***** Good news! Snice this research was first done while I was a graduate student the city of Detroit has shut down the polluting WTE plant. *****
John Oliver said “if you want to do something evil, be sure to bury it in something boring.” This article provides information on how to use a tool like GIS to turn the dull data buried in data bases to make maps to highlight environmental injustice.
Abstract: The 2017 Global Climate Risk Index, rated Mozambique as the country with the greatest climate risk in 2015. This is due to flooding, which left the Northern portion of the country without power for three months. Mozambique was rated 22nd for the whole period between 1992-2015. Northern Mozambique is expected to see more intense flooding as climate changes progresses. Here the focus is on the coastal city of Angoche, in the province of Nampula in Northern Mozambique. The city was originally part of an Arab sultanate. Angoche resisted conquest until 1910. Angoche has a distinct language, eKoti, and is relatively isolated from the provincial capital, 200 km to north because it lacks a tarred road. Most of the city’s infrastructure dates from the colonial era and much of it is crumbling. It is unlikely that the physical infrastructure will be repaired in a timely manner. The floods in 2015 destroyed 10 of the 12 bridges on the main roads between Angoche and the capital and by 2016 only one of the bridges had been repaired. The city must increase its resiliency if it is to survive. The city’s best hope may be to shore up its crumbling brick and mortar infrastructure with green infrastructure in the form on mangroves and conservation agriculture. These strategies will adapt to and mitigate climate change by reducing the severity of flooding, while simultaneously sinking carbon and increasing the city’s food security.
Trump is not the type of person who goes away. He will run again in 2024. Even if he does win and actual leaves the Whitehouse he’ll be on the campaign trail in 2024 run for Trumpism even if the republican nominee in 2024 repudiates Trump ideology, which at this point seems unlikely as potential 2020 republican nominees, who had been silent began backing unfound claims of voter fraud only 20 minutes after the President’s sons called for 2024 potential Republicans nominee’s to back the president’s unfound claims of fraud.
Togo is situated between Ghana and Benin. Biomass accounts for 71% of the country’s energy use. The country relies heavily on imports for other forms of energy. 26% of the country’s energy needs are meet by petroleum products. Electricity meets only 3% of Togo’s energy needs (World Bank, Africa Region 2013, 12). Togo imports more than 70% of its electricity, mostly from Ghana and Nigeria (Ntagungira 2015, 15). Although electricity constitutes a very small portion of Togo’s energy use, expanding and improving the electrical grid is seen as a priority by the world bank and the Togolese government (World Bank, Africa Region 2013, 7). Togo’s utility, the Benin Electricity Company (CEB) was formed by Togo and Benin in 1968. The jointly operated utility hold’s itself up has a model of regional collaboration, however the company’s inability to generate sufficient capacity has led to heavy reliance on electrical imports. The Togolese government is now looking to independent producers to increase supply. Increasing Togo’s electrical production and connection will be a very long-term project.