From its inception, Christendom’s relationship with Rome was at best ambivalent. Throughout the 1st century, Emperor Nero was viewed with distrust, with the Diocletianic Persecutions throughout the early 4th century substantiating such dubiety. Whilst Constantine’s issuance of the Edict of Milan (c.a. 313.A.D.) saw Christianity’s distrust of Rome recede, the relationship between Rome and Christian apocalypticism was inconsistent. Apart from the persistent anxiety that Nero would return as Antichrist, Roman emperor’s rarely featured in late antique eschatology. Negative discourse surrounding the Roman emperor abruptly changed in the late seventh century due to the work known as The Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius. Whilst certain mainstream aspects of Christian apocalyptic tradition are coherent throughout Pseudo-Methodius, such as the Son of Perdition and the Enclosed Nations narrative, the fascinating Last Roman Emperor is of particular significance to eschatological scholars. Pseudo-Methodius’s’ Last Roman Emperor promoted the quintessential Christian monarch, elevating kingship to a godly position intrinsically tethered to Christ’s second coming. Whilst the significance of the Last Roman Emperor cannot be disputed, Witakowski’s view that Pseudo-Methodius’s invented such a concept is fallacious. In the upcoming paper, I am going to argue that Pseudo-Methodius’s’ Last World Emperor was not a unique concept, rather an amalgamation of Jewish Messianism, Biblical scripture and Syriac literature. I will explain how the author used Jewish Messianism for the basic structure of his Last World Emperor, substantiating the concept through allegorically interpreting biblical scripture and localising it within the Syriac socio-political environment.
Introduction On April 14 1990, fifty years after the event, Mikhail Gorbachev officially accepted the Soviet Union's responsibility for the Katyn Massacre. Although this admission had a profound political significance, it did not contain any surprising historical revelations. It merely confirmed what international leaders had known for almost five decades - that in April 1940, the NKVD had carried out systematic mass executions of 22,000 Polish officers and members of the Polish intelligentsia in the Katyn Forest. The discrepancy between the Soviet official narrative and the historical evidence of the massacre illustrates the limits of conventional historiography and its principle aim to understand how the past creates the present. Although historical methodology is theoretically predicated on archival sources as evidence and disinterested analysis, in practice, historiography is inevitably shaped by subjective interpretation and personal perception. These mercurial properties inherent in all historiography makes history itself vulnerable to exploitation and instrumentalisation.
Workout like a Celebrity at Home
WORKOUT LIKE A CELEBRITY AT HOME With gyms closed around the country, home workouts are more important than ever. Though you may have to adapt your workout routine and goals, there's no reason why you can't build muscle and maintain strength at home. Through a simple, equipment-free bodyweight workout, you can build strength, improve flexibility, increase muscle and burn fat. Bodyweight workouts don't require elaborate equipment, expensive gym membership or a top of the range personal trainer. With a very basic knowledge of callisthenics, you can begin to utilise bodyweight exercises to achieve your goals.
How COVID-19 has affected the entertainment industry
The Covid-19 coronavirus epidemic has caused widespread disruption to business, public services and everyday life as a whole. Whilst its effects on the entertainment industry may seem significant in comparison to the devastating loss of life, there are clear repercussions on those who rely on the entertainment industry as their livelihood. As soon as the virus hit China in December 2019, the remunerative Chinese film industry was instantly affected. Cinema's across the country closed, high-profile movie releases were delayed, with swathes of actors and actresses staring down the barrel of unemployment.
The Royal Family: A Summer to Forget
Accusations against Prince Andrew, Harry and Meghan’s war with the tabloids, and Boris Johnson deceiving the Queen: It’s been a somewhat tumultuous summer for the royal family. Usually detached from the nit and grit of journalistic controversy, this summer has seen all facets of the monarchy’s composition come under fire: Is the royal family above the law? Where should ultimate political power reside? As a country championing equality, is it right that one family is ‘more equal than the rest?’
A decade ago, the very idea of being able to hire a celebrity would have been deemed laughable. For so long, Hollywood A-Lister's, iconic musicians, and legendary sportspeople have lived and worked in their own "celebrity bubble." Loyal fans would wait in their masses to catch a brief glance of their idol. Queuing for hours on end, whatever the weather for a quick sighting of their own personal demagogue. All a bit ridiculous if you ask me, but whatever floats your boat.
Milošević’s rise to power deserves careful scrutiny, not only because it has long served as the dominant narrative of these historical events, but because it reflects the broader power-structure of socialist states in general. Despite Milošević’s prominence in European history, his rise to power is widely contested and shrouded in mystery. Traditional historians argue that Milošević rose to power due to the broad appeal of his centrist political program. Revisionist historians have challenged this view. They believe it was Milošević s populist charisma and nationalist appeal that enabled him to both gain and maintain power. In the upcoming paper, I am going to analyze how Milošević gained and maintained control over Serbia. Firstly, I am going examine Milošević’s rise to power. Discussing the context of post-Tito Yugoslavia, the catalyst of Kosovo and the charisma of Milošević. I am then going to discuss how Milošević maintained control over Serbia. Firstly, I will analyze how Milošević manipulated the media in order to facilitate his fear and victimhood rhetoric. I will then discuss Milošević’s rejection of the Rambouillet Formula; an event which epitomizes his overall strategy for maintaining power. Though I will be tackling Milošević’s rise and maintenance of power separately. The general trends of opportunism and ethnic nationalism remain prevalent throughout both sections.
The Tito-Stalin Split
What were the reasons for and consequences of the split between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union in 1948? On 28th June 1948, news of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia’s (CPY) expulsion from Cominform reverberated amongst the astounded Western world. Yugoslavia’s expulsion from Cominform, or Tito-Stalin split as it’s now entitled, marked a crack in the monolithic Soviet Bloc, whilst providing a future point of reference to those Communist party’s that wanted to become ideologically and politically emancipated from Moscow. In the upcoming essay, I am going to analyze the rationale behind the Tito-Stalin split, before evaluating the impact of the split; both on Yugoslavia’s development and the Eastern European Communist movement.
The Rise of 20th Century Fascism
To acolytes of Fascist ideology, the First World War served to reiterate their deep-seated belief that Liberal Democracy was essentially antiquated. They believed a heavily nationalistic, autocratic form of authoritarianism was required to transmogrify Europe; redefining the traditional constructs of social order in the process. Michael Mann in his book ‘Fascists’ discusses the rise of right wing authoritarianism through his IEMP model, this model refers to the means and distributions of social power; Ideological, Economic, Military and Political. I will be drawing upon the Mann’s IEMP model to coherently discuss the role that fear of the revolutionary left played in the proliferation of Fascism during the 20th century.
Has Political Correctness Gone Too Far?
‘Political Correctness’ is in itself conceptually illusive; and has transmogrified from its 1920’s German Marxist Roots. It’s abstract character and vast encompassment has left the phrase open to manipulation; with certain societal groups commandeering the ‘PC’ label for opportunistic motive. On the face of it; a code of ethics seeking to avoid offense and disbenefit to certain societal groups seems harmless, moral and almost altruistic. The reality however is more complex than that. Whilst the tenets of Political Correctness may be to preserve the feelings of others, the reality is that we’ve now switched off from the important topics altogether. Those who are prone to a conspiracy theory or two may even conclude that our avoidance of these ethical and moral dilemmas may play right into the establishment’s hands?
The British Media’s Most Elaborate Lie
The relentless momentum of Corbynism displayed during the 2017 General Election campaign has all but dissipated, Labour’s opposition to the Conservatives is lackluster at best, and most notably of all; Jeremy Corbyn is wholly unelectable… or this is what the press would have us believe.