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The History of Cryptozoology

Cryptozoology, the study of animals whose existence is unsubstantiated

By Mithun GainPublished 27 days ago 3 min read

Cryptozoology, the study of animals whose existence is unsubstantiated by mainstream science, has a rich and varied history that intertwines with folklore, exploration, and the gradual development of modern scientific inquiry. The term itself, derived from the Greek words "kryptos" (hidden) and "zoology" (the study of animals), suggests the pursuit of creatures that lurk on the edges of our understanding.

Early Beginnings and Folklore

The roots of cryptozoology can be traced back to ancient civilizations. Myths and legends from various cultures spoke of enigmatic creatures. The Greeks told tales of the griffin, a beast with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle. In medieval Europe, bestiaries, or compendiums of animals both real and imaginary, included entries on unicorns, dragons, and the basilisk. These works, though steeped in myth, reflect an early attempt to catalog the natural world, albeit through a lens of mysticism and allegory.

The Age of Exploration

The Age of Exploration (15th to 17th centuries) brought Europeans into contact with new lands and unfamiliar animals. Reports from explorers often included descriptions of strange and exotic creatures. For instance, sailors' accounts of mermaids were likely inspired by manatees or dugongs. Similarly, tales of the "kraken," a massive sea monster, could have originated from sightings of giant squids. These stories, blending observation with imagination, fueled the growing curiosity about the world’s hidden fauna.

Early Scientific Endeavors

By the 18th and 19th centuries, natural history became a more systematic and empirical field. Pioneers like Carl Linnaeus and Charles Darwin sought to classify and understand the diversity of life through observation and scientific method. Despite this, reports of mysterious creatures persisted. The discovery of the platypus in 1798, an egg-laying mammal with a duck bill and beaver tail, was initially met with skepticism. European scientists thought it a hoax until further evidence confirmed its existence, illustrating that the natural world still held surprises.

Cryptozoology Emerges

The term "cryptozoology" was coined in the 1950s by Belgian zoologist Bernard Heuvelmans, who is often regarded as the father of modern cryptozoology. His seminal work, "On the Track of Unknown Animals" (1955), laid the foundation for the field. Heuvelmans argued that many so-called mythical creatures might be real animals that had yet to be scientifically documented. His approach combined thorough investigation of eyewitness accounts, analysis of folklore, and a willingness to consider the possibility of unknown species.

Popularization and Modern Era

The latter half of the 20th century saw cryptozoology enter popular culture. Books, television shows, and movies explored themes of undiscovered creatures. Bigfoot, the Loch Ness Monster, and the Yeti became household names. These creatures, while often dismissed by mainstream science, captured the public imagination.

In 1967, the Patterson-Gimlin film purportedly showing Bigfoot walking through a California forest became an iconic piece of evidence for enthusiasts. Similarly, numerous sonar readings and blurry photographs of "Nessie" in Scotland's Loch Ness spurred ongoing fascination and expeditions.

Criticisms and Controversies

Cryptozoology has always been a contentious field. Mainstream scientists often criticize it for lacking rigorous methodology and for being too reliant on anecdotal evidence. Skeptics argue that many cryptids (as these elusive creatures are called) are the result of misidentification, hoaxes, or psychological phenomena such as pareidolia (seeing patterns in random stimuli).

Moreover, some cryptozoologists have been accused of cherry-picking evidence that supports their claims while ignoring contradictory data. Despite these criticisms, the field persists, bolstered by occasional discoveries of previously unknown species.

Notable Discoveries

Occasionally, discoveries lend credence to the cryptozoological approach. The coelacanth, a prehistoric fish thought to have been extinct for 66 million years, was discovered alive off the coast of South Africa in 1938. Similarly, the saola, a forest-dwelling bovine species in Vietnam, was first documented by science only in 1992.

These discoveries demonstrate that large, unknown animals can still exist in remote or inaccessible regions, lending some legitimacy to cryptozoological pursuits.


Cryptozoology remains a field straddling the line between science and mythology. While often dismissed by the scientific community, it continues to captivate the public and spur interest in natural history and exploration. Whether through the persistent search for legendary creatures or the occasional validation of once-dismissed animals, cryptozoology reflects humanity’s enduring fascination with the unknown and the boundaries of our knowledge.

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About the Creator

Mithun Gain

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