The Summer Olympics of 1924, formally known as the VIII Olympiad Games, were an international multi-sport competition held in Paris, France in 1924. This was Paris that hosted the games for the second time since 1900. The summer of 1924 Olympic qualifying process consisted of six bids, and Paris was chosen ahead of London, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague and Rome. The selection was made in the wake of the 20th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921. The estimated number of Olympic Games VIII was F 10,000,000. The Games ended with a heavy loss of 5,496,610F for gross receipts, with audiences reaching 60,000 spectators at a time. The United States has won Europe's most gold medals and overall, with 229 athletes taking part against the 401. The opening ceremonies and numerous athletic activities were held by Colombes Olympic Stadium which had a capacity of 45,000 in 1924. This VIII Olympiad was the last, conducted under Pierre de Coubertin's leadership. The "Flying Finns" dominated long-distance racing, while the shorter races were dominated by the British and the American. Paavo Nurmi has reached the 1500 m and 5,000 m, as well as the cross country. Ville Ritola won the 10,000 m steeplechase and the 3,000 m steeplechase and thus took second place on the 5,000 m cross country at Nurmi. Albin Stenroos won the race, while the Finnish side prevailed in the 3,000 m and cross-country team events. British athletes Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell have won 100 metre and 400 metre trials. Their storeys can be seen in the 1981 film Chariots by Stone. Douglas Lowe also won the 800 m title. Ireland was officially recognised as an independent republic in 1924 after the Paris Olympic Revolution and it was at those games that Ireland made its first appearance as an independent nation at an Olympic Games. Subsequently the International Olympic Committee recognised the athletic events held in Chamonix from 25 January to 5 February 1924 as I Olympic Winter Games, initially called Semaine des Sports d'Hiver and played in conjunction with the 1924 Summer Olympics. These games were the very first to feature an Olympic Village. The art exhibitions at the 1924 Summer Olympics were the first time Olympic Art contests had been fiercely contested, with 193 entries in five classes. A total of 14 awards were received but none in the arts sector. At the 1908 London Summer Olympics the marathon distance from the distance run was set at 42.195 km. In 1924, there were 126 events in the Olympic Calendar spanning 23 disciplines and 17 sports. In the Summer Olympics of 1924 seventeen athletic venues were included. Stade de Colombes acted as final venue between Italy and Hungary for the 1938 FIFA World Cup. Games of 1924 had accommodated a record of 44 states. Therefore Germany was excluded from the Organization Executive, and was not accepted. Japan, Peru, Honduras, Ireland, Lithuania and Uruguay entered the Olympic Games for the first time, while the Philippines first competed in the 1900 Olympic Games as a country as well as in this region. Latvia and Poland became the first to compete in the Summer Olympic Games. The 1924 Summer Olympics represent the last edition of the Paris summer Olympics. A hundred years later, the city will host the 2024 Summer Olympics, marking the third time that the games will be held in town. One venue from the 1924 Games is scheduled for use in 2024. Hosting field hockey, known as Yves-du-Manoir Stade Olympique since 1928, will be a completely refurbished and downsized central stadium. The last surviving participant at the Summer Olympics in 1924 was Croatian swimmer Ivo Pavelić who died at the age of 103 on 22 February 2011.