Sapota (Chiku) Farming in India - How to Cultivate the Sapota
Sapota Farming Process
Sapota is commonly known as Chiku fruit and is mainly cultivated in India. However, sapota is native to Mexico and other tropical areas of South America. In India, it has become a prevalent fruit crop in Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
Process of Sapota Cultivation
Here below, we define the sapota farming procedure. However,
sapota farming requires that equipment, which plays a major role in agriculture processing. Tools, harvesters and tractors are the main in cultivating sapota; tractors play the main role in carrying the attachment. You can buy the Swaraj tractor models or any other tractor brand models.
1. Suitable Soil for Sapota Plantation
You can grow the Sapota fruit in a soil variety, but deep sandy loam, alluvium and medium black well-drained soil with pH 6.0-8.0 are best for sapota cultivation. However, hard clay or shallow clay soils with high calcium content do not support sapota cultivation.
2. Climate Requirement for Sapota Fruit
Sapota is a tropical fruit which prefers humid and hot climates. It grows well up to 1,000 m, although the coastal climate is ideal for Sapota cultivation. The 10-38°C temperature range and annual rainfall between 1250 to 2500 mm is suitable for Sapota cultivation.
3. Land Preparation
Farmers plough the land two to three times and then level it. The undulating land is divided into terraces and levelled. Like trees growing tall and dense. Mango, Jamun, tamarind, and casuarina are on the windward side or around the garden. Plants for windbreak can be planted at a distance of 1.5 to 1.8 m in a row.
4. The Best Season for Planting Sapota
You can plant in any season that provides irrigation amenities. You plant the grafts at the beginning of the rainy season. However, you can plant the crop in areas with heavy rainfall as late as September.
5. Spacing of Sapota Plants:
You should thoroughly plough the land at 30 to 45 cm depth and level. Usually, you do the planting at a 10mx10m distance. However, since the growth of sapota plants is slow, it takes more time to occupy the allotted space. Hence, a distance of 6mx6m is maintained till the umbrellas meet. After that, alternative trees are removed to reduce the plant population.
6. Pit Digging for Sapota Plantation
The 90cm3 pits are opened during summer and exposed to the sun for 2-3 weeks. While opening the pits, topsoil and subsoil must be piled separately. Therefore, each pit is first filled with topsoil, followed by well-decomposed field manure (FYM), mixed with 1 kg of superphosphate and 500 g of sulphate of potash. Finally, lindane powder @ 100 g/pit is applied to control termites.
7. Sapota Planting Method
At the time of planting in the pit, enough should be dug in the centre to accommodate the root ball. The grafts are planted in the hole, so the graft union remains just above the soil surface. The graft is staked immediately after planting to protect it from strong winds. Young grafts are protected from heat by erecting temporary shade covered with grass or plastic sheets.
The bandage used to secure the graft joint should be removed one month after planting to reduce graft mortality. New shoots that have emerged on the rootstock below the graft joint should also be removed immediately.
8. Irrigation/Drip Irrigation
Irrigation at the interval of 30 days in winter and 15 days in summer. This system has been beneficial in saving 40% water with 70-75% more income. The system is placed with 2 drippers at a distance of 50 cm from the tree in the initial stage and then about 1 m during the first two years. After that, away from the tree until the age of five.
9. Weed control
You should regularly remove the weeds from the basin. You can find the effective Bromacil 2kg a.i./ha or Diuron 2kg a.i./ha pre-emergence application in young plantations to control the weeds population for 10 to 12 months.
10. How to Prune Sapota Plants
You do the prune during winter to reduce the overcrowding of branches and give shapes. Pruning is so significant as the fruits and flowers are borne on those branches which gain the maximum air sunlight.
11. Insect Pests and Diseases of Sapota
The most common pests in Sapota cultivation are leaf Webber, hairy caterpillar and budworm. Spraying of Phospholine 35 EC (2 ml/L), Chlorpyriphos 20 EC or Endosulfan 35 EC has been found effective in controlling the pest. The main diseases reported are leaf spot, base rot, heart rot and anthracnose. In addition, the use of Dithane M-45, Copper Oxychloride (3 g/L), etc., is effective.
12. Manuring and Fertilisation
The nutrient requirement is very high, as it is an evergreen tree in the continuous growth and fruiting stage. Therefore, the fertiliser requirement of chickpeas varies by the tree's age and the soil's nutrient status. The recommended fertiliser schedule is as follows: In rainfed conditions, you should apply nutrients at the beginning of the monsoon. However, under irrigated conditions, you should apply it in two parts.
Need the Equipment in the Sapota Cultivation
When you want to get information about sapota farming, you should also know the tools that will help increase the yield. Rotavators, cultivators, tillers and tractors are essential in every farming. However, the tractor is the most important factor while farming. John Deere tractors are most effective for growing sapota. However, these tractors are more expensive than other tractors. And you can check Kubota tractor price and any other tractor price online.
For further information regarding sapota cultivation in India, stay tuned with us.
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