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Minor Cannabinoids

by Zach Mountford 11 months ago in science

Exploring Cannabis and its Medical Value

Minor Cannabinoids



Although the chemical composition of the cannabis plant has been around for ten thousand years, we continue to discover amazing new things about its vast and mysterious nature. Most people know about THC and CBD but there are over four hundred other cannabinoids present in cannabis that have positive medicinal effects on humans. CBG (Cannabigerol) is one of the new cannabis compounds being studied. As the chemical precursor to THCA and CBDA, CBG is known as the “Mother Cannabinoid” since it is the origin of all the rest.

CBG interacts with the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the body to increase anandamide, known as the “Bliss Molecule” and can help stimulate appetite, enhance sleep, lift mood and supports the immune system to help your body fight off illness. “Unlike CBD, which has a relatively low affinity for cannabinoid receptors and acts mostly through indirect interactions with the endocannabinoid system, CBG is thought to elicit its therapeutic effects directly though interaction with the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain. “ (Beadle, A https://www.analyticalcannabis.com/articles/cbg-vs-cbd-what-are-the-differences-312232

Studies have also shown CBG to have anti-bacterial and anti-microbial effects while at the same time promotes neuroprotective activity in the brain. “Much like CBD, CBG is also an appetite stimulant that has even been shown to enhance the death process in cancer cells.” (Journal of Cannabis Medicine). More research is underway to understand more about CBG.

Hemp farmers can now grow plants that are high in CBG to allow extractors to bring more diverse cannabis products to the market. The price for CBG can be 5-6 times higher than that of CBD but that will change over the next few years. There are several pioneering companies that have CBG tablets available now.


Most people might not know that CBN (Cannabinol) was the first phytocannabinoid to be isolated as early as 1896. Much has been learned about CBN since then, primarily that CBN is an oxidized, degraded version od THC. Basically, CBN is the result of cannabis (Hemp or Marijuana) that has been stored improperly over several years and broken down. The change in cannabinoid is also a reduction in potency since CBN is about ¼ the potency of THC.

CBN is often referred to as the “Sleeper” cannabinoid not only for its anti-insomnia effects but for the fact that there is still so much potential that has not yet been discovered. One study from Steep Hill Labs showed that 5 mg of CBN was as effective as 10 mg of Diazepam (the most common doctor recommended sleep aid.) Since inadequate sleep is one of the biggest problems in our world today CBN could be a huge breakthrough on the quest to get a better night’s sleep. Researchers of CBN claim that it is the most sedative of all known cannabinoids.

Pain relief is also a common reason people seek CBN. One way it is thought that CBN helps with pain is by linking itself to the CB1 Receptor which induces a low effect, while at the same time releasing peptides from sensory nerves to activate an alternative nerve mechanism to achieve the same ends. There is a long list of things that CBN is thought to promote including Anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and bone cell growth stimulator. All this information shows how CBN is set to be a major cannabinoid in the future.

For further reading on CBN and other cannabiboid click here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22543671



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It is now thought that cannabinoid content is only part of the medicinal effects of Cannabis. More and more research is underway to learn more about terpenes and their interaction with the ECS (Endocannabinoid System) and other cannabinoids such as THC, CBD, CBG and CBN.

Terpenes are not just present in cannabis as we will soon see. But their effects are well known since most terpenes do not have the same restrictions in research as cannabinoids. Today we’ll go over the top four most well-known terpenes and try to understand a bit more about them.

1. Myrcene- is responsible for 50% of the terpenes in cannabis and is abundant. It is also found in mangoes, lemongrass, and hops. This terpene is known to be effective in pain relief and inflammation. Lemongrass tea has been used as a sleep aid and muscle relaxant for centuries and Myrcene is responsible for that. Found heavily in Indica dominant plants.

2. Limonene- this is a citrus terpene as the name might imply and is the terpene that helps other terpenes absorb better in the body. Limonene is known to provided relief from gastrointestinal effects such as ulcers and IBS. It is also known to promote weight loss, prevent cancer and treat bronchitis. Often found in the peels of oranges, grapefruits and limes.

3. Linalool- By far the most fun to say, Linalool gives Lavender its unique scent and is great for combatting stress. Positive mental health effects are well documented. One of the more proficient terpenes Linalool is also an anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial and an anti-convulsant.

4. Pinene- This terpene gives pine forests their smell. Known to help neurodegenerative disorders while increasing activity in the brain to promote focus and memory. Pinene is also used to fight against viral and microbial infections.

These are only a few in the vast world that make up terpenes. As we learn more about their interactions with cannabinoids we see that there is as much to discover if not more with these mysterious compounds, an entire forbidden, mysterious medicine chest locked away in one plant, while existing in many.

Immunity & Cannabis

With the entire world wrapped up in a COVID pandemic there is a lot of talk and speculation about how Cannabis can effect your immune system. The scope of medical research has been very limited and extremely narrow in scope, mostly HIV AIDS and Hepatitis C immune responses, and with very little hard facts to go on. Add to this that there are legal restrictions in most countries that limit medical or scientific studies that could give us the answers we seek.

The immune system is composed of many different cells, organs and systems providing a wide variety of functions to provide immunity from a wide number of pathogens. Since the immune system is not just one things, but many functioning like an engine, there is plenty of room for variability which makes research difficult. However, the one trend that has been constant is cannabis in its ability to mediate inflammation in the body.

High white blood cell counts have been reported in heavy cannabis users, which can be both good and bad. What we do know is that more research must be done.

As we move forward into the twenty-first century it is becoming evident that cannabis will play a large part in the way we heal as well as how we understand medicine. As more research is legalized and scientists and doctors are permitted to study cannabis freely we will certainly see further advances in plant based healing as well as the effect cannabinoids have on cancer and other illnesses.

Cannabis and Stress

Cannabis has long been thought of as a substance reduce stress, depression, anxiety, and other maladies of the mind. Often tied to relaxation, cannabis has a reputation for positive social interaction, enjoying food and generally upbeat experiences but does it really work under scientific scrutiny? The short answer is yes but there is still more work to be done.

Nearly 40 states in America have some sort of cannabis law on the books from full recreational adult use, medical applications to decriminalization for possession. The US Department of Health reports that nearly 42% of Americans 12 years of age and older have reported using Cannabis at some point in their life, with 11.5% reporting using it this year. In short millions of American have used and continue to use cannabis for recreation and wellness purposes. The recent legal push for Cannabis has also revealed how little medical professionals know about the plant and what therapeutic effects it may or may not have for people.

Since Cannabis is still federally illegal extraordinarily little testing and experiments have been done to uncover the mysteries of the therapeutic effects cannabis presents; with most studies done with THC pills in a laboratory setting. A recent study out of Washington state is the first of its kind and asked participants to self-report their reductions in stress, depression, anxiety and OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder). The nearly 12,000 participants were asked to self-report their experiences after smoking cannabis. Participants saw an average drop in depression of 50% while stress and anxiety dropped 58%. OCD patients saw a reduction of 60% in compulsive behaviors, 49% intrusive and unwanted thoughts, and 52% drop in anxiety and stress. One interesting conclusion drawn is that high CBD strain, not THC alone, had the most positive reports and it is thought that the CBD can augment the positive effects of THC and reduce the anxiety often reported In high doses of THC.

While most of the benefits were only observed in the short term, no true long-term changes were observed. With astounding reductions in the top leading mental issues in the world it begs the question, “why aren’t we looking into this more?” If this plant were discovered today, not covered in all the negative stigma applied by drug warriors for a hundred years, it would be a medical breakthrough in every way. As the walls of prohibition begin to crumble we should see more scientists and medical professionals gain access to this plant to learn more about its healing properties and how it may benefit not just each human individually but our society as a whole.

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Zach Mountford

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