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Unraveling the Waves of Conspiracy Beliefs: A Longitudinal Study of Stolen Elections and the 2020 American Presidential Election.

Unraveling the Tangled Web: The Impact of Stolen Elections and Conspiracy Beliefs on America's Political Landscape.

By Mark JohnsonPublished 7 months ago 6 min read
Unraveling the Waves of Conspiracy Beliefs: A Longitudinal Study of Stolen Elections and the 2020 American Presidential Election.
Photo by Clay Banks on Unsplash

The 2020 American presidential elections were nothing short of historic, but they were also met with controversy and fervent conspiracy beliefs. The wave of conspiracy theories surrounding the election outcome captivated the nation and divided it along deep ideological lines. From the contentious claims of stolen elections to the emergence of specific conspiracy beliefs, the aftermath of the 2020 election marked a turning point in American politics.

In this longitudinal study, we delve into the dynamics of conspiracy mentality and its impact on voters' behavior, focusing on both Trump and Biden supporters. We aim to understand how ingroup and outgroup conspiracy beliefs shaped their perceptions and actions during and after the election.

The Wave of Stolen Elections Belief

The notion of stolen elections, albeit not new in American history, gained unprecedented traction during the 2020 presidential election. Prominent figures, including former President Donald Trump, perpetuated the idea that the election was rigged, undermining the democratic process and eroding public trust in the outcome.

Conspiracy Beliefs and the 2020 Election Outcome

Conspiracy theories often take root when individuals feel threatened, anxious, or uncertain about the world around them. The 2020 election's tight race and dramatic events provided fertile ground for the growth of conspiracy beliefs. Those who supported Trump were quick to embrace the idea that the election had been stolen from them, while Biden voters saw such claims as dangerous falsehoods designed to subvert democracy.

The Power of Specific Conspiracy Beliefs

While the overarching belief in a stolen election fueled conspiracy mentality, specific conspiracy beliefs emerged and took on lives of their own. Social media platforms and echo chambers amplified these beliefs, further dividing the nation. Some conspiracy theories alleged that mail-in ballots were fraudulent, while others pointed to election officials manipulating vote counts. Understanding these specific beliefs is crucial to grasping the depth of polarization and the potential for violence that followed.

A Tale of Two Groups: Trump Voters vs. Biden Voters

The longitudinal study revealed stark contrasts between Trump and Biden voters regarding their conspiracy beliefs. Trump voters tended to embrace the idea of a stolen election passionately, while Biden voters rejected these claims, viewing them as baseless attempts to challenge the legitimacy of their candidate's victory.

Conspiracy Mentality and Ingroup Beliefs

The longitudinal study showed that conspiracy mentality often strengthened ingroup bonds. For Trump voters, the shared belief in a stolen election served as a rallying point, cementing their sense of belonging within their political tribe. This collective identity reinforced their conviction that the election had been stolen, and any evidence to the contrary was dismissed or attributed to a vast conspiracy.

Conversely, Biden voters coalesced around the notion that Trump's claims were baseless, and they saw themselves as defenders of democracy. The belief in the integrity of the election became a crucial element of their ingroup mentality, uniting them against perceived threats.

Outgroup Conspiracy Beliefs: The Danger of Demonization

The study also revealed that conspiracy beliefs extended beyond the immediate election context. Both Trump and Biden supporters held conspiracy beliefs about the opposing group. Trump voters often saw Biden supporters as part of a shadowy network aiming to seize power and dismantle American values. Meanwhile, Biden voters perceived Trump supporters as a dangerous and deluded group, prone to violence and authoritarianism.

The danger of outgroup conspiracy beliefs lies in their potential to dehumanize the other side. When people see those with opposing views as part of a malicious plot, dialogue and compromise become almost impossible, further entrenching the divide.

Consequences and Implications

The consequences of the wave of conspiracy beliefs surrounding the 2020 American presidential elections were multifaceted and profound.

Erosion of Trust in Democratic Institutions: The belief in stolen elections eroded trust in democratic processes and institutions, undermining the very foundations of the American democracy.

Political Violence: The longitudinal study found a correlation between extreme conspiracy beliefs and an increased propensity for political violence. Acts of violence and protests erupted in the aftermath of the election, further polarizing the nation.

Disinformation and Misinformation: The spread of conspiracy beliefs was fueled by disinformation and misinformation on social media platforms. Addressing this issue is essential to protect the integrity of future elections.

Division and Fragmentation: Conspiracy beliefs contributed to the fragmentation of American society, deepening ideological divides and making it challenging to find common ground.


The wave of conspiracy beliefs surrounding the 2020 American presidential elections has left an indelible mark on the nation's political landscape. The longitudinal study revealed how specific conspiracy beliefs and a widespread conspiracy mentality shaped the behavior of Trump and Biden voters. The consequences of this phenomenon were far-reaching, with trust in democratic institutions eroded, political violence on the rise, and the nation further divided.

Moving forward, addressing the root causes of conspiracy beliefs and their amplification through social media will be crucial in healing the wounds and rebuilding trust in American democracy. Only through open dialogue, critical thinking, and understanding can we bridge the gap that separates us and create a more united and resilient society. The future of the nation depends on our ability to confront these challenges head-on and work together toward a more harmonious and inclusive America.

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About the Creator

Mark Johnson

Mark Johnson, a 44-year-old, finds joy in crafting captivating articles that captivate readers with their unique insights.

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