
hundred years after a man's death they consider him an `Enemy' -- they referred to it as the
`Enemy memorial'. They are going to meet near the enemy memorial and talk and conspire of
more harm to the living in the name of the dead! Oh, you twinkling lights of the skies! Why won't
you laugh? Yes. Laugh as much as you wish. Dear God! Is my coming here a big waste? Is the
whole night going to pass like this? Are those men, whom I expected, coming here, or not? Did I
hear wrong? Did I not see correct? Or did those men who made the sign of the fish change their
plans and go someplace else? -- What disappointment? Disappointment? I cannot forgive myself
if I am cheated today... Ah! ... I think I can see some light in that direction. What is it? The light
is now hidden. No. I can see it. No doubt now. Someone is coming here; he is holding a torch of
burning twigs. No, not one man -- I hear two men. My waiting has not been wasted."
The two men who came crossed the path and went beyond the memorial temple. They stopped in
the midst of a small clearing nearby. One fellow sat down. The man holding the lighted twigs
looked around. There was no doubt: he was expecting some others. After sometime, two others
came and joined them. They must have been very brave men; men who had come to that spot
several times before. Otherwise, they could not have found their way in that darkness in that
forest. Those who came first and the late comers talked amongst themselves. But Azlvar-adiyan
could not hear a single word! Oh dear! All my effort seems useless. I cannot even see those men
clearly. What shall I do?
Two more men joined them very soon. They talked of something to each other. One of the men
who came last, had a bag in one hand. He opened the string tied around his bag and poured its
contents on the ground! Gold coins shone brightly in the light of the burning twigs. The man who
dropped the coins laughed like one possessed:
"My friends! We are about to destroy the Chozla Kingdom using Chozla gold! Isn't it funny?" He
laughed loudly again.
"Ravidasa, don't make such a racket! Let us talk softly," said another.
"Fine! What does it matter how we talk in this place? If anybody hears us, it will be owls and
bats; wolves and wild-dogs; luckily, they cannot repeat what they hear!" Ravidasa laughed even
"Maybe. But it is better to talk softly."
They started talking amongst themselves, softly. Azlvar-adiyan felt that it was a waste to sit on
top of that roof without hearing anything. He must get down and go near the clearing to listen to
their talk. He must manage to avoid the danger from such activity. Azlvar-adiyan started down
from the roof top. His stocky body disturbed the tree branches and made a slight noise.
One of the men in the clearing jumped up quickly, saying, "Who is that?" Azlvar-adiyan's heart
stopped beating for a few seconds. There was no way of not being discovered, except to run.
Running would cause more noise. They will surely catch him. A vampire bat on the tree spread
open its huge wings; it then opened and closed its wings lazily several times and whistled "Oorm,
oorm," loudly, twice.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 20 -- The First Enemy
Azlvar-adiyan gave his heartfelt thanks to the vampire bat which helped him at the right time; a
hooting owl gave further aid. The conspirators gathered in the clearing thought that the noise was
made by the owl or the bat.
"Hey fellow! This bat has frightened us. Kill it!" said one man.
"No need. Sharpen your knives and save them for other important tasks; keep them to rout the
very roots of our enemy clans! Bats and owls are not our enemy; they are our friends. We are
awake when normal folk sleep. These owls and bats are awake with us." The man called
Ravidasa spoke these words.
Thirumalai moved forward step by step, quietly, while he listened to these words of Ravidasa.
Soon he neared a large marudai tree. The roots of that hundred-year-old tree spread in all
directions. Hollow spaces could be found in between and below the thick roots. Thirumalai stood
in one such hollow blending his body with the tree trunk.
"We have no dearth of funds as long as the royal treasury in Tanjavur exists. All we need is
determination to complete the task we have undertaken. We should be capable of guarding our
secret from becoming known to anyone, until the assignment is done. We have to divide
ourselves into two groups. One group must travel to Lanka immediately. The other must go to the
Thondai regions and wait for an opportunity to achieve our goal. Both jobs must be completed
more or less at the same time. If there is any delay after finishing with one enemy, the other
fellow will become forewarned. We should never let that happen. Do you all understand? Who
among you are ready to go to Lanka?" asked Ravidasa.
"I can go." "I shall go." Several voices rose at the same time.
"When we meet the next time, in the Pandiya Kingdom, let us decide about who is to go to
Lanka. Till then, we have several arrangements to make here itself."
"Which is the best way to go to Lanka?" asked one man.
"We can go by Kodi Karai. That is a good place to cross the sea. But it is difficult to reach Kodi
Karai from here. Enemies all along the way; spies everywhere. Therefore, it is better to go to
Sethu and cross the sea to Mattotam. Those going to Lanka must know how to swim in the sea
and they must be ready to row a boat or catamaran if the need arises. Who among you knows
how to swim?"
"I do." "I can." said a few voices.
"We must first meet Mahinda, the King of Lanka and then complete our job. Therefore, at least
one of us who goes to Lanka must be able to speak the Singhala language. Ah! Why hasn't our
Soman Samban come yet? Did any of you see him today?" asked Ravidasa.
"Here, I am coming." The voice came from a spot very close to the hollow in which Thirumalai
was hiding. Azlvar-adiyan flattened his body further against the tree trunk. Dear, dear me! How
troublesome it is, that my wretched body has grown so prosperous.
Two more newcomers came and joined the group in the clearing. Azlvar-adiyan peeped out from
his hiding place, showing a bare minimum of his face outside the hollow. He recognized the late
comers as the two men who had met under the tree on the southern banks of the Kollidam.
On seeing the two new men, Ravidasa exclaimed, "Welcome! Welcome! I was afraid that you
were in some trouble and may not come to this meeting. From where and by which way are you
"We came along the bank of the Kollidam. On the way, a pack of wolves surrounded us. It was
quite difficult to escape from them. That is why we are late," said Soman Samban.
"There is reason if you are afraid of the tiger or lion! What can we achieve with the help of men
who are afraid of wolves?" asked the man who was holding the lighted twigs.
"Don't say that my friend! The wolf or jackal is worse than any lion or tiger which is a solitary
enemy that attacks alone. We can fight against them and manage. But wolves come in packs.
They are more dangerous. Didn't our incomparable king of kings lose the battle and give up his
life because the Chozla jackals came in large packs all at one time? Would it have happened any
"We shall totally destroy the whole pack of wolves. We shall kill their very roots." Soman
Samban swore with vehemence.
"Here are the tools to help that cause!" said Ravidasa, pointing at the gold coins. Soman Samban
picked up a few coins and examined them.
"Yes! The tiger symbol on one side; palm tree on the other side," he exclaimed!
"Chozla gold! Lord Pazluvoor's signet. I did what I said I would do. What news from the rest of
you? Does Idumban Kari have any special news?" asked Ravidasa.
"Yes. He has news. Let him tell it in his own words," said Soman Samban.
Idumban Kari began speaking: "As per your orders, I joined the household of Kadamboor
Sambuvaraya and am working as a servant in his palace. Last night my efforts bore fruit.
Yesterday, a huge banquet was held at Kadamboor. Several guests -- the Elder Lord Pazluvoor,
Lord of Mazluvoor, Vanangamudi Munai Raya and others had come. The gypsy dance and velan
attam, the oracle dance, took place. The man who danced as the divine-man foretold the future
when the spirit manifested him. His predictions were helpful to our intentions. Everybody
thought that the Elder Lord Pazluvoor had brought his Young-Queen in the closed palanquin to
the palace. Lord Pazluvoor announced that Emperor Sundara Chozla was in poor health and that
he was not likely to live long. All the dignitaries met and decided that Prince Aditya Karikala was
not the rightful heir to ascend the throne; they decided that Prince Madurandaka had the right to
succeed as Crown Prince. Some among them were doubtful if that Prince would agree to accept
the throne. Lord Pazluvoor then promised that `He will accept personally,' and opened the
curtains of the closed palanquin. Prince Madurandaka came out from the palanquin and agreed to
accept the throne..."
"They are going to crown that brave fellow who roams around disguised as a woman! Very good!
Let them crown him! Everything is happening according to our plans. An internal confusion in
Chozla politics is very useful to our cause. Now, whatever happens, no one will suspect us!
Idumban Kari! You have brought very good and important news. But how did you learn of all
this? How did you get the opportunity?" asked their leader, Ravidasa.
"I tried to put myself forward working in the inner chambers of the palace. I was assigned the
task of guarding the courtyard where the dignitaries met, to hold their discussions at midnight.
While on guard duty, I made good use of my eyes and ears."
"Did you learn of anything else by making such good use of your senses?"
"Yes. I found something else. Another fellow, a stranger, was spying on that midnight meeting
and listening to everything that was being said; he was hiding on the outer ramparts of the palace
and watching everything."
"Oh! Who was he?"
"A fanatic Vaishnava fellow with a topknot on his forehead ...."
"Ah! Was it him? That's what I surmised. What did you do with him? Did you report him to your
masters and get hold of him?"
"No. I did not do that. I had thought that he may be one of us. I thought that you may have sent
"You made a big mistake! He is not one of us. He is short and stocky; a quarrelsome fellow. His
name is Thirumalai Appan. Sometimes, he calls himself Azlvar-adiyan Nambi."
"Yes. That very same fellow. I realized my mistake this afternoon when I found out that he was
not one of us."
"How did you find that?"
"One of the friends of my younger master Kandamaran had also come to the fort last night. I did
find out that he had no connection with Lord Pazluvoor and his fellow conspirators. That friend
went to sleep in some corner. This morning, my younger master came to the banks of the
Kollidam accompanying his friend. I heard him speak of his intentions and stood in front of him
often in the course of my duties. My master asked me to come along. The master went back to
Kadamboor from the north shore; But he ordered me to go to the south shore and procure a horse
for his friend before I returned. I asked permission to visit my aunt in Kudanthai after that. That
is how I could come here without any problem."
"All this is fine! But how did you find out about that fanatic topknot fellow?"
"When the ferry boat on the Kollidam was about to leave, that fellow came and joined us in the
boat. He exchanged some heated words with Kandamaran's friend. Therefore, I doubted my
conclusions about him being one of us. It appeared as if he was waiting for me on the south shore
of the Kollidam. So, I made our secret sign to him but he did not understand. I then knew that he
was not one of us."
"You have committed a grave error! You should not make our sign to persons whose antecedents
are not known. My Friends! Please listen to this," said Ravidasa, and he continued in a more
agitated voice, "Our assignment is in Kanchi. And in Lanka. Our greatest enemies are in these
two places. But an enemy more important than those two, our first enemy is Thirumalai Appan
who wanders around in the name of Azlvar-adiyan Nambi. He is capable of thwarting our
intentions and destroying all of us. He is trying to abduct that peerless lady who is our leader."
After announcing this, Ravidasa continued, "In the future, if any one of you see him, anywhere,
in any circumstance, use any weapon in your hands to pierce his heart and kill him! If you carry
no weapon, use your bare hands to choke him to death. Or destroy him cunningly with poison;
push him into the flood to feed him to the crocodiles. Lure him to a cliff top and push him to
death. Kill him mercilessly, like you would any poisonous snake, lizard or scorpion. More
commendable, if you can give him up as a human sacrifice to the Goddess Kannagi or the
Goddess Kali. He is going to be an impediment to our intentions as long as he is alive."
"Mr. Ravidasa! You are saying this with such conviction. He must be a very artful fellow. Who is
"He? He is a terribly capable spy!"
"I was not sure myself, for a long time I suspected him to be a spy of Sundara Chozla or Aditya
Karikala. I realized that he was not that. I now think that he is a spy of that evil old she-devil who
lives in Pazlayarai -- that Elder Pirati."
"Ah! Is that true? Why does that old woman, involved in her devotions to the Gods, need a spy?"
"All her devotions are rubbish! That old Queen's devotion to Shiva is as big a masquerade as this
topknot fellow's Vaishnava fanaticism! She is a fiend who is hostile to her own son. That is why
her very own brother, Lord Mazlavaraya of Mazluvoor quarrelled with her; he now belongs to
that Pazluvoor fellow's group."
"Mr. Ravidasa, are there any others like that Vaishnava extremist?"
"There is an astrologer in Kudanthai. I suspect that fellow. He pretends to foretell the future by
astrology to one and all and discovers their secrets. None of you should ever go to him. If you go
to him, you will surely be hoodwinked."
"Whose spy is he? What do you think?"
"I have not been able to find out that! Perhaps he works for that false prince who is in Lanka
now. But I am not very concerned about that astrologer. He cannot do much harm to us. I am
apprehensive about that Vaishnava fellow. He should be killed upon sight: like some evil,
Azlvar-adiyan, hidden under the hollow tree root, heard all this; his whole body was drenched in
sweat and he shivered with fright. He doubted if he could ever escape with his life from that
forest. To top it all, he felt like sneezing; just at that time! He tried as much as he could to control
that wicked sneeze. He stuffed his face into his scarf and "Aatch” he sneezed.
At that time the gentle breeze had died. The whispering trees were quiet. The quiet "Aatch" was
heard very clearly by the men gathered in the clearing. Ravidasa looked up and said, "There is
some noise near that marudai tree. Take the light over there and see what it is."
The man holding the lighted twigs came towards the tree. As he came closer and closer, the light
increased. He had to take just one more step, the light would then fall completely on Nambi.
Then, what will happen? It would be impossible to escape with his life.
Azlvar-adiyan's heart beat faster and faster. He eyes looked all around, up and down, searching
for something to aid his escape. Nothing was obvious. The man came closer. Up there, on that
low branch above him, ... another giant bat was hanging upside down! Quickly, he stretched his
hands out and plucked that vampire bat off its perch. He had a good idea!
As soon as the man with the torch took another step and came closer, Thirumalai threw the
vampire bat at him. The torch of twigs fell to the ground. The light dimmed. The man, his face
beaten by the strong wings of that huge bat, started screaming. The noise of several men coming
closer, running closer, could be heard. Azlvar-adiyan also began running. He ran deeper into the
forest and soon disappeared.
Several shouts, "What?" "What happened?" could be heard. The man who had held the torch
began a protracted explanation of how the vampire bat attacked him! These noises were audible
for quite some time as Thirumalai ran further away.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 21 -- The Curtains Parted
Can two minds function at the same time in one body? Yes -- Vandiya Devan knew the answer
because of his experiences that day!
He was travelling through the most fertile of the bountiful Chozla lands. It was the season of new
floods in all the rivers and streams. Fresh water rushed through canals, conduits, and waterways
into the lush fields; water was everywhere.
How appropriate, to call the Chozla land bounteous and its monarch the king of bounty!
Thoughts of the dangers surrounding the Chozla monarch immediately followed. What is my
duty in this situation? Shall I keep quiet after delivering the letters sent by Prince Karikala to the
Emperor and think that my duty is done? Why should I interfere in this discord and hostility
between royal cousins? How does it concern me, whoever sits on the Chozla throne? In some
ways, if I think of it, these Chozlas are my ancestral enemies. Did not the Chozlas, Gangas and
Vaithumbas join together to destroy the very existence of my forefathers of the Vanakapadi
Kingdom? Can I forget all that injustice just because Prince Karikala befriends me today?
No, no! -- How can I consider that old history as injustice? It is natural that kings fight and
oppose each other. Victory and defeat are both natural. What is the use of the defeated group
resenting the victorious? When they were powerful, weren't my forefathers ruthless towards the
kings they vanquished? Did they not try to completely destroy their enemies? Ah! What was that
poem? I can remember a poem about such activities of my clan:-
With countless armies made into leaf-mulch,
With the flowing red of battlefields stored for irrigation,
In a dirt field ploughed by the war elephant,
That Vaana, the best of kings on this earth,
He planted the heads of the three kings: his enemies.
My ancestors also committed such dreadful deeds in the battlefield! The lot of those defeated in
battle is lamentable. Can all kings be merciful like Rama and Dharma of the epics? Because of
their merciful nature they were driven to the forests to suffer! Those epic heroes suffered even
though they were brave and were befriended by gallant men. There should be no mercy shown in
matters of politics! If one thinks about it, we should consider these Chozlas as being more
tolerant and merciful than any other such monarchs. If possible, they make friends with their
enemies. Didn't King Arinjaya marry the Vaithumba Princess? Isn't it because of that famous
beauty, the Princess Kalyani, that Sundara Chozla and his children are so handsome? Ah! ...
when I think of beauty, the face of that maiden of Kudanthai, that lady on the banks of River
Arisil, comes to my mind! She is not coming into my mind suddenly from somewhere ... her
presence has been lurking in my heart all this while...
While his outer mind considered the complications of Chozla politics and enjoyed the beauties of
Chozla land, his inner mind dwelt upon that maiden. Now the inner mind and outer mind began
to consider the same object, frankly. He began to compare any beautiful sight to her enchanting
personality. He recalled her lovely shoulders when he saw the grace of slender bamboos swaying
in the breeze. The profuse blooms of creek-side water lilies were example of her dark eyes. He
doubted if the lovely lotus could equal her golden face. Can he liken the sweet melody of bees
humming in flower groves to her pleasing voice?
Poets can imagine such nonsense -- how can they be reality? How beautiful she was! The very
memory of her face makes my heart beat faster! I am not enthralled like that by these flowers and
bees. Oh! Oh! I have forgotten all the advice given by my elders! There is nothing more
impermanent in this world than the allure of women. Those who wish to succeed in life should
never be enticed by the charm of women. If one falls prey to their enchantment, it is the end! The
story of Kovalan is a good example of that -- Why think of Kovalan? Look at Lord Pazluvoor!
That most powerful personage, the bravest of soldiers -- aren't people making fun of him because
of such a predicament? -- but the people do not know the truth! No one knows about who travels
in the closed palanquin with Lord Pazluvoor. They talk in ignorance. Still, Prince Madurandaka
need not demean himself in that fashion. Why should he hide in a closed palanquin under the
guise of Lord Pazluvoor's queen, and go from town to town? Is this commendable in any man?
Should he acquire his kingdom in this manner? Can he safeguard his gains obtained in this
fashion? He will have to trust Lord Pazluvoor and his cronies and rule dominated by their power.
On that issue -- what Sundara Chozla does is also not commendable; he should not have given
such prerogatives and powers to persons like the Lords of Pazluvoor. That too when he has two
such capable, exquisite sons. And when he has a daughter whose intelligence and skill is praised
by the whole nation...
That maiden -- whom I saw at the astrologer's house and met on the banks of the river -- whom
does she resemble? ... Could it be possible? -- absolute foolishness! It can never be so! But why
not? If it is so, there is none more ill-fated than me. How did I behave? -- so uncivilized --
towards a lady admired by one and all from the Vindhya Mountains to Lanka Island. It is not
possible... How can I face her tomorrow when I deliver the Prince's letters?
With such disconnected thoughts crowding his mind, Vandiya Devan came along the Cauvery to
reach the town of Thiru-vai-aru. He stood on the southern banks of the Cauvery, looking across
the river to see the town on the northern bank. The fertility and beauty of that country
overpowered his heart. He asked a passerby and confirmed that it was indeed Thiru-vai-aru. All
that he had heard about that place seemed to be paltry compared to reality.
The description of that town by Gnana-sambanda in his Thevaram poems could be recognized in
the actuality. There was no change in three hundred years.
Look at those luscious groves of trees on the Cauvery bank. How big are the fruits hanging from
the trunk and branches of the jack-tree! There is nothing like this in the dry Thondai region! Look
at those monkeys gathered in these fertile lands. How delightful to see them jump from tree to
tree! I remember the descriptions in Gnana-sambanda's poems:
Maidens dance on the stages set in the street-corners of Thiru-vai-aru. Song and music
accompany that dance with melodious drumbeats; Monkeys hearing those drums (mattalam)
think that the skies are thundering with an approaching storm: they climb to the top of palm trees
and look up at the skies waiting for the rains!
How appropriate that description is even now? Look at those long-tailed monkeys scampering
among tree-tops. I can hear the sounds of music and dance from the town! Along with the melody
of the veena, flute and other such instruments, I can hear the sounds of dancing feet and ankle
bells! The dancers here are not frenzied like the gypsy dancers of Kadamboor. This is classical
dance -- decorous Bharata Natyam in full dignity. The music is from established classical culture.
I can even hear the tap-tap of dance teachers beating time as their students practice!
Teachers keep time, while beguiling damsels dance;
Poets speak enchanting verse, making every sculpted stone come alive;
Such accomplished people stroll in the streets of Thiru-vai-aru.
Aha! Gnana-sambanda was a good devotee of Shiva but, more than that he was a connoisseur of
the arts! This town is exactly as he described it! I must stay in this town at least for tonight and
enjoy this music and dance and I must worship at the shrines of the Lord of the five-rivers and
the Lady who nurtured justice. Look at all those devotees at prayers on the banks of the Cauvery.
How elegant they look with their foreheads adorned with broad ashen marks! Their chants of
"Namasivaya" drown the sounds of the music and dance. Look, someone is singing the Thevaram
songs so exquisitely. This town seems to be created by the Gods just for music and song! I must
stay here tonight. What is the use of hurrying to Tanjavur? I don't know if I can even enter the
fort? Even if I manage to go in, will I be able to meet the Emperor? The two Lords of Pazluvoor
are said to guard the Emperor as if in prison ... Let me cross the Cauvery and go north.
When Vandiya Devan came to this conclusion, something happened. A palanquin was
approaching along the Cauvery from the west. Footmen and guards walked in front and behind
the palanquin. A suspicion crossed Vandiya Devan's mind. He waited at the same spot till the
palanquin came nearer. His surmise was correct. He could see the sign of the palmtree
emblazoned upon the outer screens of the covered palanquin.
Yes! This palanquin must be coming from Kadamboor! They must have come by some other
route, while I came through Kudanthai. But there is no sign of Lord Pazluvoor! Maybe he is
delayed somewhere on the way.
The palanquin turned south on to the Tanjavur road. That decided it -- Vandiya Devan abandoned
the idea of tarrying at Thiru-vai-aru. He decided to follow that palanquin. Why did he decide to
do so? Even he did not know at that time! He was sure that Prince Madurandaka was seated
inside the palanquin. His feelings of disgust about the Prince increased. Still, he might find some
good opportunity if he followed the palanquin. The bearers might put down the palanquin or the
Prince might emerge for some reason or other. He could make his acquaintance and it might help
him in entering the fort at Tanjavur and meeting the Emperor.
I must speak and put up a pretense suitable to achieve my goal. If I don't use such strategy and
conniving, I cannot complete my assigned task; particularly in such political matters.
Therefore, he let the palanquin and its guards go ahead and then followed them at a little distance.
But no expected opportunity arose. They had already crossed the remaining four rivers between
Thiru-vai-aru and Tanjavur. The palanquin was not put down. The bearers walked steadily. He
could soon see the ramparts and gates of the outer fort of Tanjavur in the distance. Once the
palanquin enters the fort, nothing can be done. He must do something bold and fearless.
What can happen? Will they chop off my head? It's alright if they do so -- there is no point going
back with my life if I am unable to complete my assigned task. As a basis for all this thought,
Vandiya Devan had a certain anger and disgust about the prince in the palanquin. His hands
itched to tear apart the curtains of the palanquin and expose the fact that the person inside was not
a woman but a full grown man! His heart was agitated!
While he was considering various options to execute his intentions, one of the men in the retinue
of the palanquin hesitated. He stared at Vandiya Devan seated on his horse.
"Who are you Sir? You have been following us from Thiru-vai-aru?" he asked.
"I am not following you Sir! I am going to Tanjavur. Doesn't this road lead to Tanjavur?"
"Yes. This is the road to Tanjavur; But only important persons can use this road. There is another
road for commoners," said that man.
"Is that so? I too am quite an important person!" said Vallavarayan Vandiya Devan.
The man smiled upon hearing this, "Why are you going to Tanjavur?" he asked.
"My uncle lives in Tanjavur. I heard that he was not keeping good health and am going to visit
"What does you uncle do in Tanjavur? Is he in service at the Palace?"
"Oh, no! He is an inn-keeper."
"Ah! Is that so! Then, why don't you go before us? Why do you follow us?"
"My horse is tired Sir. That's why. Otherwise, what pleasure do I have, to see your backsides?"
In the course of this conversation, Vandiya Devan came very close to the palanquin. An idea had
occurred to him. He pulled in the reins, pressed both his legs against its flanks and pushed his
horse towards the bearers carrying the end poles of the palanquin. They turned in fear and
Vandiya Devan immediately started shouting "Oh King, My Lord! My Sire! Your bearers are
pushing against my horse! Help! Help! Oh dear!"
The screens shook and parted. ***
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 22 -- Velaikara Battalion Of Velirs
First, the outer screens emblazoned with the palmtree symbol parted; next the silken inner
curtains were pushed aside. The golden hand seen by Vallavarayan once before, the hand which
had stunned him, could be seen once again. Thinking that it was no longer polite to be seated on
his horse, Vandiya Devan climbed down.
He ran up to the palanquin saying "Prince! Prince! Your bearers ..." and looked inside. He looked
again; he blinked his eyelids and looked once again! His eyes were dazzled! His tongue tied itself
into knots! Suddenly his throat felt parched. "No. No! Princess! Princess of Pazluvoor! ... Your
Ladyship, Princess of Pazluvoor! ... Your bearers and their horses dashed against my palanquin
..." came the flustered blabbering.
All this happened within the blink of an eyelid! By now the guards carrying the long spears ran
up and surrounded Vandiya Devan. He realized that the men were around him; his hand
automatically reached for his sword. But he could not take his eyes off the dazzling face of that
enchantress behind the curtains!
Yes; unlike his expectations, this time he unquestionably saw the beautiful figure of a young girl
seated inside the palanquin! Girl means what a girl! Vandiya Devan hadn't known that such
beauty, which could madden those who beheld it, could exist in this world.
Fortunately, some nerve in his brain became active at that moment. An amazing idea rose in his
mind. He decided to make use of that idea. He made a tremendous effort and cleared his throat,
bringing back speech to his tongue. "I beg pardon! My Lady, aren't you the Young-Queen of
Pazluvoor? I came this far to make thy acquaintance!" spoke his tongue.
A smile blossomed on the gentle face of the Young-Queen of Pazluvoor. A lotus bud, which was
closed shut till that moment, opened slightly to reveal a string of tiny pearls. The radiance of that
smile mesmerized our young warrior and absolutely bewildered him.
The footmen surrounding him seemed to wait for the commands of their mistress. The Lady
made a sign with her finger; they moved away a little and stood apart. Two men caught hold of
the horse and waited.
That jewel among women, seated in the palanquin, looked at Vandiya Devan. Two sharp spearpoints pierced his heart!
"Yes! I am the Young-Queen of Pazluvoor," said that Lady. What is that intoxicating stuff mixed
into her voice? Why is my head spinning with such dizziness upon hearing her speak?
"What did you say just now? You appealed to me about something? About my bearers?"
Can the softness of Benares silk, the intoxication of country liquor, the sweetness of forest honey
and the flash of monsoon lightning blend like this into the voice of a young maiden? It seems
quite possible here...
"You said they dashed my palanquin against your horse?"
The mocking smile playing upon her coral red lips indicated that she was enjoying the joke.
Vandiya Devan gained some courage because of it.
"Yes. Great Queen! These men did that; my horse was petrified."
"You also look petrified! Go to the priest at the temple of Goddess Durga and ask him to exorcise
you! You will overcome this terror!"
By now, Vandiya Devan had overcome his fear and even laughter came back! The Pazluvoor
Queen's expression had now changed: a smiling full-moon turned into blazing anger!
"Stop jesting. Tell the truth. Why did you push your horse against my palanquin and stop me?"
He had to give a plausible answer. If not... Luckily, he had already concocted a story. In a soft
voice, a deliberately soft voice, he spoke as if he did not wish others to hear his words: "My
Lady! Madam Nandini Devi! He... Mr. Azlvar-adiyan, that is ... Mr. Thirumalai, he ... he asked
me to meet you! That is why I connived this strategy. Please forgive me. I beg pardon!"
As he said the words, he examined her face carefully. He waited anxiously, to see the effect of his
reply. It was like throwing a stone at a fruit tree. Will a ripe fruit fall? Or, would it be raw? Or,
will the stone fall back on him? Or, will some unexpected thunder descend?
The dark brows of the Pazluvoor Queen shot up -- surprise and fear filled her intoxicating eyes.
The next instant, she seemed to have come to some decision.
"Fine! It is not safe to stop in the middle of a road and talk. Come to my palace tomorrow. You
can explain everything there."
Vandiya Devan's heart filled with bliss. His intentions were about to be fulfilled, but there was no
use in leaping across three fourths of an open well! He must leap across the remaining quarter.
"Madam! My Lady! They will not let me come inside the fortress! Neither will they let me enter
the palace! What shall I do?" he asked with some agitation.
The Young-Queen of Pazluvoor instantly turned aside and picked up a silken purse lying next to
her. She opened the bag and took out an ivory signet ring. Saying, "If you show this, they will let
you into the fort and permit you to enter my palace," she gave him the ring. Vandiya Devan
received it eagerly. For a second, he glanced at the ring with the sign of the palm tree. Then, he
looked up to thank the lady. But the screens were pulled shut once again.
Ah! An eclipse swallows the full-moon slowly, bit by bit. But these silken screens have covered
that eloquent radiance in one moment!
"Do not follow me anymore. It may be dangerous. Wait and come later," said that silken voice
from inside the drapes.
The palanquin moved on. The guards walked ahead, around it like before. Vandiya Devan stood
by the roadside, holding the reins of his horse. His eyes noted that the Pazluvoor footman who
had stopped to talk to him looked back several times; the message reached his inner brain. His
outer brain revolved around the enchanting face of the Young-Queen of Pazluvoor. Did all this
truly happen? Was everything a pleasing dream? Can there be such beauty, such a ravishing form
on this earth?
Myth and fable talk of divine maidens -- heavenly beauties called Ramba, Urvasi and Menaka.
There are tales about how those beautiful maidens disturbed the penance of ascetics who
foreswore all worldly pleasures. But in reality! ... There must be truth in the rumor about the
Elder Lord Pazluvoor being a bonded slave to this ravishing lady. There is no surprise if it is true.
What contrast between Lord Pazluvoor -- old and grey, with a body disfigured by scars of several
battle wounds -- and this soft, gentle, dazzling maiden? What deeds will that old man perform, to
obtain one smile from her?
He waited for a long time by the roadside, mulling over such thoughts. Finally, he mounted his
horse and slowly rode towards the gates of Tanjavur. By sunset, he neared the main entrance to
the city fort. The city extended for some distance before the fortress walls and gates. Market
streets offering several kinds of goods for sale, residential streets of people engaged in various
trades -- these successively surrounded the outer boundaries of the fort. All the streets were busy
with the hustle and bustle of a large town: people going hither and thither, merchants haggling
over the price of goods they sold, carts and wagons drawn by hefty, well-fed bullocks, horse
drawn chariots, palanquins and litters filled the streets.
Vandiya Devan was eager to enter those streets and experience the sights and sounds of the new
capital of the Chozlas; he wished to make the acquaintance of these city folk and become familiar
with their ways. But there was no time for all that now. He must first complete the assignment on
which he had journeyed so far. Sightseeing must wait. With this determination he neared the
main gates of Tanjavur.
The massive doors of the main gateway were closed shut at that time. The guards and gatekeepers
outside were trying to maneuver the people making them stand in an orderly fashion on both
sides of the street. The people complied and stood aside. Yes; instead of going about their own
business they stood by the roadside as if in anticipation of some procession or parade. Men,
Women, children, and elderly -- everybody waited.
For a short distance the street in front of the gateway was empty. The guards stood near the
doorway. Vandiya Devan wished to find out what was happening. He did not wish to entangle
himself with the gatekeepers when everyone else stood aside. Unnecessary dispute and trouble
might come of it. The job on hand was more important than a joust. It was not the time to pick an
Therefore, he stood to one side at a spot where he could keep an eye on the gateway. The heady
fragrance of flowers rose by his side. He looked around. A youth, wearing the symbols of a Saiva
devotee, such as rudraksha beads around his neck and ashen marks on his forehead, stood by his
side carrying two large baskets of flowers in both his hands.
"Thambi, why has everybody moved to one side of the road? Is some procession or something
coming this way?" asked Vandiya Devan.
"Are you not from these parts, Sir?"
"No. I come from the Thondai Territories."
"That's why you asked! It may be better if you also dismount and stand aside."
Vandiya Devan jumped off his horse, thinking it would be easier to converse with that youth.
"Thambi why did you ask me to dismount?"
"All these people are standing aside because the Velaikara Battalion of Velirs is about to emerge
from the fort after presenting arms to the Emperor."
"Just to watch?"
"Why shouldn't I watch while sitting upon my horse?"
"You can. But it is dangerous if the men of the Velaikara Battalion see you."
"What danger? Will they abduct my horse?"
"They will abduct the horse; even carry away men! Wicked fellows!"
"Will they be allowed to carry away horse or man?"
"What can one do but allow it? The word of those men of the Velaikara Battalion is law in this
city. There is none to question them. Even the men of Pazluvoor do not interfere in the affairs of
the Velaikara Battalion of Velirs."
At that time, a loud commotion and noise could be heard inside the fort. The sound of kettledrums, blowing conches, pipes being played, horns being blown and marching drums being
beaten mingled with loud, cheering, shouts raised by hundreds of men.
Vandiya Devan had heard much about the brave warriors of the Velaikara Battalion. It was an
important organization in the ancient Tamil nations, particularly in Chozla dominions.
`Velaikaras' were the personal bodyguards of the ruling monarch. But there was an important
difference between them and ordinary bodyguards. The men of this battalion had taken individual
oaths to "Personally guard the life and person of the king, giving up their own life if the need
arises." If something untoward happened to the king or his life, because of their carelessness or in
spite of their guard, they had sworn to cut off their heads with their own sword and offer
themselves as a sacrifice to the Goddess Durga. It was natural that such men, who had sworn
such terrible oaths, were given certain privileges.
The two large doors of the gateway opened with a loud noise. Two horsemen emerged first. In
their right hands they held aloft two narrow pennants flying high. They were curious in design.
The red cloth of the banner was painted with a leaping tiger and a shining crown below it;
underneath the crown was a sacrificial alter with a severed head on it and a huge sacrificial sword
lay next to it. The pennant was quite terrifying to behold.
A huge bull, carrying two immense war-drums followed behind the horsemen. Two men walking
by its sides beat the reverberating drums. About fifty men in formation followed the bull; they
carried small and large kettle-drums, cymbals, bells, and chimes -- beating them and banging then
Fifty others followed them, blowing "Boom, boom, boom" upon long curved horns and pipes.
About a thousand soldiers followed these men. They raised the following cries and cheers as they
"Long live Emperor Paranthaka of the blessed earth."
"Praise to him! Long life! Long life!"
"Long live Sundara Chozla!"
"Long life! Long life!"
"Long life to the Rooster King!"
"Long life! Long life!"
"Lord of Tanjavur!"
"Long life! Long life!"
"Long life to the Lord who vanquished Veera-pandiya!"
"Long life! Long life!"
"Long life to the Monarch who took Madurai, Lanka and Thondai!"
"Long life! Long life!"
"May the clan of Karikala Valava live long with fame!"
"Long life! Long life!"
"Victory to Goddess Durga, the Greatest, the all-powerful!"
"Let the brave tiger-flag fly worldwide and win!"
"Victory to our spears!"
"Victory to the brave spears!"
The loud cheers raised by hundreds of strong voices, hypnotized those who heard them. While
the shouts rose near the fortress gateway, they echoed and thundered in all directions. Many of
the people standing on both sides of the road joined the cheering.
Thus, everything was one big commotion while the men of the Velaikara Battalion of Velirs
emerged from the gateway, marched past the long street, and disappeared in the distance.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 23 -- Amudan's Mother
The Velaikara Battalion wound its way through the main market street. Some of the men walking
towards the end of the parade performed certain audacities in that marketplace. One fellow
entered the shop of a food vendor and carried out a basket of sweet-cakes; he distributed the
cakes to his friends. When he crowned the vendor with the upturned empty basket, all his friends
laughed uproariously "Ha ha ha haha ha."
Another gallant fellow plucked the flower tote from the hands of an elderly woman. Scattering
the flowers in all directions he shouted "Hey friends, its raining flowers!" Two soldiers trying to
catch the flowers shouted gleefully and raised a hue and cry! Yet another fellow stopped a
bullock cart on the road and unyoked the beast from the cart; he drove the animal into the crowd
by twisting its tail; the terrified animal ran helter skelter in the crowd, plunging against innocent
bystanders. Gleeful laughter followed this endeavor!
Vandiya Devan was watching all this. Aha! These fellows also tease and play pranks just like the
men of Pazluvoor. Their pranks are irksome to others. How fortunate that I escaped their sight by
standing aside. Otherwise, a little conflict would have taken place! My venture would have been
wrecked, he thought. But one difference was obvious to him. The people on these streets did not
resent these activities of the Velir men very much. Some of them even joined in their pranks and
enjoyed the merriment and laughter.
When he turned around to ask about this, the youth with the flower baskets was nowhere to be
seen. He had vanished somewhere in the crowd and commotion. Perhaps he had gone on his
On approaching the gate, he found that no one was allowed inside the fort after the Velaikara
Battalion left for the day. Only members of the royal household, the ministers and generals had
the right to enter or leave the fort at all times of night or day. Vandiya Devan heard that the
households of the Lords of Pazluvoor also had that privilege.
He changed his intentions of entering the fort that very night. He did not wish to show the signet
ring in his possession and try its powers. It is better to spend the night outside the fortress, do
some sightseeing and enter after sunrise tomorrow. Even if I go in tonight, it is not possible to
gain entry into the royal palace and meet the Emperor to deliver my letters.
Vandiya Devan rode slowly along the streets surrounding the outer ramparts of Tanjavur Fort
enjoying the various sights presented around him. His horse, which had crossed several leagues
that day was very tired. Soon he must give it some rest. Otherwise, tomorrow, when the need
arose the horse may become useless. He must soon find a comfortable place to spend the night.
Tanjavur was at that time a new, growing, spreading city. It was evening time. Hundreds of street
lamps had been lit throwing brilliant light everywhere. All the streets were noisy with crowds of
people. Travelers from far and near, who had come to the city on various businesses walked here
and there. People from other Chozla cities and countryside were there. Persons from nations
taken into the Chozla fold recently were also there. Several folks crowded to that capital city
from nations spreading across the lands between the North Pennar river and the southern Cape,
and between the eastern seas and the western ocean. In that crowd he could also spot foreigners,
dressed curiously from the distant lands beyond the Vindhyas and across the seas.
People crowded to the shops of vendors selling sweet-fritters, roasted meats, and rice-cakes --
like flies hovering around sugar syrup -- as they bought the foodstuffs. Fruits like banana, mango
and jack were heaped in mounds outside the shops. Words were not adequate to describe the
elegant flower kiosks. Gardenia and jasmine, fragrant frangipani, oleander, chrysanthemum, and
marigold, champaka and iruvatchi, hibiscus and trumpet lilies were heaped in baskets; maidens
flocked around them like bees buzzing over flower groves.
When he saw the flower shops, Vandiya Devan remembered the youth with the flower baskets
who had stood next to him. If I could meet that young man again, how useful it would be!
Perhaps he would have helped me find a comfortable place to spend this night in this city... As
he was thinking, as if to give life to his thoughts, he saw the youth walking down the street in
front of him. Vandiya Devan hurried forward to accost him again.
"Thambi, your baskets seem to be empty. What happened to all the flowers? Have you sold them
"I did not bring the flowers for sale. I brought them for worship and decoration at the temple. I
have delivered them at the place I serve and am now going back home," said that youth.
"In which temple do you serve, delivering these flowers?"
"Have you heard of the temple of Tali-kulattar?"
"Oh! The name Tanjavur Tali-kulattar seems familiar. Is it the same? Is it a large temple?"
"No; it is a modest place. For some time now, only the temple of the Goddess Durga has been
enjoying favor in Tanjavur. Special worship, food offering, sacrifice, festivities, ceremony, and
carnival all take place there. The royal family and the Pazluvoor households have been
patronizing that Durga temple. There are no such important patrons for the temple of Talikulattar. Not many people come to worship there..."
"You are in service to deliver flowers. Do you get paid well for this?"
"My family has subsidies for this service. From the times of my grandfather our family had
grants from Emperor Gandara Aditya for delivering this flower-service. My mother and I have
been continuing the practice."
"Is the temple of Tali-kulattar built in brick, or has it been renovated in granite?" Vandiya Devan
asked the question because he had seen several small brick-work temples being renovated in
stone and decorated with granite sculpture.
"It is still brick-work. I have heard that it is soon to be renovated in granite. Apparently, the Elder
Pirati in Pazlayarai wishes to begin the renovation work as soon as possible. But ..."
"But what? Why did you stop?"
"What is the use of repeating idle gossip? One must look around in all directions before talking in
the daytime; at nighttime do not even open your mouth. This is a public square where four roads
meet! So many people around us..."
"We can stand in such a spot and talk bravely of any secret. In this crowd and noise nothing we
speak will be heard by anyone."
"What secrets do we have to talk about?" asked the youth, eyeing Vandiya Devan with some
Aha! This young man is very intelligent. It would be very useful to make friends with him. I can
learn about several things from him. But I should not raise useless doubts in his mind, thinking
such thoughts, Vandiya Devan said, "Yes, what secrets do we have? Nothing. Thambi, tonight I
need a place to rest and sleep well. I have journeyed a long way and am very tired. Where can I
stay? Can you help me by guiding me to a good rest house?"
"There is no dearth of places to stay in this city. There are several inns. In fact, there are many
government rest houses for the use of foreign visitors. But Sir, if you would like ..."
Before the youth could finish, Vandiya Devan interrupted, "Thambi, what is your name?"
"Amudan; Sendan Amudan."
"Oh! What a sweet name! My mouth tastes the sweetness just by hearing it. (Amudu meaning
nectar.) Were you about to say that I could come to your house if I was willing?"
"Yes; how did you know Sir?"
"I have magic skills; that's how! Where is your house?"
"Our gardens are in the suburbs, a little beyond the city limits. Our house is in the middle of the
flower gardens," said Sendan Amudan.
"Ah! I must surely come to your house. I cannot rest in peace in this city commotion tonight.
Moreover, I would like to make the acquaintance of that good woman who is mother to a good
son like you!"
"She who gave birth to me is indeed a good woman; but she is unfortunate..."
"Dear, dear! Why do you say that? Perhaps your father is...?"
"Yes, my father is dead. But that is not the reason. My mother is unfortunate from birth. You will
know when you see her. Come Sir, let us go."
They walked for about half an hour and reached the flower gardens beyond the city limits. The
fragrance of night blooming flowers made Vandiya Devan's head swim with uncommon
exhilaration. The noise and din of the city was not heard in that pleasing grove.
He could see a small tiled house in the middle of the flower garden. Two thatched huts were also
seen close by. Two families who helped in the garden lived in those huts. Amudan called out to
one of those men and asked him to feed and water Vandiya Devan's horse and tie it to a tree after
He then led his new friend into the house. As soon as he saw Amudan's mother, Vandiya Devan
realized her misfortune. She was mute without any speech; she was also deaf without any sense
of hearing. But he saw her gentle, good-looking face filled with a kindness and love. Her eyes
shone bright with a keen intelligence. Was it not the caprice of nature to endow a superior
intellect on those with some bodily handicap?
That elderly woman understood that her visitor had come from foreign parts by the signs made by
Amudan. Her expressive face showed welcome and concern for him.
Soon, she placed platters of fresh banana leaves before them and served a meal. First came stringcake accompanied by sweetened, freshly squeezed, coconut milk. Vandiya Devan felt that he had
not eaten such delicacies in his lifetime! He ate about ten or twelve cakes and drank a liter of
coconut milk. Sour sauce with tubers and steamed millet flour followed. He did them justice.
Even so, his hunger was not satiated. In the end he partook of a quarter measure of cooked rice
and a liter of yogurt! Only then did he rise from his platter.
While eating, he asked about and gleaned several facts from Amudan. He enquired about who
besides the Emperor and his retinue lived in Tanjavur Fort.
The mansions of the Elder and Younger Lords of Pazluvoor were inside. The officers and clerks
who were attached to the treasury and granary lived inside because the royal treasury, counting
house and granary were inside the fort. The confidante and friend of Sundara Chozla, his Prime
Minister, Honorable Anirudda Brahma-raya as well as the Chief Clerk of edicts and
proclamations also lived in the inner fort. Soldiers guarding the fort of Tanjavur under the
command of the Younger Lord Pazluvoor, lived inside with their families.
Besides this, the streets of the goldsmiths, silversmiths, jewelers and dealers in precious gems
and coin merchants were inside the main fort. Hundreds of clerks and writers working for the Tax
Ministry under the Elder Lord Pazluvoor were also provided accommodation within. In addition
to all this, the famous Temple of the Goddess Durga Nishumba-sudhini was in one corner of the
interior fort. The temple priests, servants, dancing girls and musicians attached to the temple and
their families, lived inside near the temple.
Hearing about all this, Vandiya Devan asked, "Are all the ministers and officials inside the fort
"How can everyone be inside? They will be going out and coming back in the course of their
various duties. For some time now, the Honorable Prime Minister, Anirudda Brahma-raya, has
not been inside the fort. It is said that he is gone to the Chera Kingdom. The Elder Lord of
Pazluvoor went out four days ago. Rumor says that he has gone to the central provinces beyond
"He might be back now. Do you know?"
"The palanquin of the Young-Queen of Pazluvoor came back this evening. I saw it near the gates
myself. But there was no sign of Lord Pazluvoor. Perhaps he is delayed somewhere and will
come back tomorrow."
"Thambi! Does Prince Madurandaka also live inside the fort?"
"Yes, his mansion is next to the Pazluvoor Palace. Isn't he the bridegroom married to the
daughter of the Younger Lord Pazluvoor?"
"Oh! Is that true? I did not know that till now!"
"Not many people know it. Because of the Emperor's ill health, the wedding was not celebrated
"Good. Is the Prince inside the fort tonight?"
"Must be. However, Prince Madurandaka does not emerge from the fort very often. People
cannot see him commonly. It is said that he is involved in his devotions to God Shiva and that he
spends his time in meditation, yoga and worship."
"But he has entered into matrimony after all these years."
"Yes, that was somewhat surprising. People also say that the mind and intentions of the
bridegroom transformed completely after the marriage! Why should we bother about that? Better
not gossip about the nobility."
Vandiya Devan desired to learn of several other things from Sendan Amudan. But he did not
wish to pry too much and raise his suspicions. The friendship of such an amiable youth would be
very useful to him. It was his good luck that he found such a convenient and comfortable place to
stay in Tanjavur. Why should he spoil the good fortune? Moreover, tiredness of the long journey
joined forces with the sleeplessness of the previous night. His eyes were drowsy with sleep and
exhaustion. Realizing his state, Amudan quickly made up a bed for him.
In the drowsiness of sleep, towards the end, Vandiya Devan's mind glimpsed the glamorous face
of the Young-Queen of Pazluvoor. Oh God! What beauty! What scintillation! His experience of
being tongue tied and immobile upon suddenly seeing that ravishing, enchanting face reminded
him of another experience.
As a child, once when he was walking through some woods, he suddenly spied a cobra swaying
its raised hood. Its beauty was incomparable. The attraction was beyond description. Vandiya
Devan had not been able to take his eyes off the swaying hood of the snake. He could not even
blink his eyelids. He stood there as if hypnotized; the snake continued its swaying dance. As the
snake swayed, his body began to sway in rhythm -- what would be the result, no one knew.
Suddenly a mongoose pounced upon the snake. A furious contest between the two started. Using
the chance, the boy ran to his escape...
Dear me! What a comparison! How can I equate the majestic beauty of this maiden without equal
in the world, with a swaying snake? Her gentle, tender face will quell all hungers of those who
catch a glimpse of it! ... I am going to meet her tomorrow! How sweet her voice! Her beauty is
extraordinary. But how about the other maiden whom I saw at the astrologer's house and on the
banks of the Arisil? ... Her face too, was radiant. It too glowed with a loveliness. Both are
exquisite beauties; but what a difference! That has dignity and decorum; while this has allure and
Thus, while his heart was comparing the two attractive women he had met recently, a third
maiden intervened. That merciless tyrant, the Empress of Sleep took charge of him completely.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 24 -- A Cuckoo And A Crow
Vandiya Devan slept through the night like a log and woke up only after sunrise in the morning.
Even after waking, he was lying down without the will to get up. The light breeze blew briskly,
leaves of the creepers and trees rubbed against each other making a swishing murmur. With that
background drone, a young voice was melodiously singing a pleasing Thevaram poem composed
by the Saint Sundara Murti.
O Lord of golden hued body with a tiger skin draped around the waist;
Upon matted locks, burnished red, you wear the shining crescent!
On hearing the song, Vandiya Devan opened his eyes and looked out. Outside, in the garden he
saw tall konnai trees (the bignonia family) draped with wreaths of golden yellow flowers! Sendan
Amudan held a large flower tote in one hand and a long bamboo pole in the other. While he sang,
his hands plucked the yellow flowers with the harvest pole. He appeared neatly dressed, having
risen, and bathed early, his forehead was adorned with broad ashen marks making him appear
like another ever youthful Markandeya, that ardent devotee of Shiva.
Vandiya Devan rose from his bed thinking about Amudan's unfortunate mother who could not
hear the melodious song of her son. He wondered why he too should not cultivate a pleasant
garden, serve in temples, and lead a calm and quiet life. Why should he bear sword and spear and
wander from place to place? Why should he roam about in readiness to kill or be killed by
others? -- such thoughts jostled his mind.
But soon, his heart cheered up. Can everyone in the world be meek and gentle like Sendan
Amudan? There are many who are thieves, robbers, and conniving evil-doers who harm the
guileless folk. A government was needed to control such people and establish some law and
order. Kings and ministers were essential to form such governments. Velaikara Battalions were
essential to protect such kings. Messengers like himself to carry letters to such kings were also
needed... Yes, today I must somehow or other meet Emperor Sundara Chozla. I must present
myself before the Elder Lord of Pazluvoor returns; if the old man gets back, I may not have an
Vandiya Devan went to the lotus pond in the garden for a swim and bath. He came back refreshed
and dressed himself neatly with clean cloth and correct ornaments. He was going to present
himself to the Emperor -- shouldn't he be attired properly? Perhaps it was that thought that made
him dress carefully; or, maybe it was the idea that he was soon going to see the Young-Queen of
Pazluvoor once again, which occupied his thoughts! None can tell.
After the early morning meal, Sendan Amudan was ready to depart with his baskets to deliver the
flowers at the temple before the morning service. Vandiya Devan went with him with the idea of
meeting the Emperor. Both friends walked.
Vandiya Devan had already decided not to take his horse to the fort. It was important to let the
horse rest completely. Soon he may have to use it for some hurried journey. Who knows? It was
better to leave the horse behind, in the garden. Till they reached the main gateway of the fort, he
talked to Amudan and found out several other pieces of information.
When Vallavarayan had asked, "Do you have any other family besides your mother?" Sendan had
replied, "I do have some. An elder sister and an elder brother of my mother. Her elder sister died
some time ago. Her brother is headman of a small community attached to the Kuzlagar temple at
Kodi Karai. My uncle is also the keeper of the lighthouse on that coast. In the nights he lights the
fire atop the tower and is in charge of other such things. He has one son and one daughter. That
daughter, ..." Amudan hesitated.
"That daughter? What about her?"
"Nothing. There is something peculiar about members of my family. Some of them are born
dumb while others are blessed with a most pleasing voice for, they sing very well."
"Your uncle's daughter is not dumb I hope?" enquired Vandiya Devan.
"No. Not at all."
"That means she can sing very well! Can she sing better than you?"
"Ridiculous! Your question is foolish -- like asking `Can the Cuckoo sing better than the Crow?'
When Poonkuzlali sings, the Ocean King will stop throwing his noisy waves and listen quietly.
Sheep and cattle will listen spellbound..."
"Is your cousin called Poonkuzlali? What a pretty name!"
"Is it just her name that's pretty!"
"She must be ravishing. Otherwise, will you be so captivated?"
"The spotted deer and the gorgeous peacock must beg at her feet for beauty. Divine maidens like
Indrani and Rathi must perform penance for several births to become as lovely as her."
Vandiya Devan realized that Sendan Amudan was not fully involved in service at the temple.
"That means she is a suitable bride for you. If she is your maternal uncle's daughter, you have all
the rights for her hand? When is the wedding?"
"I will never say that I deserve her. In no way am I qualified for her. If, like the olden days a
competition was arranged to select a groom for her, all the kings of the world will compete for
her hand. Divine beings might come forward seeking her hand like they did for Princess
Damayanti of the myths. Such things may not happen these days."
"So? Are you saying that you will refuse even if she is willing to marry you?"
"Quite silly! If the God I worship appears before me and asks `Will you come with me to the
heavens just as you are, like Saint Sundara? Or, will you remain on this earth with Poonkuzlali?' -
- I will say that I would stay back with Poonkuzlali. But what is the use of my saying it?"
"Why not? When you wish it, the marriage is almost settled, isn't it? Does everyone arrange
marriages after asking the bride? For example, look at Elder Lord Pazluvoor -- he has married a
young maiden after his sixty-fifth year! Was that marriage performed with that lady's consent?"
"My friend! Those are affairs of nobility. Why should we discuss it? More important, let me give
you a warning hint. You are about to enter Tanjavur. Do not utter anything about the Lords of
Pazluvoor inside the fort. It may be unsafe to do so."
"Why Thambi, you are thoroughly frightening me!"
"I am telling you the truth. Really, nowadays it is both those Lords of Pazluvoor that rule the
Chozla Kingdom. There is no authority higher than theirs."
"Even the Emperor is not more powerful?!"
"The Emperor lies on his sickbed. People say that he does not cross the lines drawn by those men
of Pazluvoor. They say that he does not even listen to the words of his own sons!"
"Is that true?! The domination of the Pazluvoor Lords must be quite strong. They were not so
powerful even two years ago?"
"No; after the Emperor came to Tanjavur, the power of those fellows has gone beyond limit.
There is no one to question them. Rumor has it that even the Honorable Anirudda Brahma-raya
left in disgust and went away to the Pandiya Kingdom."
"Why did the Emperor move to Tanjavur from Pazlayarai? Do you know Thambi?"
"I can tell you what I have heard. Three years ago, Veera-pandiya died in the battlefield. It was
reported that the Chozla armies committed several atrocities in the Pandiya lands at that time.
War means anything can happen; Madurai is now under Chozla rule. But it is said that some of
the men loyal to Veera-pandiya have sworn vengeance; they conspire together. The Lords of
Pazluvoor felt that they would not be able to guard the Emperor from such assassins at
Pazlayarai. They asked him to move to Tanjavur. The fortress here is stronger. Its guard and
safety is more efficient. Besides, the doctors felt that Tanjavur was a better place than Pazlayarai
to treat the Emperor's illness."
"Everybody talks about the Emperor's ill health! But no one says what is wrong with him!"
"Why? It is well known. The Emperor has paralysis; he has lost the use of both his legs."
"Oh! Can he not walk at all?"
"He cannot walk, neither can he ride upon a horse or elephant. He is bed ridden. They can carry
him from place to place in a palanquin or litter. Even that, I believe is very painful. Therefore, the
Emperor never leaves the palace. Some say that for the past few months even his mind is
"Oh! What a pity!"
"Don't feel pity, my friend! The Pazluvoor men may think it to be treason and put you in prison!"
Pazluvoor! Lord Pazluvoor! Men of Pazluvoor! Everywhere, to whomever I talk, their name
crops up. However capable they are, why has so much power been given to them? The treasury,
the granary, Tanjavur City guard, policing and information gathering in the nation, taxation --
everything seems to be under their control. The Emperor should not have let that happen.
Because of all these powers, they have started scheming against the Emperor! How long will
their plots be successful? I must do my best to thwart their plans. If possible, I must also warn the
By now they had come to the main entrance of Tanjavur Fort. Sendan Amudan parted from his
new friend and walked towards the temple of Tali-kulattar. Vandiya Devan neared that fort with
several dream castles of his own!
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 25 -- Inside The Fort
The signet ring with the palmtree emblem had miraculous powers like the magical rings in fairy
In that morning hour, various people -- vendors of milk, curds and other dairy products, fruit and
vegetable sellers, butchers, farmers, others engaged in various trades, clerks and accountants,
petty officials and others -- were trying to enter the fort. The officious gatekeepers were letting
them in, one by one, through a small wicket gate placed on one of the big doors. The guards
stood around with cocky insolence.
But as soon as our young hero showed the palm tree signet ring, they became very reverent; they
even opened one of the large doors to let him enter. Vandiya Devan entered the fort of Tanjavur.
Oh yes! We do not know the auspicious moment in which he set foot in that great fort, but we do
know that several significant events followed that entry. We could even consider that moment as
one of the most important moments in the history of South India!
For some time after entering that fort, Vandiya Devan was immersed in astonishment. Kanchi
City (from where he came) was the capital of the ancient Pallava Empire. It had withstood the
attack of several enemies. The buildings, mansions and palaces in that city were now badly
maintained, dilapidated ruins. Of course, many of them were well sculpted, architecturally
beautiful. But several parts of that city were in ruins. After Aditya Karikala took over, he had
renovated some of the public buildings and palaces. These new structures looked like isolated
sprigs of fresh shoots on a dying tree. In facts they made the dilapidation more obvious. But this
Tanjavur was quite the opposite thing. Everything looked new. New palaces, new buildings, new
temples. The white-washed mansions interspersed with buildings of brick baked of red earth
shone like some jewel, set with a cluster of rubies enhanced by pearls and diamonds. Trees in the
gardens and by the roadside had grown luxuriously tall, nourished by that fertile red-dust.
Coconut and areca nut palms; ashoka cypress, laurels, spreading banyan, fig and sacred ficus;
jack, mango and neem -- they painted a picture of varying hues of emerald. That greenery was
pleasing to the eye and joyous to the heart. A new city built by an architect of illusion. I feel new
excitement when I enter this new city; my heart fills with unexplainable pride!
Vandiya Devan who had seen the fuss and fret in letting people enter inside had surmised that the
inner city would be empty. But it was quite contrary: all the streets were crowded with hustle and
bustle. Horses, and chariots yoked with horses rushed past noisily. Bells -- tied around the necks
of elephants which walked slowly, gracefully like tiny, black, moving hillocks -- tinkled all
around. Vendors selling flowers, fruit, milk, fish and other edibles called out their wares and
raised a huge din. Huge drums boomed and large bells tolled periodically announcing the passing
hours. The gentle breeze carried the melody of musical instruments and voices of young men and
women raised in song. Everything was festive like one big carnival.
This is a city! This is the capital of an empire that is growing and spreading day by day! Vandiya
Devan did not wish to let anyone know that he was a newcomer to that exquisite city. If he asked
the way of anyone, they would look him up and down and ask arrogantly, "Are you new to this
town?" -- They may even think him to be an uncivilized villager if he asked the way to the royal
palace. Therefore, he should somehow find his way without asking anyone and reach the palace.
It may not be difficult.
Wherever he looked he could see mansions festooned with bunting and crowned by high flying
pennants and flags. The flags fought the swift breeze and raised a "Chat, pat" noise. Tiger-flags
and palmtree- flags were more profuse. He saw one huge flag emblazoned with a rampant tiger,
flying sky high, rising above all the others. That must be the Emperor's palace, thought Vandiya
Devan Vallavarayan as he began walking in that direction. He thought of what he must do next.
The first, important task is to present myself to the Emperor and personally deliver the letter and
the verbal messages conveyed by Prince Aditya. It may not be possible to see the Emperor
without the Younger Lord Pazluvoor's permission. How can I obtain that permission? God helped
me enter the fort. But can I be complacent, thinking that God's grace will aid me till the end? I
must connive something to manage entry into the palace to meet the Emperor. What is the
strategy to adopt? Oh, my clever brain! Descendant of generations of illustrious Vaanar's! Think
of something! Polish up your imagination. Get to work! Imagination is essential; not just for
writers and poets. Fellows like me entangled in such political turmoil also need plenty of
imagination. Let me think...
He had already made sure that the Elder Lord Pazluvoor had not returned to the fort. As soon as
he came in, he had asked one of the gatekeepers, "Why man, has Lord Pazluvoor come back?"
"Whom are you asking about, Thambi? The Younger Lord is in the palace!"
"Don't I know that! I am asking about the Elder Lord who had journeyed to the central
"Oh! Was it to the central provinces that the Elder Lord went? I didn't know that! The YoungQueen's palanquin returned last night. The Elder Lord has not returned yet. We got word that he
will probably return tonight," said the gatekeeper.
That was good news. He must somehow meet the Emperor before the Elder Lord Pazluvoor
returns. How ...? An idea occurred to him. The worry lines vanished immediately and a
mischievous smile and joy blossomed on his face.
He did not have to wander much to reach the Emperor's palace. He kept walking in the direction
of the large tiger-flag. Soon he reached the portals of the large palace. What a wonderful
building. A palace comparable to that of the King of Gods; a palace like that of legendary
Vikramaditya of Ujjain! How exquisite is the carving on these portals? The horses with raised
forelegs, carved on the pillars, seem to be ready to leap forward!
Several roads from all directions came to meet in a large plaza in front of that palace. At the head
of each of these streets two horsemen and two footmen stood guard. People walking about the
streets turned back without coming near them. Some persons stood near them to stare at the
palace portal and the big flag before they turned back. If the people crowded around too long, the
guards made signs to disperse them. Even those who gathered in groups talked softly, whispering
to each other. Vandiya Devan did not hesitate like these others. He walked forward with pride
and confidence. As soon as he stepped into the plaza two horsemen barred his way. The horses
stood nose to nose and long lances crossed in front of him. The footmen came near him.
Vandiya Devan showed them his magic ring. That was it; the lances parted and the horses moved
away. But three men examined the ring, one after the other. Finally, the man who seemed to be in
charge said, "OK, let him in." Vandiya Devan walked in cockily.
Now what? How many other guards like this? Where would I find the Younger Lord Pazluvoor?
Should I ask? Whom shall I ask? -- Can I manage to see the Emperor without his permission?
Where would I find the Emperor on his sick bed in this huge mansion! ...
Catching sight of a group of men behind him, he turned around. Yes; about ten to fifteen men
came in a group to hesitate in front of the guards. Those men wore scarves of rich silken cloth.
They were dressed in pearl necklaces, golden anklets, and eardrops. Some had adorned their
forehead with horizontal ashen lines. Others wore marks of sandal paste, red kumkum powder or
aromatic civet spots. Oh! Don't these men look like poets and bards! Yes, they were a group of
One of the guards, their leader, was saying, "The bards and poet kings have come; let them
enter." He then ordered one of the footmen: "Lead these people to the audience chamber of the
Younger Lord Pazluvoor."
"Masters! Poets! if you receive any presents or rewards, please come back this way -- and
remember me! If you do not get any awards you can leave by the other gate!" Everybody laughed
at these words of the guard.
Vandiya Devan who had hesitated on the steps to listen to this conversation felt "The fruit has
slipped into the cream! Opportunity shows itself." He decided to follow the poets and get to the
presence of the Younger Lord Pazluvoor. He did not have to ask anyone. Then comes my
cleverness; my good luck will surely help, he thought. He quietly mingled into that group of
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 26 -- Danger! Danger!
Vandiya Devan entered the audience chamber ahead of the poets. He guessed that the stately
person seated on the high throne was the Younger Lord of Pazluvoor. Several persons stood
around him in deferential postures with hands folded and lips sealed. One person stood with
several bundles of palm-leaves, letters which had arrived that day. The accountant waited on the
side with his books to render the previous day's accounts. Leaders of the guard patiently awaited
his orders for the day. Servants lingered in readiness to execute any order that was given. A
couple of maids stood behind the throne waving the white-whisk fans. Another fellow stood
ready with the box of betel leaves and condiments.
Even Vandiya Devan, who had no dearth of self-esteem or pride, approached the Younger Lord
Pazluvoor with some humility and timidity. The younger brother seemed even more imposing
than the elder. Upon sighting our gallant, he asked with a cheerful face, "Thambi, who are you?
Where have you come from?"
The usually harsh mien of the Younger Lord Pazluvoor always brightened upon seeing brave
young men. He was eager to recruit fearless young men from all over the country into his
company of guards.
"Commander! Sir! I come from Kanchi. The Prince has sent me with letters." Vandiya Devan
answered in a deferential voice. Upon hearing the word Kanchi, the Commander's face darkened.
"What? What did you say?" he asked again.
"I have come from Kanchi City with letters from the Prince."
"Where are they? Give them here!" he commanded with contempt, but his face showed some
Vandiya Devan drew the letters from his waist pouch, but still reverently, said, "Commander, the
letter is for the Emperor!"
The Younger Lord Pazluvoor did not care about that, he snatched the roll of palm leaves from
him and looked at the seals eagerly. He then gave the roll to a subordinate, asking him to read it.
After listening, he mumbled, "Nothing new!" He seemed involved in his own thoughts.
"Commander! The letters I brought," started Vandiya Devan.
"What about the letters? I shall give them to the Emperor."
"No! Sir! The Prince asked me to deliver them personally into the hands of the Emperor."
"Oh! You don't trust me? Did Prince Aditya tell you that?" asked the Commander of Tanjavur
with anger clouding his face.
"The Prince did not say anything like that. Your elder brother ordered it."
"What? What? Where did you see the Elder?"
"I stayed in the house of Kadamboor Sambuvaraya for a night on the way. I met him there. He
sent me, with this signet ring..."
"Ah! Why didn't you say so in the first place? Did you stay the night at Kadamboor? Who else
"Several dignitaries from Mazluvoor, the Central Provinces, Thiru-munai-padi and elsewhere had
"Wait! Stop! I must talk to you at leisure. First, you can go in and deliver this letter to the
Emperor and come back. Those Tamil poets will be here soon and if you give them a chance,
they will not stop their blabbering. Come back here. Hey! Who is there ...? take this man to the
Emperor's bed chamber!" ordered the Younger Lord of Pazluvoor.
Vandiya Devan followed the servant into the inner courtyards of that palace.
For some time now, the throne of the Chozla Empire -- bound by the roaring seas on three sides -
- had been transformed into a sickbed. Emperor Paranthaka Sundara Chozla was reclining on that
bed. Though he had delegated all affairs of the state to his officials and ministers, oftentimes he
had to receive particularly indispensable persons on certain important occasions. These days he
was mostly under the care of his physicians. But it was essential for the welfare of the empire that
his ministers, army generals, captains, and the leaders of the Velaikara Battalion should come to
his presence daily.
When Vandiya Devan saw the emaciated, sickly appearance of the Emperor -- who had
performed celebrated deeds of valor in various battles and acquired fame as a brave warrior, who
was called `Sundara Chozla, the Handsome One' by all the country and nation, who was
renowned to be like the God of Love in looks -- he could not utter a single word. His eyes filled
with tears. He approached closer to the bed and bowed low; then submitted the letter.
The Emperor began opening the letter as he asked in a faint voice, "Where are you coming from?
Whose letter is this?"
"My Majesty! My Lord! I come from Kanchi City; I bring this letter from Prince Aditya."
Vandiya Devan spoke the words with a trembling tongue.
Immediately, the Emperor's face brightened. The Empress, Vanama Devi, daughter of
Thirukovalur Malayaman, was seated near him. He looked at her saying, "Devi, your son has sent
a letter!" he began reading.
"Ah! The Prince has built a Golden Palace at Kanchi! He wants me and you to come and live
there for a while!" saying this, the Emperor's face became sadder than before.
"Devi, look at this activity of your son! My grandfather, that famous Emperor Paranthaka,
collected all the gold in the palace vaults to cover the roof of the temple at Chidambaram making
it a Golden Temple! No person born in our clan built a golden palace for their personal dwelling!
They considered the building of temples to be more important than the building of palaces. But
look at what this Karikala has done? Ah! How can I atone this outrage against the Gods?" said
Devi's face, which had cheered up on hearing that there was a letter from her son, now became
more melancholy than before. She could not give any reply.
At that instant Vandiya Devan gathered courage and boldness. "My Lord! There isn't anything so
very wrong in what your esteemed son has done! He has done the right thing. Are not his mother
and father the first Gods for a son? So, is it not right that your son should build a Golden Palace
for your dwelling?" he asked.
Sundara Chozla smiled, "Thambi, who are you? Do I know you? You seem very intelligent. You
talk very cleverly. Even if his parents are Gods to their son, they are not that for others! Golden
temples should be built only for Gods worshipped by one and all!"
"My Lord! His father is God to the son; the king is God to all his subjects. The religious texts
says that a monarch possesses the qualities of God. Therefore, it is quite appropriate to build a
golden palace for you."
Sundara Chozla looked at his wife, Malayaman's daughter, once again, "Devi! Look at this boy;
see how resourceful he is? If our Aditya has the council of such men, we do not have to be so
concerned about him. We need not worry about his heedless nature," he said.
He then looked at Vandiya Devan, "Thambi, Whether it is right or wrong about building the
Golden Palace at Kanchi, one thing is clear. It is not possible for me to come to Kanchi now. You
are seeing my condition. I am completely bed ridden like this. It is not possible to undertake a
long journey. Aditya must come here to see me. We too wish to see him. Come back tomorrow. I
shall have a letter prepared in reply," said the Emperor.
Vandiya Devan, could hear the noise of several people coming down the corridor. Oh yes! That
group of bards and poets is coming here. The Younger Lord Pazluvoor is perhaps coming with
them. Then, I may not be able to disclose to the Emperor all that I have to narrate to him. I must
briefly tell him everything right now. Vandiya Devan made this decision within a few seconds;
"My Lord! Sire! I seek your grace, please listen to my petition. It is important that you leave
Tanjavur. Danger surrounds you here. Danger! Danger!" said Vandiya Devan.
As he was speaking these words the Younger Lord of Pazluvoor entered the chamber. The bards
and poets followed him.
The last few words uttered by Vandiya Devan fell in the ears of the Commander of Tanjavur.
Anger flashed brightly on his face.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 27 -- Court Poets
Watch out! Watch out! Here come the great poets! The best of the bards! Those who have swum
the great oceans of Tamil literature! Those who have followed in the tradition of Agastya! They
who have drunk the essence of Tolkappiyam and other such ancient works of the Sangam Period!
They who have read great epics such as Silappadikaram, from back to front! They who know the
ins and outs of Thirukkural, the cannon of Tamil culture! They who know the grammar of all
literature. They who know how to compose verse with originality! Think of this: The rolls and
rolls of palm leaves used up by each one of them would feed millions and millions of hungry
termites for years and years to come!
The whole group of the great poets came into the chamber of Emperor Sundara Chozla.
"Long life! Long life! Long live Emperor Sundara Chozla who rules all the seven worlds under
one canopy. Long life to the Lord who `Brought down the fever (passion) of the Pandiya'. Long
live the patron of the bards. The benevolent Lord of the poets, Long life to him. Long live the
honored grandson of that great Paranthaka who loved poets!" They cheered as one man in praise
of the monarch.
Sundara Chozla did not seem to appreciate the cheering or the commotion too much.
Nevertheless, he hid his feelings and unmindful of his ailment he tried to rise and welcome them.
The Younger Lord of Pazluvoor came forward immediately, saying, "My Lord! These poets have
come to greet you and honor you; they have not come here to trouble you. Please do not try to
rise and trouble yourself."
"Yes; yes! Oh King of Kings, Oh best among Emperors! We have not come here to trouble you
in the least bit!" said the chief of poets, Nallavan Sattanar.
"I am happy to see you all after all these days. Please, won't you all be seated? I shall be glad to
hear some of your verses before you go!" spoke the Emperor who was fond of Tamil literature.
All of them sat down on a rich, jeweled carpet spread on the floor. Thinking it to be a good
opportunity, our dauntless Vallavarayan also sat down in their midst. He did not feel like leaving
before he had stated all his thoughts to the Emperor. He sat down hoping for another opportunity
to be private with the monarch.
The Younger Lord of Pazluvoor noticed him. His moustache twitched. He considered throwing
the fellow out. But then he decided that it was better to let the fellow remain right under his
watchful eyes. Therefore, he pretended ignorance of the fellow hiding amidst the group of poets.
The Commander decided to drag him out after the bards had left and find out what the fellow had
been saying to the Emperor. His words "Danger! Danger!" were still reverberating in his ears.
"Dear Poets! It has been a long time since I heard some Tamil verse. My ears are hungry for
Tamil poems. Have any of you brought any new poems?" asked Emperor Sundara Chozla.
One of the bards stood up, "My Lord! I come from the monastery named in your honor, Sundara
Chozla Perum-palli which is in Ulaga Puram. All the Buddhists in this nation commend your
benevolence to a Buddhist monastery though you are of the Saiva sect. The monks and leaders of
the monasteries are concerned about your ill health and we offer prayers for your welfare and
good health. I have written some verses in this connection. If permitted I would like to recite
"Please! Do repeat them. I am waiting to listen."
The bard then sang some verses beginning with the following lines:
Oh ye good soul, who found enlightenment under the Bo tree!
May you bless Sundara Chozla, monarch of growing Nandipuri,*
May he grow in prosperity, benevolence and in good looks and health,
To live with fame on this good earth.
* Nandipuri was another name for Pazlayarai
After hearing the poem all the poets showed appreciation with words like "Good, good, well
"It is surprising that the Buddhists are so thankful about the help!" said one of the poets who was
a fanatic Saiva.
"Yes, it is quite a surprising thing. My service to the monastery at Ulaga Puram was very meager.
Do I deserve such praise for that?"
"Who among those who have enjoyed the benevolence and kindness of the Emperor will not
praise his name? Even Indra the King of Gods, Surya the Sun and the Great Lord Shiva have
enjoyed his generosity!" said another poet.
With a smile playing upon his lips Sundara Chozla asked, "How is that? The King of the Gods
and the Sun God? Even Lord Shiva? Why should they be beholden to me?"
"Permit me to repeat a verse to that effect," said the poet.
When the monarch nodded assent, he opened the leaves of the book in his hand and started
reading the following poem:
An elephant he did present for Lord Indra to mount;
Seven horses did he give, for that flame-bodied Lord, creator of the day;
A palanquin for that good Lord Shiva and his gentle spouse;
Such is the benevolence of Sundara Chozla
With whom on this earth can we compare his glory?
After the poet had recited these lines everybody in the group applauded, by clapping their hands
and by saying words like "Aha! Aha! Good! Good!"
With a pleased expression the Emperor asked, "Can any of you explain this poem in detail?"
Several of them rose at the same time. Seeing the chief poet Sattanar the others sat down.
Nallavan Sattanar then explained the poem as follows:
"Once upon a time, long long ago, there was a war between the King of the Devas and the
Demon Vritta. In that war the great elephant named Iravatha which belonged to Lord Indra died.
Indra was looking around for another elephant comparable to that great beast. Finally, he came to
Emperor Sundara Chozla of Pazlayarai and begged for `An elephant comparable to Iravatha.' The
monarch replied, `I do not have any elephants comparable to Iravatha but I have several better
ones.' After saying this he took Indra to his elephant stable. The Lord of the Gods saw the
thousands of beasts standing there like little hillocks and was confused, `Which one shall I
choose?' Seeing his bewilderment, Sundara Chozla selected one good elephant and presented it to
Indra. `How am I going to control this rogue elephant. Even my weapons the thunderbolts, may
not be sufficient!' thought Indra with fright; on seeing that, the Emperor presented him with a
good ankush (elephant goad) for controlling the new elephant given to him.
"Later at one time, there was a terrible battle between the God Surya of the radiant red rays who
spreads light over all the world and the Demon Raagu, who causes eclipses. Raagu tried to
swallow the creator of day and night; but he could not do so: the brilliant light of the Sun God
consumed his body. However, the seven colorful horses yoked to the Sun God's chariot were
killed by the poisons spilled by the demon. While the Sun stood still, wondering how he could
resume his daily passage across the skies, Sundara Chozla considered his helplessness and
presented him with seven new horses. `Please yoke these horses to your chariot and spread the
grace of your brilliance to all living beings’ prayed the monarch. The Sun God acclaimed the
earthly King who was a descendant of his clan i.e. Surya Vamsa (Sun Kings).
"Several years ago the wedding of Lord Shiva and Parvathi Devi was celebrated with pomp in the
mountains of Kailasa. The friends and relatives of the bride had come with several costly
presents. But they had forgotten to bring a palanquin for the wedding procession. They whispered
amongst themselves `There is nothing but this bull available to carry the bride and groom in
procession. What can we do now?' Sundara Chozla heard this and ordered his servants to bring
his ivory palanquin inlaid with pearls, from the carriage house. He then offered it with much
devotion, as a present at the wedding of the great God Shiva.
"Who else is there in this wide world surrounded by the seas, to compare with such a benevolent,
Sundara Chozla who was listening to all this, burst out laughing. The Emperor who had been
suffering with illness had not laughed like that for a long time. On hearing his laughter and seeing
his mirth even the Empress Vanama Devi smiled; the maids in the palace and even the doctors in
the chamber smiled.
The Commander of Tanjavur, Younger Lord Pazluvoor, had been standing apart all this time.
Now he came forward saying, "My Lord! I have committed a grave crime, please forgive my
mistake and pardon me!"
"Is it the Commander? What crime did you commit? Why should you be forgiven? Perhaps you
seized the elephant and horses that I gave to the Gods and brought them back? Did you confiscate
the palanquin given to Shiva? -- Because these things were not properly accounted for? Ah yes!
You are quite capable of doing that!" said Sundara Chozla with a voice chocking with laughter.
The poets laughed with the Emperor. Vandiya Devan laughed louder than everyone else. The
Younger Lord Pazluvoor noticed his laughter and looked at him with blazing eyes.
The Commander then turned to the Emperor and said, "King of Kings! My mistake was just this:
I had been preventing persons like these poets from coming to your presence all these days. I
followed the orders of the palace doctors. But now I realize my mistake. These poets have made
you cheerful. You have laughed loudly after listening to their poems! Smiles blossomed on the
faces of the Udaya Pirati, (Queen Consort) and even the maids upon seeing your mirth. Wasn't it
my mistake to not let such people who could cause such happiness into your presence?"
"You said the right thing, Commander! Do you realize it at least now? I keep telling you don't
bother about the doctors."
The palace doctor tried to mumble some reply in a reverent manner, Sundara Chozla made a sign
to stop him and then looked at the bards. "Does anyone here know who composed this exquisite
verse? If anyone knows, please let me know!" said the Emperor.
Nallavan Sattanar replied, "King of Kings that is what we do not know. All of us have been
trying to find out that! If we knew, we would crown that poet with the title `Emperor of Poets'
and carry him in procession around the city. We have not been able to find that poet's identity."
"There is nothing surprising about that. I am sure that the great poet who can stuff that many
untruths in four lines will hesitate to come forward!"
When the Emperor said these words, all the bards felt totally dejected; their faces fell as if
swallowed by an eclipse! None of them knew a reply for this comment! At this point, our hero
Vandiya Devan stood up boldly and said, "My Lord! We should not dismiss this verse completely
as absolute untruth. When common folk utter words that are not factual, we call them lies; when
people involved in the conduct of nations say such things, it is known as political shrewdness;
when poets say such things, it is imagination, creativity, alliteration, prosody, meter, rhyme,
All the poets now turned to him, saying, "Well said, Good! Good!"
The Emperor also looked at him, scrutinizing his face: "Oh! Aren't you the messenger who
brought letters from Kanchi? Clever! Well parried argument! Good rebuttal!" praised the
He then looked at the group of poets and said, "Though it was a good poem, there is no need to
find its author and crown him with titles. I know the poet who wrote this verse. He is already
burdened with the weight of the jeweled crown of the Chozla Empire. Titles such as `Emperor of
the Three Worlds', `Emperor of the Good Earth and the Seven Worlds' are already being borne by
that King of Poets."
And if this author says that the poets who heard his words drowned in the ocean of surprise and
struggled -- readers should not disregard it as lies. It is the author's imagination, lyric,
comparison, rhapsody. You must accept it as some such grammatic convention of literature! ***
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 28 -- Iron Grip
When he had survived from the flood of surprise that drowned him, the court poet Nallavan
Sattanar said, "My Lord! Does it mean ...? The poet who wrote these verses is..."
"It is this Emperor of the earth who lies on this sick-bed without the use of his legs," spoke the
Several exclamations of surprise rose among the poets as they talked and whispered quietly
amongst themselves. They moved their hands and heads in an agitated manner, not knowing how
to express their thoughts; others sat perfectly still immobilized by the declaration they had heard!
Sundara Chozla continued to speak. "Dear poets! Long ago some poets and bards came to see me
in Pazlayarai. Some of you may have been in that group. Each of them sang verses in praise of
the benevolence of my clan, my forefathers. Some of them sang a few lines about me also. They
praised me saying, `I gave this to that one and that to this person.' My young daughter Kundavai,
the Younger Pirati was also seated beside me. Soon the poets left after receiving gifts and
awards. Kundavai kept singing their praises commenting on the excellence of their poetry. I
challenged Kundavai, saying that I could compose much better verse, more imaginative and
extravagant than any of those poets. And I composed those lines playfully at that time and asked
Kundavai for a reward. My darling child clung to my back and pinched my cheeks saying `Here
is your reward.' I can remember that incident as if it was yesterday. But it must be more than
eight or nine years now."
"Great! Remarkable! Surprising! Astounding!" rose several voices from the group.
As soon as he heard the name Kundavai, Vandiya Devan's whole body became attentive. He had
heard much about that Princess of the Chozla clan: about her beauty, her intelligence, her ability
and learning. Here is the fortunate father who gave birth to that astonishing Princess and her
mother is seated close by. The Emperor speaks of his daughter with such pride! His voice quivers
when he mentions her name...
Vandiya Devan's right hand searched in his pouch hidden in his waistband. The palm leaf roll of
letters that he was carrying for Kundavai, were in that pouch. His searching palm halted in
startled alarm. He was appalled. Dear me! What is this? I cannot find the letter! Where is the
letter? Where could it have fallen? Could it have fallen accidentally when I took out the letter
meant for the Emperor? Where would it have fallen? In the audience chamber ... Perhaps it will
fall in the hands of the Commander! Is there any danger if that happens? Oh! What a blunder!
What a great mistake! What shall I do ...
He could not remain in that place patiently after he realized that he had lost the letter meant for
Kundavai. He did not hear any of the conversation in that room. Whatever he heard his mind did
Sundara Chozla was still talking to that astonished group of poets. "Kundavai must have repeated
the verse I composed in playfulness to someone. Perhaps she recited it to her teacher, the Priest
Esanya Bhattar of Pazlayarai. He has spread it all over the nation and made me the object of
"My Lord! So, what if the poem was written by you? It is a wonderful poem. There is no doubt
about that! Besides being the Emperor of the Nation, you are also an Emperor among Poets!" said
the court poet.
"However, if I had sung this poem now, I would have added one more line. I would not have
stopped with giving an elephant to Indra, horses to Surya and a palanquin to the Great Shiva.
Remember Lord Shiva kicked the Lord of Death to protect his favorite devotee, Markandeya?
When he was kicked, that fearsome Lord of Death escaped with a few wounds. But Death's
vehicle, the water-buffalo fell down dead right there. The Lord of Death suffered without a
proper vehicle to execute his duties... Sundara Chozla of Pazlayarai saw his problem and
presented Yama, the Lord of Death, with a huge water-buffalo! Yama now rides upon that beast
comfortably and is fast approaching me. Even my able Commander of Tanjavur cannot stop
Yama riding on his buffalo from coming to me."
When she heard these words, Vanama Devi seated next to him, looked at her lord with tears
streaming down her face. Even the poets were moved, filled with a tremendous sadness. Only the
Younger Lord Pazluvoor seemed unshaken. "My Sire! In your service, I shall be ready to wage
war even with death!" he declared.
"I have no doubt about that, Commander! But no human being has the power to fight death. We
merely have the power to pray and ask the God's to give us the ability to not fear death. Perhaps
one of you remember those verses of one of our Tamil saints who sang, `We shall not fear death.'
Does anyone know that poem?" asked the Emperor.
A poet rose up to repeat that verse:
We are bondsmen to none; nor do we fear the Lord of Death;
We shall not suffer the horrors of hell;
Neither are we at all times incapable
To overcome the misfortunes of ill health.
The Emperor intervened at this line to say "Ah! Who but a great soul who has seen the vision of
the Lord could sing this daring verse so fearlessly? Saint Appar had suffered with fearful
consumption. But he overcame that ill health with the grace of God. That is why he sang the line
about `Overcoming the misfortunes of ill health.' My dear poets! Please stop composing verse in
praise of me or my clan. Sing such poems about divine grace from now onwards. Appar,
Sambanda and Sundara Murti have sung thousands of such exquisite devotional poems in sweet
Tamil. How wonderful it would be if we could collect all those verses in one anthology? One
lifetime will not be adequate to read and enjoy all of it!"
"King of Kings, with your permission we are ready to begin that task right away!"
"No; it is not a task that can be completed in my lifetime. After me ... " the Emperor hesitated and
became immersed in his own thoughts.
The palace physician came close to the Younger Lord Pazluvoor and whispered something in his
ears. Sundara Chozla seemed to recover from his contemplation as if startled from a nightmare.
He looked around, his eyes searching for something. He seemed to be a man returning from a
different world; as if he had glimpsed at the world of the Lord of death.
Lord Pazluvoor, the Commander, asked, "My Lord! You had expressed a wish to hear some
verses composed during the Sangam Age. Can these poets leave after they recite one such
"Yes, yes. I had forgotten. Not only my body, even my mind seems to be deteriorating. Let me
hear the poem."
The Commander made a sign to the chief poet Nallavan Sattanar. Upon that sign, the poet stood
up and began speaking the following words:
"My Lord! One of the most famous kings of your clan was Karikala Valava of the Sangam Age.
He was the brave warrior who placed his tiger-flag on the Himalaya Mountains. During his reign,
the capital of the Chozla Kingdom was Poompuhar or Kaviri-poom-pattinam. It was the port
where goods and produce from various foreign nations came in ships. One of the poets of that
period composed several verses in praise of that town describing its wealth and prosperity. Here
are a few lines describing the various goods that came into the port of that famous town:
Horses of noble gait came by the sea;
Bagsful of black pepper brought in carts;
Gemstone and gold from the northern mountains;
Fragrant sandal and myrrh, forest produce of the Kudagu hills;
Pearls from the southern seas, corals of the western ocean;
Wealth of the Ganga and yield of the Cauvery;
Food from Lanka and manufactured goods of Malaya...
Sundara Chozla made a sign and stopped the poet when he came to this line. The poet stopped;
The Emperor looked at his commander and said with some harshness, "Commander, the poem
speaks of the times of Karikala when food came to us from Lanka. You brought these poets here
to tell me this. Is it not so?"
"Yes, My Lord!" the words of the Commander came faintly.
"I understand. Please send these poets away; give them appropriate gifts," said the monarch
turning his face away.
"Poets! Sirs! You can all take your leave now." The Commander announced firmly. The whole
group rose and departed through the door. But they did not forget to raise cheers and blessings for
the Emperor as they left.
Vandiya Devan who was quite agitated at not finding the letter he had brought for Kundavai,
tried to mingle with that group and escape. But his intention did not succeed.
Near the doorway a vise like grip took hold of his left hand. Vandiya Devan was quite strong. But
that iron grip shook him from head to toe and made him stand still. He looked up and his eyes
confirmed that the iron grip belonged to the Commander, the Younger Lord Pazluvoor.
By now, the poets had left the inner bed chamber.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 29 -- "Our Guest"
After the poets had departed, the palace doctor mixed a medicinal potion and brought it to the
Emperor. Malayaman's daughter, the Queen Consort received the goblet in her hands and gave it
to her lord the Emperor.
The Younger Lord Pazluvoor, who waited patiently till the Emperor had finished, did not let go
of his vise like grip on Vandiya Devan's hand. The Commander dragged him closer to the
Emperor's bed. "My Lord! Do you see any improvement after this new medicine?" he asked.
"The doctor says that there is some benefit and Devi also believes it. But somehow, I do not feel
any hope. Commander, I feel that all this is wasted effort! My fate beckons me. Yama, the Lord
of Death must have gone to Pazlayarai in search of me. When he knows that I am not there he
will arrive here in search of me..."
"My Lord! You should not talk in this depressed fashion. You should not distress our hearts like
this. The ancestors of your clan ..."
"Ah! You are about to say that my forefathers were not afraid of death! If I too am fortunate like
the forefathers of my clan, to go into the forefront of a battlefield and give up my life, I shall not
fear such death. Nor will I despair. I shall welcome death with enthusiasm. My elder uncle Rajaaditya fought in the battle field at Thakkolam from atop an elephant and lost his life while
fighting. He established the fame of Chozla bravery forever in that battle of Thakkolam. He
became famous as the `Lord who reposed atop an elephant.' What fame will I acquire? Will I
come to be known as `Sundara Chozla who reposed atop his sickbed'? My other elder uncle,
Gandara Aditya was involved in his devotions and had overcome the fear of death. He travelled
to the nations on the western ocean on pilgrimage and died on the seashore. He is known as `The
Lord who reposed in the west.' I am not devout like him; nor am I capable of embarking on a
pilgrimage like him. How long can I lie upon my bed like this? A burden to all those near and
dear ... But something tells me in my heart, I shall not remain on this delightful earth much
"My Majesty! The palace doctor says that there is no danger to your life. The astrologers also say
that there is no danger. But this youngster talked to you about some danger ..."
"Ah! Isn't he the young man who came from Kanchi City? Yes, he was saying about some danger
about something. What were you saying Thambi? Were you talking about my situation?" asked
Vandiya Devan's mind worked at lightning speed. If I own up to having warned about danger,
suspicions about me will rise and I will surely be in danger. I must escape from this plight. Good,
let me try one tactic. Let me secure the help of grammar and prosody to turn a mountain into a
"My Majesty! Who am I to warn about danger! What danger can approach you when you have
the brave Commander, Lord Pazluvoor, the palace doctor and the Empress who looks like the
Divine Savitri (mythical queen who saved her husband from the Lord of Death) next to you? I
petitioned to you as a stranger -- a stranger! I, an ignorant, lone youth, I alone am left to represent
the ancient clan of Vaanars. I have been serving the Chozla Empire to the satisfaction of your
elder son the Crown Prince. I beg your grace to return to me at least one tiny portion of the lands
of my ancient kingdom. I am a stranger! This stranger seeks the protection of you the King of
Kings!" Vallavarayan spoke quickly without any hesitation.
The Commander who heard his words, frowned. Sundara Chozla's face brightened once again.
Kindness filled the face of the Empress.
"As soon as he was born, Saraswati, the Goddess of Learning, must have written on this boy's
tongue. His command over words is quite remarkable!" said the Empress.
Making use of the opportunity, Vandiya Devan turned towards her and said, "Thaye! I Beg your
grace to put in a word on my behalf! I am an orphan without mother or father. I have no other
patron or sponsor. I myself have to petition on my behalf. Just like the Goddesses Lakshmi and
Parvathi speak to their Lords Vishnu and Shiva on behalf of devotees, I beseech you to speak on
my cause. I beg to be given back at least ten villages of my ancient kingdom. I shall be very
satisfied with that."
Sundara Chozla was filled with surprise and happiness as he heard these words. The Emperor
called his Commander and said, "Commander, I am becoming very fond of this youth! Look at
Devi's face: she seems ready to adopt him as her third son! Why not fulfil his petition? There
should be no problem about that? What is your opinion?"
"What place does my opinion have in this matter! Should we not consult the opinion of Prince
Karikala?" asked the Commander of Tanjavur.
"Your Majesty! If I ask the Prince, he says that he has to consult Lord Pazluvoor! Lord Pazluvoor
says that he has to ask the Crown Prince. Between the two of them my petition ..."
"Young man, don't worry. We shall ask them both at the same time," said the Emperor.
He then said, "Commander, this youth has brought a letter from the Prince. About my going to
Kanchi. Like before, Aditya wants me to come to Kanchi. Aditya writes that he has built a new
Golden Palace there. He wants me to go over there and live in it at least for some time."
"We shall act according to thy wishes," said the Commander.
"Ah! You will act according to my wishes! But my legs refuse. It is impossible to journey to
Kanchi. The very thought of travelling in palanquins with drawn screens, like women of the
palace, disgusts me. We must write a reply asking Aditya Karikala to come here ..."
"Is it advisable to ask the Prince to leave Kanchi at this time to come here? Our enemies in the
north continue to be strong!"
"Parthiban and Malayaman can stay back and take care of that. Something in my heart tells me
that I must have the Prince here beside me. And that is not enough; we must send a message to
the younger Prince who has gone to Lanka -- ask him to come back here immediately. I wish to
consult both of them and come to a conclusion about an important matter. When Arulmozli is
here we can talk to him about your objection in sending rice and foodstuffs to the Lankan
"Your Majesty! Forgive me! I do not object to sending foodstuffs to Lanka. Neither does the
Officer of Resources & Food Supply object. The citizens and countrymen of the Chozla nation
object to it. The last harvest in our country was poor. When supplies are limited to meet our
needs, people object to sending shiploads of foodgrains to Lanka. Now they murmur and
complain in words. After a while their complaints will become louder. Their shouts will be heard
even inside this palace, disturbing your health!"
"Arulmozli will never wish to undertake anything to which the people and citizens object.
Anyway, considering everything it is best if he comes here at once. After the Elder Lord
Pazluvoor returns, we shall decide about sending a messenger to Lanka. When is he coming
"He will definitely return by tonight."
"We can write the letter to Kanchi also tomorrow. Can we send this young man back with that
"This youngster seems to have journeyed from Kanchi without any rest or stop. Let him stay here
and relax for a few days before he returns. We can send the letter with some other messenger."
"Do that. Perhaps he can remain here itself till Karikala arrives."
At this point Malayaman's daughter stood up. The Commander spoke up, "I have spoken for a
long time and disturbed you today. Please forgive me for extending this interview till being
warned by My Lady!"
The Empress spoke, "Commander, this youth is our guest. Make all arrangements for his comfort.
If the Emperor had been in good health, we could have accommodated him in this palace itself."
"I shall take care of that, My Lady! You need not concern yourself about it. I shall take care of
him very well!" spoke the Younger Lord Pazluvoor. The fingers of one hand twirled his thick
moustache as he spoke these words.
Ponniyin Selvan - New Floods Chapter 30 -- Art Gallery
The Younger Lord Pazluvoor dragged Vandiya Devan to the audience chamber along with him.
The explanation given by the youth about his conversation with the Emperor had not completely
satisfied him. Perhaps it was a mistake to have permitted him to meet the Emperor in privacy. It
is routine to suspect him since he is a messenger from Aditya Karikala. But there is no room for
suspicion since my brother has sent him with the signet ring. Ah! No one has to advice the Elder
about caution in such matters.
Howsoever, the sight of the youth hesitating with a fear-filled expression, as he entered the bed
chamber came before the Commander's eyes. He remembered very clearly that the youth had
spoken the words "Danger! Danger!" -- Is it possible that the words "Stranger! Stranger!" could
have sounded like "Danger! Danger!" in his ears? Considering all possibilities, it is better that I
do not send him back immediately. After the Elder returns, I must find out details about him and
do the appropriate thing. I must try and recruit such capable young men in my secret police corps.
He would be useful in times of need. Perhaps I can procure part of his ancient lands for him.
Such young men will remain beholden and loyal to me if I help them once. Ah! But if it proven
that he is an enemy, I must make appropriate arrangements. Anyway, for all things, let the Elder
return. Let us see.
Upon reaching the large audience chamber, Vandiya Devan began looking about here and there
anxiously. He peered again and again at the spot where he had taken out the letter to give it to the
Perhaps by accident the other letter, the important letter has fallen there. If I cannot retrieve that
letter there is no greater fool than me! I shall never be able to meet the world-renowned Princess
Kundavai. I shall not be able to complete half the task assigned to me by Prince Aditya Karikala.
The Younger Lord Pazluvoor looked at one of his servants and said, "Lead this young man to our
palace. Take him to our guest house and make all arrangements for his comfort -- look after him.
Wait there till I come."
Vandiya Devan and the servant left. Another servant approached him and respectfully extended
his hand with a palm leaf roll in it. "This was lying in the corridor on the way to the Emperor's
bed-chamber. It might have fallen from the waist-belt of the youth who left just now."
The Commander accepted it eagerly and examined it. His eyebrows shot half way up his forehead
in a frown! A dreadful expression came upon his face.
"Ah ha! A letter written to the Younger Pirati by Aditya Karikala. In the Prince's own
handwriting: -- `... .. you had asked for a retainer -- a capable, courageous youth for use in
confidential matters; I am sending him to you for that purpose. You can trust him completely
regarding all affairs and entrust any task to him. He will personally give you my message and
details of the situation here...' -- Ah! There is some mystery in this! I wonder if the Elder Lord
knows about this letter. I must be more careful in handling this youngster!" The Commander of
Tanjavur muttered these words to himself as he read some parts of the letter. He beckoned to the
servant who had picked up the letter and whispered some words in his ear. That man immediately
left the audience chamber.
All courtesies and comforts were shown to Vandiya Devan in the palace of the Younger Lord
Pazluvoor. They led him to a luxurious bath and helped him wear new clothes. Vandiya Devan
who was fond of wearing new fashionable clothes, dressed himself in the fresh garments with
enthusiasm. He almost forgot his worry about the lost letter. After he had dressed in the new
raiment, they served him courteously and elegantly with a tasty meal of many courses. Being
hungry, Vandiya Devan did justice to the meal. Later they led him to the art gallery in that palace.
"Till the Commander returns you can enjoy the beautiful pictures and art-works in this gallery,"
said the servant. After saying this, three men -- guards -- sat down outside that chamber, near the
doorway and began a game of dice.
In those days, Tanjavur, the new capital of the Chozla's, was famous for its art and painting. Just
as music and dance were nurtured in Thiru-vai-aru, painting and sculpture were encouraged in
The art gallery attached to the palace of the Younger Lord Pazluvoor was famous. Vandiya
Devan entered that art gallery now. He looked again and again at the several large pictures
painted on the walls of that chamber and was enthralled. He forgot himself in that happiness; he
forgot the task for which he had come.
The portrait gallery on one side, depicting the pictures of ancient rulers of the Chozla clan and
important events in their history attracted his attention. A large part of that gallery was given to
depict the history over the last hundred years of the Chozla nation. Those were the pictures that
aroused the greatest interest in Vandiya Devan.
At this point, the author wishes to briefly remind our readers of the history and genealogy of the
Chozlas who ruled for hundred years before the times of this story, from Pazlayarai and Tanjavur.
It would be very useful to know these details to understand further incidents in this tale.
We have mentioned earlier about Vijayala Chozla who bore ninety-six scars of battle wounds like
ornaments on his body. Chozla kings customarily bore the titles Parakesari and Rajakesari one
succeeding the other. After Parakesari Vijayala, his son Rajakesari Aditya Chozla came to the
throne. He was a deserving son to his father. In the beginning he fought on the side of the Pallava
monarchs to defeat their common enemy, the Pandiyas and establish the Chozla entity. Later he
engaged in battle against his former ally the Pallava King Aparajita. Pallava Aparajita entered the
battlefield seated on a howdah atop an elephant. Aditya jumped onto that war elephant and fought
his enemy, killing him and thus captured all of Thondai for the Chozlas. Later the Kongu
Kingdom came under Aditya's rule. Rajakesari Aditya I, was an ardent devotee of Shiva. He
constructed several Shiva temples along the banks of the holy Cauvery -- from the Sahasya hills
where the river rose till it entered the seas in the east.
After Rajakesari Aditya, Parakesari Paranthaka ascended the Chozla throne. He ruled for fortysix years. Next to Karikala of the ancient times who had established his tiger-flag over the
Himalayas, this Paranthaka was the greatest of Chozla kings. He had several honors and titles
like "Veera-narayana", "Lover of Poets", "Best among Wrestlers", "Jewel among the Braves",
etc. He was also known as the `Chozla who took (conquered) Madurai and Lanka'. Even during
the times of this Paranthaka I, the Chozla nation spread from the shores of Cape Comorin to the
banks of the Krishna-Tungabadra rivers in the north.
For some time the tiger-flag flew over Lanka also. He was the same Paranthaka who became
famous for having covered the roof of the temple at Chidambaram with gold. Towards the end of
his reign several dangers seized the Chozla Empire. In those days, the Rashtrakutas who were
very powerful in the north tried to contain the growing powers of the Chozlas. They led an army
against the Chozlas and were successful to some extent.
Paranthaka had at least three sons. The eldest among these sons was Raja-aditya. Expecting an
invasion from the north, this Raja-aditya waited with a very large army for several years in ThiruMunai-padi. He constructed the large Veera Narayana Lake in the name of his father.
A terrible war was fought between the Chozla forces and the Rashtrakuta armies at a place
known as Thakkolam near present day Arakonam. In that battle, Raja-aditya fought valiantly and
showered havoc upon the enemy forces. But he lost his life in the battlefield and went to the
heavens meant for braves. He too fought from the howdah of an elephant like the Pallava
Aparajita. Since he died while riding the battle elephant he was referred to as the `Lord who
reposed atop an elephant' in latter day stone-inscriptions.
If Raja-aditya had not died in the battlefield, he would have ruled the Chozla nation after his
father Paranthaka I. His descendants would, in the normal course, have ascended the throne after
him. But since he died before ascending the throne and without any offspring, his brother
Gandara Aditya was crowned as king with the title of Rajakesari according to the wishes of their
Like his father and grand-father, Gandara Aditya was a devotee and follower of Shiva. In
addition, he was fond of Tamil literature. In fact, he did not have much interest in ruling his
nation for he was more involved in worship at temples and in enjoyment of poetry. Following the
tradition of the Saiva Nayanmar saints, he composed several devotional poems on God Shiva. In
an anthology of these poems known as Thiru-isai-pa he refers to himself towards the end:
Like his noble Sire who covered
The roof of the dancer at Chidambaram with red gold,
May Gandara Aditya, monarch of flourishing Kozli,
Lord of the people of Tanjavur, expert in exquisite Tamil verse,
May he attain everlasting greatness and happiness.
Though the kings after Vijayala Chozla ruled from Pazlayarai and Tanjavur, they did not forget
their rights to their ancient capital Uraiyoor, which was also called Kozli (rooster). Chozla
monarchs styled themselves as `Rooster Kings.'
Though Gandara Aditya sat on the Chozla throne and ruled in name, his younger brother
Arinjaya took care of the governing of the nation. Arinjaya had been stationed in the northern
provinces helping his eldest brother Raja-aditya. He fought bravely in the battles against the
Rashtrakutas. He was the instrument for turning the terrible defeat of the Chozla armies at
Thakkolam into a victory by stopping the invading forces at the northern banks of River Pennar.
Therefore, Rajakesari Gandara Aditya chose his younger brother Arinjaya as the Crown Prince
and designated him as his successor to the throne. There was another important reason for this
decision of Gandara Aditya. His first wife had died several years before he came to inherit the
throne. After her death, Gandara Aditya had not married again for several years. However, his
younger brother Arinjaya already had a handsome, capable and intelligent son.
That son named after his grandfather Paranthaka, was known as Sundara -- the name bestowed on
him by the people. Gandara Aditya willed that after him his brother Arinjaya, and after Arinjaya,
Sundara should succeed to the Chozla throne. He obtained the approval of all the leaders of the
land, the chieftains, the commanders, the chiefs of the cities and guilds, and announced his
After all such arrangements were made, a surprising incident occurred in his life. He happened to
meet the young daughter, of a petty chieftain named Mazlava-raya. The beauty, modesty, virtue
and piety of that jewel among maidens, Sembiyan Madevi, attracted him. In his advanced age he
married that young maiden. As a result of this marriage a child was born in due course. They
named the child Madurandaka and cherished him. But both the King as well as the Queen did not
wish to change any of the arrangements they had made earlier about the kingdom. The couple
were both involved in piety, devotion and renouncement of the world; they wished to raise their
son in a similar ascetic fashion. Once again, the King proclaimed his wish that after him, his
brother Arinjaya and Arinjaya's descendants should have the right to ascend the Chozla throne.
Thus, bypassing the two lines of the elder brothers Raja-aditya and Gandara Aditya, the line of
Arinjaya Chozla became heirs to the Chozla throne.
Parakesari Arinjaya who ruled after Gandara Aditya, did not live for a long time. Within one year
he followed his elder brothers to the heavenly abodes.
After him, the citizens, chieftains, leaders and guildsmen happily crowned Prince Sundara as
their king. Rajakesari Paranthaka Sundara Chozla was an able ruler of the kingdom that came to
him by good fortune. In the early years of his reign, he performed various deeds of valor and
once again acquired the lost Pandiya and Thondai Territories. He drove away the Rashtrakuta
armies from the banks of the Pennar.
Aditya Karikala and Arulmozli Varma, the two sons of Emperor Sundara Chozla, were able
warriors and worthy sons of their father. Both sons cooperated and helped their father with
complete devotion. These sons had experienced battlefield and war at very young ages. In every
campaign they participated, the Goddess of Victory stood on the side of the Chozlas. ***
Principal Characters in Ponniyin Selvan
Aditya Karikala -Crown Prince of the Chozla Empire, Sundara Chozla's eldest son.
Amudan's Mother -A deaf-mute, garden keeper on the outskirts of Tanjore.
Anirudda Brahma-raya -The Prime Minister and confidant of Sundara Chozla.
Arinjaya Chozla-Sundara Chozla's father, King Gandara Aditya's younger brother, died after
ruling for merely one year.
Arulmozli Varma -Sundara Chozla's younger son.
Astrologer of Kudanthai- An astrologer patronized by Kundavai, a spy of sorts.
Azlvar-adiyan Nambi, Thirumalai Appan - A follower of the Vaishnava faith, step brother of
Esanya Bhattar, a spy.
Esanya Bhattar -A priest of Pazlayarai, elder brother of Azhvar-adiyan Nambi.
Gandara Aditya -Sundara Chozla's elder uncle, a devout follower of the Saiva faith, ruled before
Idumban Kari -A footman from Kadamboor, a conspirator against Chozla royalty, member of a
gang sympathetic to Pandiyas.
Kalyani of Vaithumba- Widow of King Arinjaya Chozla, a famous beauty, Sundara Chozla's
Kandamaran- A young man, son of Sengannan Sambuvaraya of Kadamboor.
Kundavai, Younger Pirati - Sundara Chozla's daughter.
Lord Velir of Kodumbalur, the Elder, Bhoothi Vikrama Kesari - An important chieftain of the
Chozla Empire, Commander of Chozla Armies in Lanka. Elder-uncle to Vanathi
Lord Velir of Kodumbalur, the Younger, Paranthaka Vikrama - Younger Lord of Kodumbalur,
Vanathi's father who lost his life in a battle in Lanka.
Lord Pazluvoor, the Elder, - Ambalavan An important and powerful chieftain, - Officer of
Taxation, Food Supply and Finance for the Chozla Empire, elder brother of Kalanthaka,
Nandini's husband, about 65 years old.
Lord Pazluvoor, the Younger, Kalanthaka - Commander of Tanjore Fort, Captain of the Guard
Madurandaka Deva -A Chozla Prince, son of Gandara Aditya and Sembiyan Madevi, a few years
older than Aditya Karikala.
Malayaman Milad-udayar of Thiru-kovalur -A nobleman and petty chieftain of the Chozla
Empire, Empress Vanamadevi's father and thereby grandfather to Karikala, Arulmozli and
Manimekala - Kandamaran's younger sister and daughter of Kadamboor Sambuvaraya.
Mazlava-raya - A nobleman, Sembiyan Madevi's brother.
Munai Raya - A nobleman, not very confident in Lord Pazluvoor's schemes.
Nallavan Sattanar - Court poet at Tanjore.
Nandini, Young-Queen - An extraordinarily beautiful Pazluvoor woman with a mysterious past,
Azhvar-adiyan's adopted sister, raised by a priest's family near Madurai.
Parthiban Pallava - A nobleman of the Pallava clan, Crown Prince Aditya Karikala's confidant.
Poonkuzlali - Daughter of the Lighthouse Keeper of Kodi Karai, Sendan Amudan's cousin.
Ravidasa, the Sorcerer - Leader of the Pandiya conspirators, a former retainer of Veera-pandiya,
had a mysterious hold over Nandini.
Sambuvaraya of Kadamboor - A nobleman and crony of Lord Pazluvoor.
Sembiyan Madevi, Elder Pirati - Widow of King Gandara Aditya, Madurandaka Deva's mother,
fond of Sundara Chozla and his children, devout.
Sendan Amudan -A flower vendor of Tanjore, lived with his deaf-mute mother in the outskirts of
Soman Samban - A conspirator against Chozla royalty, member of Ravidasa's gang, sympathetic
Sundara Chozla Paranthaka - Emperor of the Chozla Kingdom.
Vanamadevi of Thiru-kovalur - The Queen Consort, wife of Sundara Chozla, mother to Karikala,
Kundavai & Arulmozli.
Vanathi Devi - A young noblewoman of the Kodumbalur clan, Kundavai's friend, in love with
Vandiya Devan Vallavarayan - A scion of the Vaanar clan of Vallam, Aditya Karikala's
Vasuki - Nandini's maid.
Veera-pandiya - Pandiya King vanquished and killed by Prince Aditya Karikala.
Aadi A month of the Tamil calendar, about July-Aug
Aavani A month of the Tamil calendar, about Aug-Sept
Advaita A philosophy, belief in the non-dual nature of God
Akka Elder sister, a respectful greeting for an older girl
Amma Mother, a respectful greeting for women
Ankush A goad used by elephant drivers
Anna Elder brother, respectful address for older men
Araya, raya, arasa King, chieftain, Raja
Ayya Father, mode of address for an older man
Bharata Natyam Classical dance style
Champaka A fragrant flower
Chanakya A medieval personality of political cunning, a Machiavelli
Devi, Deva Lady, Lord
Iruvatchi A fragrant flower
Jaamam A period of time 3 hrs long;
1 Jaamam = 7½ Nazli; 1 Nazli = 24 minutes
Jaggery Unrefined or brown sugar
Kaadam A league or about 10 miles
Kaavi Reddish, ocher dye
Kadamba A flower
Kama Love, Passion
Karadi 1. A musical instrument 2. Bear
Karagam Folk dance with balancing decorated pots
Karaiyar Coastal, fisherfolk
Karppu Sanctity of a married woman. Chastity
Kavi 1. Poet 2. Monkey
Konnai A flowering tree
Kumkum Red powder, used to decorate the forehead
Kummi A folk dance of women circling while clapping hands
Kunrimani A tiny red-black berry or bead
Kural Ancient Tamil couplets
Kuravai Koothu Gypsy dance or dance by maidens
Mariamman A village deity, a pagan Goddess
Marudai A shade giving tree, a colloquial name for Madurai City
Maya Illusion, Deception, unreal
Moringa A leafy tree
Mu-ttholl-ayiram A collection of romantic verse in Tamil
Naamam A vertical, make-up like, caste mark worn by followers of Vishnu
Nanal A sedge like grass
Netri-chutti Forehead ornament
Padai Veedu Army Housing
Padinettam Perukku Eighteenth day flood
Palli Padai Memorial temple
Panchayat Council of Village Elders, often five persons
Parai A kind of country drum, an announcement
Perumal Lord, God
Pirati Lady, Royal Princess
Pitam Monastic seat
Punnai A tree with yellow flowers
Rudraksha A multifaceted bead, a sacred berry
Saelai Loose pleated garment of women worn with one loose end thrown over a shoulder
Saiva A sect of Hinduism, follower of Shiva
Salli A musical instrument
Selvan Beloved, Darling (masculine)
Selvi Beloved, Darling (feminine)
Silappadikaram A Tamil Epic
Sindhu Folk song
Puli -Tamarind A shade giving tree bearing a sour fruit
Thambi Younger brother, mode of address for young men
Thaye Mother, mode of respectful address for women
Thaazlai A fragrant cactus
Thevar-aalan, Divine man, dancers
Thevar-aatti Divine woman, dancers
Thevaram Devotional Poems
Thiru-vai-mozli Devotional Poems
Thinnai A raised platform or dias on the front porch of houses in South India. Often used like
a living room; for family gatherings, seating visitors, and sleeping in the night.
Udukku Small palm held drum
Uriyadi A game to get the prize-pot tied to a pole similar to the Maypole
Vaetti Loose lower garment of men
Vaishnava A sect of Hinduism, follower of Vishnu
Veena A musical stringed instrument
Velan Attam A semi-religious dance, usually by a man
Villu-pattu Folk songs accompanying a string instrument, story telling
Vinnagara Vishnu temple
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