Does Pikachu use direct current or alternating current?
Pikachu power generation principle
Pikachu generates electricity on a DIRECT current basis and its output is also direct current. There is a mechanism to raise the voltage between the generation and output, and depending on the boost principle, alternating current may be used.
From the results:
In the animation, 100,000 volts applied to the human body only appears as a Blackburn shock, and there is no lethal organ disorder such as cardiac arrest caused by ac frequency interference with the nervous system and cardiac muscle (otherwise rockets would die many times). So pikachu output is direct current.
From the principle:
In the real biological world, electricity generation is actually a specialized muscle cell, using chemical energy to move ions within the cell to form potential differences, somewhat similar to the principle of nerve cells to transmit electrical impulses. Typically a cell can generate between 50 and 150 millivolts. Cells can be thought of as little rechargeable batteries.
In the case of electric eels, two-thirds of their body length is filled with these electric discharge organs. As the body grows longer and longer during development, the maximum voltage increases. This can prove from the side that it is dc battery series.
From this discharge principle can be seen intuitively, the need to have a charging process to discharge. The electric eel's voltage drops rapidly after a continuous discharge and returns to normal after a short rest, similar to how Pikachu accumulates power before discharging and fatigues after overusing his skills in the anime.
Since pikachu's diet is only shown in the animation as eating apples, there is no large intake of iron or magnetization, which lacks the magnetism to generate alternating current. At the same time, a rotating magnetic field with an alternating current does not have the characteristics of a rapid and short discharge, because of the inertia of the rotation, which is not easy to stop. We can pretty much rule out the possibility that pikachu's power is ac.
In this series mechanism, voltage is directly related to length. To generate a voltage of 10W volts, 100,000/0.15 =666667 cells in series are required even if the maximum voltage of all cells in series is reached. Assuming that the cell size is 10 microns, the length of the generating organ is about 666667×10^-5=6.67 meters, which is much longer than pikachu's body length. And it's hard for the nervous system to control so many power-generating cells to open ion channels at once to release voltage (think tesla's battery management). So pikachu must have a DC booster system rather than a simple series. The principle of DC voltage boost is not described here. The dc current will be converted to AC by oscillation circuit and then voltage boost, and finally rectified to DC. The cheeks of pikachu during the discharge indicate that the cheeks are most likely the capacitors of the oscillating circuit. The inductance of the oscillating circuit may be composed of nerve fibers distributed in the head: nerve fibers have low resistance, are located close to the capacitor, and there may be nerves similar to facial nerves directly controlled by the brain to boost the voltage.
From this we can imagine that pikachu's electrical discharge organs probably extend from the ears to the tail, along the spine, maximizing the length of the generator. At the same time in the head series into the boost circuit, directly by the brain control voltage. The shape of the ears and tail is also quite suitable for tip discharge. The loop from the ears to the tail is naturally located on the back of the body, insulated from the feet, and does not lose voltage due to grounding. The maneuverable ears and tail can be pointed at a target to puncture air and create ion channels to use directional high voltage skills such as 100,000 volts or thunderbolt, rather than the contact shock skills required by thunderbolt.