Just look at the names, you can find Russians from a bunch of names
Russia is a particularly "recognizable" country
In the perception of many people, Russia is a particularly "recognizable" country.
If nothing else, just look at the names and you can find Russians from a bunch of names. After all, "signatures" like Nov, Ski, and Pova are really conspicuous.
However, it is not difficult to see who is Russian, but do you know the name Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy, which is the first name and which is the last name?
Some people have done statistics. In Moscow, there are about 3,000 residents with the same surname as the poet Pushkin. To understand it in terms of Chinese culture, isn't this a giant family with huge branches?
It's just that surnames in Russian culture are a bit long.
For a long time, people in the Russian region did not know what a surname was.
The story changed between the 14th and mid-16th centuries. During this period, a group of princes and nobles with hereditary territories began to think about one thing-how can they guarantee their family's permanent ownership of the land?
This thinking directly contributed to the birth of the earliest surname in Tsarist Russia.
Coincidentally, in the 16th and 17th centuries, some lords who owned land but did not have noble titles also copied this method, turning the surnames on their heads into marks engraved on pieces of land, marking the ownership and inheritance of family interests. Therefore, the original meaning of "surname" in Russian is family, that is, the proof of blood relationship and family identity.
Where did that last name come from?
Early Russian surnames were very down-to-earth, and they all took "materials" on the spot. For example, many dukes and hereditary nobles in the 14th century found their surnames according to the rivers. For example, the famous minister Shuysky’s surname came from the Suya River, and the inspiration for the Duke Kurbsky’s surname came from the Kurba River.
Of course, this "privilege" was soon broken.
With the development of the commodity economy, businessmen who are generous on the economic stage also began to have their own surnames. This time, a dazzling array of products helped everyone open their minds, and many surnames were directly used as product names.
After that, the clergy gradually acquired surnames. It was not until 1861 that serfdom was completely abolished that the right to surnames was firmly in the hands of all the people, and the Russian surname culture was truly developed.
It is quite interesting that although the surnames at this time have been stripped of the hierarchical color, many commoners still learn from the surnames of the nobles. Many people have a good heart.
There is really no logic to Russian surnames. For example, Gorbachev meant hunchback, Khrushchev meant scarab, and Gorky meant pain.
It's not that these celebrities play their surnames out of "flowers". On the contrary, animals and plants have been the source of Russian surnames for a long time.
This "arbitraryness" is most evident in "nicknames and surnames."
To put it simply, surnames are formed directly based on a person's physical appearance. Hair color, height, and even personality can all play a role in the "surname" issue.
For example, a person with light hair and a nickname "Beriyak" that alludes to white, so "Beriyakov" can become the inherent surname of himself and even his descendants;
If the face is a little crooked, it may have the surname "Krivoshekov";
Walk fast, and you can give yourself the card of "Skoro Khodorov";
Petukhov is also one of the most common surnames in Russia, derived from "rooster", which describes a combative person;
This can also prove why the surname of the great writer Leo Tolstoy is translated as "fat";
Lomonosov, the founder of Moscow University, is even more "nonsense", because Lomonosov means "one with a broken nose".
Then again, although Russian surnames are "willful", they also hide a mystery. For example, some surnames are like a business card, which can tell you the ins and outs of a family without a lot of words.
This has to refer to the unique "father name" in Russian surname culture.
The so-called rich have father names, and the poor have nicknames.
Ancient Russian literature records that for a long period of time, Russians without surnames dealt with people, relying on their fathers and nicknames.
The father said that the answer is "who is the father" and "you are the child of so-and-so". After a long time, some father's names have been passed down and become the "strongest nourishment" for Russian surnames.
According to statistics by Vladimir Andreevich Nikonov, a humanist in the Soviet era, there are ten surnames most commonly used by Russians, namely Ivanov and Kuzne. Zov, Smirnov, Popov, Vasiliev, Petrov, Federov, Sokolov, Mikhailov and Shostakov.
It is worth mentioning that the father name is often grammatically added with a suffix after the father's name, but the grammar of the father's name is different for men and women. Generally speaking, the male suffix is mostly translated as Vicki, and the female father's name is often translated. Most of them end in feminine, which translates to X Na and X Wa.
From this point of view, "Nove" is blooming everywhere, and if you go deep into it, it can really involve the blood inheritance of a large family.
There is a Russian proverb - Ivan with a name and a fool without a name.
Among them, Ivan is one of the most common male names in Russia, which also shows that the first name is more important to Russians than the random "surname".
Therefore, in front of "surname", the history of "name" has become a long river flowing through more than ten centuries.
In the ancient Russian period before the 10th century, the people of this vast area had their own names. At this time, the name has no tricks, how can it be convenient. Therefore, appearance, character, behavior, and occupation have become the "reference materials" for people to name.
According to research, people at this time will also give their children some names that are not very catchy, such as Fool and Mazi. Everyone believes that the more "unpleasant" the name is, the more magical protection it can produce. At least when the devil hears these names, the desire to come and kidnap the child must be less than half.
However, there are also many people who do the opposite, incorporating ancient totem worship into their names, or directly giving people the same name as the beast, believing that they can "climb" their relatives, so that the two can coexist peacefully and live in peace.
In the 10th century, a major event occurred in Kievan Rus, an Eastern European country. The Grand Duke of Kievan Rus, Vladimir Sviatoslavich (the effective monarch of Kievan Rus, commonly known as Vladimir I), formally formed an alliance with Byzantium in order to resist the harassment of nomadic tribes.
In 988 AD, the Orthodox Church also completely knocked on the door of Kievan Rus and became the state religion. Such major events not only rewritten the fate of the region, for example, the word tsar originated from Byzantine culture, meaning the supreme ruler. More directly, the naming activities of the local people have directly changed the way.
As described by the famous Russian linguist Shansky, the study of onmology cannot be avoided without the Bible.
Indeed, since then Russian personal names and Christian names have become closely linked.
One by one, the children were sent to the church for baptism, and their names were also dyed with a strong religious color in the holy water washing.
Many children's names are associated with Orthodox documents. For example, May 9th of the Russian calendar is the anniversary of Saint Nicholas, and children born on this day will be named Nicholas. If it is a girl born on May 5 of the Russian calendar, it will also be named Irina because of the anniversary of Saint Irina.
In addition to Orthodox texts, the magical "fusion" appears in Russian names. Many Greek, Latin, and ancient Jewish languages also came from the mountains and rivers. After meeting with Russian, many special names were born, many of which describe personal conduct. The names are written in Greek, such as Alexander, which means brave; Ekaterina, means purity; Victor, means victor.
The ancient Jewish language is God's "iron powder", and the names derived from it are also clear-cut, such as Anna and Maria.
Some statistics have found that 95% of Russians' names today have something to do with religion, which may also explain why the name Anna Karenina appeared in Leo Tolstoy's writings.
After the "October Revolution" was fired, the situation changed again.
The government issued a decree allowing parents to freely name their children. At this time, the name broke away from the earlier randomness and convention, and became the free play of the parents. A large number of new names began to emerge. For example, some people would be named "Peace" and "May", and some people stood up to "Hero" and "Freedom". "The name of "rose" planted more secular life and historical imagination in the title.
It is said that the name is the epitome of folk culture and history. In Russia, this is just right.
Surnames with origins, given names with history, what happens when they combine?
The name of the Russian people tells the story in this way.
In general, Russian names are divided into three parts - first name, paternal name and surname, and after the "October Revolution", this structure was fixed as the norm.
For example, Russian President Vladimir Putin, whose full name is Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, strictly speaking, only Vladimir is his name, which means to dominate the world. And Vladimirovich is the father's name, and what we commonly call Putin is the "surname" that is replaced by a fake.
In the local area, names do not have to appear at the same time. What people call each other depends on their age, identity, and specific occasions.
Generally, people's full names are only used in official documents, and only the honorific titles of younger generations to elders will include first and last names. Married women can keep their original surnames, but most of the time they are also given their husbands' surnames. If the person to be addressed is a famous person, everyone has agreed to call them by their surnames, such as Stalin, Tolstoy, and Pushkin.
But overall, the appearance rate of surnames is much lower than that of first names and paternal names. Even sometimes, the parent name can be used alone. For example, in Gorky's "Mother", the protagonist Nilovna appeared under the name of her father, and the author's deep respect for her mother was condensed behind her.
This very distinctive name choice has also grown solidly in the life course of the local people.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, the name is not very familiar to many people, he is Lenin.
According to legend, Lenin was the pseudonym of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. In December 1901, "Lenin" appeared in front of the world for the first time in "Dawn", an organ of the Russian Social Democratic Party. The source of the name is likely to grow in the river.
The Lena River, a large river in Siberia, had witnessed the years when Lenin was exiled to Siberia at the end of the 19th century, so the youth named after it.
Some people speculate that this is Lenin's tribute and imitation of Plekhanov, the father of Russian Marxism. The water of the Volga River nourished Plekhanov's pseudonym "Volkin", and Lenin, who remembered his ancestors, chose the "Lena River" to respond. Either way, people can finally find the cultural continuation of the name of Huashan and the name of the water centuries ago.
Some names tell more stories, like Svetlana Alliluyeva.
As the only daughter of Joseph Visarionovich Stalin, her relationship with her father was not very good. After her father died, she also broke with her mother country and defected to another country.
She has since steadfastly refused to use her father Stalin's surname. However, in the face of her own son, she still named him Joseph.
Some people commented that this is the family complex of this "deviant" daughter that cannot be concealed.
Indeed, there is an old saying in China: "The surname is based on the origin of its ancestors; the clan is based on its descendants."
This principle, across oceans and seas, across mountains and mountains, can still resonate with many regions and countries.