The development of the international system under Western hegemony
Politics based on pressure, blackmail, and humiliation have become normal in international relations, except by humiliating states, or Putting pressure on her, imposing penalties on her, placing her under guardianship, or removing her from places of manufacture The decision or the stigmatization of its leaders - this is just the tip of the iceberg of the diplomatic practices that marked the past years and sanctions.
This is the topic that the French researcher and academic Bernard Bady chose to focus on in his book “The Age of Humiliation.” He considers that the policy of the West, which is based on arrogance and arrogance, has often backfired on him With many consequences, and produced counterproductive results, including the Bandung Conference, which witnessed the presence of many leaders like Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1955, in addition to the Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, Joseph Tito, President of Yugoslavia, and others. The conference adopted a set of resolutions in favor of Arab issues and against colonialism.
The author is a prominent academic in French and foreign universities, and he is considered, through his specialization, writings, and analyzes, to be one of the most prominent experts Specialists in historical and political relations between states, and he has written more than thirty books, the most important of which is « Diplomacy of Interests”, and “The Logic of Power”, leading to his new book “The Age of Humiliation”. .
Invoking history and political sociology in his new book, the author takes us back to the roots of humiliation: the center Especially on the Western colonial movement that took place in the nineteenth century, which led to what he calls the rise Revanchism in the period between the First and Second World Wars.
The author concludes by calling for the need to rebuild an international system in which the humiliated and their communities find their place, and he sees The rise of populist political currents, similar to the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States of America in 2016, the hardening of the positions of totalitarian regimes and other factors confirm the structural role of humiliation in international relations.
The author continues the same approach that he adopted in his two previous books The Power Deficit (2004) and The Diplomat and the Outsider (2008). He considers that the wave of decolonization in the twentieth century in particular has undermined the regime The global system inherited from the Treaty of Westphalia concluded in the year (1648), which is the global system that established the dominance of a number of Few Western powers over the world.
Thus, humiliation became a way for Western countries to maintain their supremacy and dominance over the rest of the Third World countries, and to prevent access "pariah states" to the countries of power and influence in the world.
The author considers that this Western policy based on humiliation has been generating resentment over the past decades Violence and the desire for global destabilization that perpetuates inequality and discrimination, which we can all see A day of increasingly unequal conflicts and provocations by so-called "rogue" states.
Until the nineteenth century, international relations remained based on the balance of power, which was determined by a small elite Europeans, which is a coded game in which there is no place for peoples, according to the author's statement in his new book.
The author deals with Franco-German relations since the defeat of Prussia in Vienna in 1806. The powerful Reich army was born from its victory in 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, France. This led to the emergence of the French's revenge diplomacy under the Third Republic, and Germany's subsequent humiliation in 1919 – After suffering defeat in World War I (1914-1918).
It also highlights the humiliation of Japan after World War II in 1945, and the associated By disarming them, stressing that these insults still represent the fuel that fuels the Japanese national projects .
As for the second type of humiliation that the author talks about, it is represented in “the denial of equality.” It is a prevalent type in current international relations, which is based on the entanglement of international relations. It concerns societies outside the framework of the Classical Treaty of Westphalia, which are quickly considered inferior to European countries, which must therefore be "symbols of progress and civilization" and "civilized".
Throughout their history, Europeans, the League of Nations and then the United Nations have been very selective in their integration processes. Today the Security Council and the Group of Seven are very closed circles. This humiliation is a response to protest diplomacy that rebels against the structures of the international system and seeks to unite allies. against it.
Finally, there is the humiliation of “stigmatization” that differs from its predecessors, because it denounces particular political or cultural characteristics in the country. Thus, North Korea, Iran, Cuba and other countries were condemned as "rogue states" or "Axis of Evil. Then they choose deflection diplomacy, ostensibly violating the rules of the international order in order to gain insight, such as a conference Bandung 1955 First organized reaction against Western humiliation policies.
The author considers that the existing imbalance in international relations stems from the international system led by the West, led by the states The United States of America, which emerged from the aftermath of the Second World War (1939-1945).
The author says: «The humiliation is not fleeting, but rather rooted in international political relations, so it arises From the many indigenous inequalities in the international system and the foundational, organizational and functional inequalities, which blur the rules applicable ».
The author highlights the repercussions of the legacy of Western colonialism and its impact on international relations in the post-war period Decolonization from many regions of the world, and it is considered that two-thirds of contemporary countries will continue to suffer under This international system dominated by the West will also continue to be subject to foreign interests.
The author says: “The Bandung Conference in 1955 showed the first organized reaction to this phenomenon. The colonial country considered the colonized territories (Indochina, India, etc.) as exceptions to its national laws, and the treatment was unfair Equivalence is rooted in people’s own status.”
The author considers that the leaders of countries that got rid of colonialism, such as (Ho Chi Minh, Sukarno, M Dr. Keita or Dr. Xiaoping) themselves have suffered such humiliation in their personal paths, It deals with the continuation of French influence on many African countries even after "decolonization". And its access to exploitation, also highlights the decades-long subjugation of South American countries to interests American Economic.
So no one was surprised when former French President François Hollande went so far as to dictate and impose The election agenda and dates are on the authorities in Mali in July 2013, following the French military intervention in this country Africa at that time.
The author comments on this turbulent situation that prevails in international political relations in a world dominated by the West During the institutions emanating from the Second World War, as he says: “This first type of non-existence depends on it Equality structures inequalities associated with access to resources or decision-making in international bodies.
«The United Nations Organization represents a symbol and a witness to the current international system, which was laid for its victorious daughters in the World War The second, where the privilege of a seat or permanent membership in the UN Security Council was imposed, in addition to the right veto or veto, to become masters of the collective game and international decision-makers.
The Cold War that followed World War II created a permanent rivalry between two great military powers - the states The United States of America and the Soviet Union - what prevented the middle powers of the world, even after 1989, from Working well, it also found difficulties in building sound foreign relations and policies away from the circles of influence Globalism
Speaking of the current balance of power, the author wrote: “Europe no longer represents the center of the world And the American laws imposed by the Washington authorities, even outside its territorial borders, still represent the sword The ruler over many countries that do not want to revolve in the American and Western orbit.
The writer believes that this international system, which is controlled by Western countries led by the United States of America, is what It pushes emerging countries, which suffer from the denial of equality with Western countries, to join the BRICS group, which is Emphasizes the issue of sovereignty and its disagreement with Western standards, including those related to the looming human rights paper Always in the West.
The imbalance and this disparity also stems from the structure and structure of the global system led by the United States of America The system that is characterized by the oligarchy nature of the international system, which is especially embodied in the establishment of the Group of Seven most powerful countries economically in the world.
The author says in the folds of his book, in which he highlights the points of imbalance in the current world order and its impact on Political and economic relations between states: «Most of the rules of this international system can only be read by A few of the major powers that laid the foundations for this world order, arguing that diplomacy works flawlessly Better this way.
This tendency is evident in particular in several global institutions and blocs, especially the UN Security Council and a group The Seven and the G20, in particular the informal contact groups aimed at resolving conflicts, are similar Those related to Yugoslavia, Libya and Syria.
This “club” logic contradicts United Nations procedures and contributes to the weakening or ambiguity of international standards . Patriarchy and Western hegemony go as far as punishing certain regimes or excluding and isolating others.
The author says: “The colonial legacy and the humiliation that accompanied it turns into a memory, a collective narrative, and a founding narrative that builds On the basis of policies and positions. So today we understand how countries that have been suffering for decades from Western humiliation are working on Building an anti-regime in the face of the official international scene, whose features we are witnessing in the formation of the BRICS group that It includes China, India, Russia, Brazil and the Republic of South Africa, which are the countries with the fastest economic growth in the world.
The author gives several examples of the rebellion of some political leaders against the international system, such as Houari Boumediene ( Algeria), Muammar Gaddafi (Libya), Fidel Castro (Cuba) and Hugo Chavez (Venezuela).
The author also notes that it is the societies and peoples who have begun to rebel against this international system that perpetuates hegemony West, and he considers that we can no longer analyze the international system as only a "conflict between states". , although sometimes state institutions are very fragile.
Thus, these historical, political and sociological factors have led to the emergence of social movements that denounce such domination These local movements were eventually employed by the world's dominant powers to impose their momentum specific agenda.
With the advent of globalization and the growing concept of socialization of international life, humiliation has become a global social feature. The Westphalian system in which each country was equal to the other has collapsed, and multilateralism remains Contemporary countries depend on this oligarchic club of the great Western powers led by the United States of America, as well as on the binary world Pole in the Cold War.
The author refers to the throes experienced by this international system that perpetuates the hegemony of the West, and he stresses the need to restore Structuring international relations and institutions, and devoting a policy of international social integration, through which only an end can be put To the humiliation experienced by the rest of the world and to repair the deviations of international relations and institutions. Lomond