A gang can be described as a group of individuals who are in close relations with leadership and internal organizations which claim to control certain geographical region in a particular community. There is no given leader, but the leader is assumed to be the person who takes command of the activities in demanding situations. The gangs engage in violent and illegal activities either in groups or individually. When one wants to join a gang, he/she has to be "jumped in," which is a way of proving his loyalty to the gang. Joining a gang involves acts such as stealing something that one is told, engaging in violence, or even being beaten for a particular period of time. Research shows that although street gangs exist throughout the world, they originated from the United States of America.
The concept of civil religion (it is also called social and political) suggests the mass adoption of complex religion and political attitudes and perceptions related to the history of the nation and its destiny. Civil religion communicates society with the scope of absolute sense, promotes its self-interpretation, and functions as a symbolic structure that integrates a given community. It is operational religion of society and the system of rituals, symbols, values, norms, and forms of loyalty (Couto & Weber 57). It functions in society and ensure its overwhelming sense of unity that goes beyond all internal conflicts and differences.
Arestin can be defined as an antibiotic drug used by dental specialists in treating periodontal diseases in humans. The medicine is usually sold in powder form, making it easy to administer it to the patients. In addition, clinical studies have confirmed that Arestin is actually more effective than any other form of treatment, including the use of scaling and root planing (SRP). However, over the years, smoking has been seen as a detriment to the treatment of periodontal patients who smoke. Nevertheless, since the introduction of Arestin, it has proven to be very effective in tackling the disease among the patients who smoke. This paper will make an attempt to provide a comprehensive discussion of the effectiveness of Arestin in smoker patients. It will also evaluate past studies of other treatment options, such as SRP and their effectiveness when compared to the use of Arestin. Therefore, the paper will analyze the nature of Arestin and its effectiveness among smoker patients.