Gender refers to the different grammatical forms of sex distinction. It is defined as the classification of a noun or pronoun as feminine, masculine, common or neuter. In other words, the division of Nouns, Pronouns, etc. into different classes as masculine, feminine, common and neuter, is called Gender.
Again, Gender is the socially constructed roles and behaviours that a society typically associates with males and females. Males are called Masculine Gender while females are called Feminine Gender.
Thus, in English Grammar, there are four kinds of Gender :-
1. Masculine Gender
2. Feminine Gender
3. Common Gender
4. Neuter Gender
1. Masculine Gender:- It refers chiefly to males or to objects classified as males. It refers to the masculine power or male nature. In other words, it is used to denote a male subtype.
Examples - king, man, boy, father, cock, bull, fox, dog, brother, death, ocean, sun, war, ox, bull, gentleman, etc.
2. Feminine Gender:- It refers chiefly to females or to objects classified as females. In other words, it is used to denote the female subtype.
Examples:- mother, daughter, girl, queen, charity, earth, hope, fame, truth, woman, cow,hen,vixen, etc.
3. Common Gender:- It stands for both males and females. In other words, it denotes either a male or female sex.
Examples:- parents, child, neighbour, clerk, teacher, student, cousin, friend, people, etc.
4. Neuter Gender:- It refers chiefly to inanimate objects and small creatures neither masculine nor feminine. In other words, it is used to denote non living and lifeless things. Neuter means neither, which is neither male nor female.
Examples:- pen, pencil, rat, ant, table, hair, city, car, copy, computer, etc.
Rules of changing from Masculine form to Feminine form :-
1. Some nouns are made feminine by adding 'ess' at the end. Examples:-
2. In some cases, when 'ess' is added to make a noun feminine, the last vowel letter is removed. Examples:-
3. In compound words, the masculine form is changed into feminine to change the gender.
4. Some words are quite different in their masculine and feminine forms.
bachelor maid, spinster
5. If sex distinction is not needed, the masculine form also can serve the purpose.
Man is mortal.
Horse is a strong animal.
Dogs are faithful.
The public got angry.