The 1900 Summer Games, now officially known as the II Games, was an international multi- spectacle held in Paris, France, in 1900. There were no opening or closing ceremonies; competitions began on 14 May and closed on 28 October. The Games were played as part of 1900 World Fair. 997 athletes have previously participated in 19 different sports. That statistic rests on certain assumptions that the events were and were not "Olympic." Many athletes, including those who have won events, do not know they participated in the Olympic Games. Women soon turned up in the games and sailor Hélène de Pourtalès, born to Helen Barbey in New York City, became the first female Olympic champion. The decision to organise a Sunday tournaments received protests from many American athletes who travelled as members of their college and were forced to leave rather than compete on their holy day of rest. At the Sorbonne conference in 1894 Pierre de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games be held in Paris in 1900. Delegates from the conference were reluctant to wait six years, and decided to hold the first games in 1896. A decision was taken to hold the first Athens Olympic Games in 1896, and to host the second one in Paris. Any of the winners in 1900 did not win any medals but got cups or trophies. Professionals competed in fencing, and Albert Robert Ayat who won the épée for amateurs and masters was given a prize of 3000 francs. Many events have been played for the first time in the history of the Games, including auto and road racing, ballooning, cricketing, croquet, Basque pelota, and underwater swimming and obstacle run 200 m. It was also the first recent Olympic Games during the shooting event which used live animals as obstacles. Such Olympic Games were the first to be held under the IOC presidency of Pierre de Coubertin Alvin Kraenzlein to win the 60 metres he was one of two men to ever accomplish this competition at the Olympic Games, as he was excluded from the Olympic Games after the Olympics of 1904, the 110-meter hurdles, the 200-meter hurdles and the long jumping events; as of 2005, all four individual gold medals are now a recovery event; His rival Meyer Prinstein, who had been barred by the University of Syracuse officials from participating in the final as it was scheduled for a Sunday, was allegedly kicked in the face for his long jump victory. Hélène de Pourtalès was the first female Olympic champion among the winning team in the 1-2 tonne sailing event. Charlotte Cooper becomes the first athlete to win an individual Olympic event since winning the women's tennis singles competition. She went on to win the mixed Doubles title, too. The outcome was contested by three U.S. marathon runners saying a short cut was made by the French athletes who got first and second place, and in fact they were the only entrants who hadn't been spattered with blood. Crews were replacing adult coxswain with youngsters in the coxed pairs and eight rowing competitions. Such boys ' names and ages have not been registered, but one of the youngest of all Olympic athletes is believed to be. 14 venues have been reserved for hosting 20 events at the 1900 Summer Olympics. The 1900 games were not governed by a formal Olympic organising committee but conducted as an supplement to the 1900 World Fair. A considerable number of competitions took place but others may have fallen short of the Olympic championship status criteria. Decisions about what Olympic events are considered "official" and which have "unofficial" or "demonstrative" status are usually left to the Olympic and/or IOC organising committees. In the absence of any general body able to make such an official distinction, no decision was made as to the legal status of this event at the time of the Olympics. A 1912 text survives, describing events from the 1900 Olympics, but Olympic historians dispute this article's reliability and authenticity.