What Is Organic Food, and Is It Better for the Earth?
Whether you typically shop at supermarkets, farmers markets or big-box stores, chances are there are myriad organic product choices available alongside conventional ones. This jives with the overall trend toward thinking through the environmental impact of our actions for more sustainable living. Sustainable food is a large part of that equation, since food processing takes a significant toll on land and water. Those who are conscious of their carbon footprint might even look to raise their bar higher by buying sustainable fish and seafood or growing food at home. If enough people change their eating habits, the earth could benefit big-time. Read on to learn how organic food plays into sustainable food.
This Is What Happens If You Accidentally Eat Mold
Will eating mold make you sick? You’re enjoying your breakfast when you notice that your banana muffin seems to have grown a patch of fuzzy green dots. You have already taken a bite or two. Now, you wonder, what happens if you eat mold?
What Will Happen When Prince Charles Becomes King?
Prince Charles, the future king Unlike his mother, who unexpectedly became queen at just 25 years old when her father, King George VI, died suddenly, 73-year-old Prince Charles has spent his entire life in preparation to wear the crown. Here are some other things you didn’t know about Prince Charles: He’s the longest-waiting heir apparent, and he will be the oldest British monarch to ever take the throne—and it’s still uncertain when that will happen. Although Queen Elizabeth II is 95 years old and the longest-reigning British monarch, longevity runs in her family: Her father may have died young, but her mother lived to the age of 101.
What Is Environmental Racism, and How Can We Fight It?
What’s it like where you live? Does the air smell fresh? Do you have a green space somewhat nearby that you can enjoy? Is your water clear and clean? These seem like basic requirements for any living situation—and they should be. But they’re not the reality for certain communities in America that are affected by environmental racism.
Who likes to buy lottery tickets more
Who is more likely to buy lottery tickets , the rich or the poor ? You might think that rich people have a big budget and would prefer to spend a small amount of money on lottery tickets . Poor people , on the other hand , are so short of money that they can't wait to break a dollar in half . In fact , the opposite are true . The poorer people are , the more likely they are to buy lottery tickets . Economists have long observed this phenomenon : the less money you have , or the more you lose , the more you are likely to take bigger risks . Economists Kahneman and Tversky once produced a study of " utility at the end of the day , " which found that in the last race of the day , more people bet on the horse least likely to win . At the end of the day , those who lose red-eye are eager to make a comeback at the last chance , . So they tend to place their bets on the odds-on (least likely to win ) favourites . We call this all-or-nothing behavior " lottery thinking , " which is also a kind of " poor man's thinking " caused by lack of resources . They think saving money is a waste of time because they don't have enough money anyway , . So they just buy lottery tickets and gamble . So these people will sacrifice their precious real money to buy lottery tickets in exchange for emotional hope . The reason why people buy lottery tickets is because of a special mechanism in our brain , means that making money really feels good , and imagining it feels even better . We have a special physiological machine in our brains that is speeded up more by profit expectations than by actual profits . The more we are short of money , the more we expect and desire this . And it's not just lottery tickets . When we watch sports games , we will find a similar phenomenon . When the trailing team is running out of time , the football players will shoot long distances from the goal frequently . Basketball players take half-court shots in desperation before the final buzzer . Football players throw a " Slam Dunk " passes / passed at the end of the game . In other words , the more one sees a losing team , the more he or she looks for a winning miracle . This kind of " lottery thinking " may be a human instinct . Biologists have discovered that when animals lack food , water and shelter , they create a " negative energy budget " that makes it impossible for them to find steady , subsistence income . What they really need is a lottery hit . Animals in desperate situations , therefore , tend to have more variable harvests . Although this increases the risk of getting nothing , it is also the most feasible way to replenish the energy that is running out . In an experiment conducted by the biologist Thomas Kaleck , yellow-eyed rushes were given two choices : a fixed number of kernels of a plate ; On the other hand , there may be twice as many kernels on the plate , or there may be none at all . Birds that had just eaten were more likely to choose the " sure " option , while hungry birds flew to the plate where the kernels were uncertain without hesitation . The same is true of human evolution . When survival was at stake , our ancestors could only survive if they were willing to take more risks . When food was scarce , for example , early humans might have taken the risk of hunting large , fierce animals , either to get enough to eat or to die at the hands of predators . Conservative compromises , such as gathering wild fruits , did not guarantee survival .
Scientists have discovered a new way to completely change what you think about health.
One, death, is caused by food, known as Einstein's world nutrition authority Dr. Colin Campbell sincere advice: "Death, is caused by food!" The more nutritious, the more dangerous? The most complete health discovery ever, spanning more than 40 years and shaking up 6.6 billion people around the world.
How do you get through the lows?
There is a certain metaphysical aspect to this article, which you may find nihilistic. But if you're having a bad day, you've tried everything and failed, you laugh but feel bitter inside, you occasionally toss and turn at night and spend two minutes reading this article. (To some extent, the article also soothed anxiety.) Pigs fly when they stand in the wind. There are probably a few people in your life who can actually fly. They may have successfully taken advantage of an opportunity, or they may have come across advice from important people, or they may be competent and have a long-term vision. But you're not a "flying man," or even a "flying pig." No matter what you try, it's like a stone falling into a deep pool. You can't see the bottom of the pool, you don't know what's happening "on the stone, there's no reaction. You seem to be stuck in an invisible blind alley. No matter what we did, it had no effect. Life goes on, heavy tasks, complicated relationships, as usual, but now you feel more like you're being pushed forward, and whether you like it or not, it's hard to change the status quo, half-forced to move on. If you're right, read on; If all the symptoms do not fit, then congratulations, you are now in a good mood and luck, seize the opportunity to move forward. It was certainly no use waiting for death when he found himself at a disadvantage. So you seek help, consult experienced people, try to get good sources of information, take a bunch of Photoshop classes... Toss about a circle, as if some harvest, and as if useless. You don't know what to do, you don't know what to do, you don't know the future, you don't know if you are on the right path, you don't know if what you give now will become a future gain -- even if it is a small gain. Now do what, no echo, pay such as stone in the sea, do not know the future will suddenly return to their side. What the hell is going on here? First of all, you need to know that this situation is not your fault, nor is god trying to screw you. You have to believe that there are many people in the world who suffer just like you, some worse than you. If, among other things, you feel "stuck," you're out of luck. "Luck" here is "luck" for at least a long time, then it should be called "luck". In numerology, the amount of luck divided by the amount of time, and the greatest influence on life is the great luck. Every decade brings good luck. Smooth sailing, flying in the sky is common; Unfortunately, a lifetime of condescending, empty talent, not a few. There's one that's perfect for this. It's called "grave transport" -- and you could be in it. As the name suggests, it's like being locked in a boxy enclosed space where you can't go anywhere else, exhausted, confused and anxious about what to do next. At this point, the best solution is to wait it out quietly and patiently. You must be wondering if there is a proactive approach, such as how to end it. I'm sorry. If so, it won't change. It is hard for one to know one's destiny, let alone change it. It is said that ways that can change a person's life are not only evil, but also cause unnecessary disaster. The best thing for you right now is to hibernate quietly and wait for the day when your luck turns and you can go out and do what you can. But waiting doesn't mean sitting there doing nothing but waiting. Since god is destined to spend this time in this narrow space, when others finish, no matter what they do, they end up standing still. Then calm down, learn something, think about life, read a book, eat a good meal, spend time with your family. This is a good time to keep a low profile and reserve strength. That's what makes it unique. It's like God gave you a little long vacation. It may seem like everyone else is moving faster and leaving you in the same place, but really, it's just the luck of different people. This is one of the few times adults can focus on self-improvement. When you calm down to accept the fate of the arrangement, reading meditation, secretly progress, in the fate of the turning day, you can firmly seize the opportunity given to you in front of the fate, grasp the momentum, rise up. King Goujian of Yue ten years lying grass taste gall, and your ten years, is arranged for you by God, no matter how you spend, expired will be taken away. Since there is no opportunity, it is better to calmly accept, calm down, study hard, invest in yourself, and wait. After reading this article, if you're a young person and feeling insecure, that's perfectly normal. Young people do not believe in fate unless there is great pain. And for a middle-aged person who has experienced life, do not believe in life, it is extremely rare. John Tsang once said that if a man does not believe in life at middle age, he has not lived to understand it. "Time, luck and fate." "When the time comes, heaven and earth will work together, and heroes will not be free." Of course, in this article, you don't need to care too much if you have entered the so-called tomb luck, it is just a kind of moral support to let you know that the current predicament is not all because of you, fate often intervenes more than man. Knowing what you can't control helps you feel safer and be able to focus on what's happening in the moment, rather than getting caught up in the anxiety of being betrayed by the outside world and worrying about others' progress. Everyone has a different script. Young glory, may be middle-aged down and out; A clumsy youth may become a rich old man. These things seem to be nothing, but they can give me the determination to support when I am most vulnerable, which is also a kind of fate. I thought if these things helped me, maybe they could help you now. "Fate has forcibly blocked your will to communicate with the outside world, locking you in a small space. Maybe it is heaven's advice that you should study and think more and give yourself more energy." "When the time comes, it will give you change. When the time comes, as long as you borrow their own strength, a little operation, otherwise I in addition to your comments carefully. Some friends said to adjust the mentality of the problem, if the "mentality collapse" has been for a period of time, not a day or two can turn around, do not blame yourself, mentality repair is a long-term process, can not be rushed. These net is auxiliary means, serious word must go normal hospital, normal hospital nobody can joke you -- walk in the street, feel everybody is very healthy, arrived at a hospital, just discovery is a patient, who is qualified, who bear to laugh at others? Now it sounds like chicken soup... A few more long-winded words: the truth is understood, the successful implementation of the people are few, do not need to their own special hard. Some writers (like me), although they rattle on about a lot of important facts, are still at a loss when it comes to them. They're all human, and some things are the same about them. Don't get upset because "he seems to be doing better than I am" or "he laughs at me." If it comes down to him, he probably can't do it any better than you can. Similarly, when someone jokes about your situation, don't pay attention -- who knows if they're crying when you're laughing? There are six things to remember that will make you lucky. Life is a battle between yourself and yourself, your biggest enemy is yourself, if you think life is not easy, it is because you are not strong enough; If you feel that everything is not going your way, it is because you are incompetent; If you think you're in a bad situation, it's because your mindset isn't good enough... Most of life's problems are your own. Only when you solve your own problems can you solve your life problems, emotional problems and career problems. Life is a contest with yourself, your biggest enemy, is always yourself, you only defeat yourself, defeat yourself, to defeat yourself, win life, win life, there is no other way. It is better to strive for the future and regret for the past than regret for the past. It's no use regretting the past. Instead of regretting the past, fight for the future. The past, no matter how good, no matter how bad, did wrong, missed, all in the past, has become the past, do not worry about, do not care about. Life should look forward, move forward, don't because of the past, destroy the present, bury the future. Yesterday's sorrow should not waste today's tears, nor should it ruin tomorrow's beauty. There are always some regrets and regrets in life, live well now, struggle for the future, on the way in the future, leave some regrets and regrets. No matter how hard the life is, no matter how anxious the mood is, no matter how bad the work is, you should not complain, complaining is useless, instead of complaining, it is better to change yourself. The most useless thing in life is complaining. I really don't know what you're going to get out of this other than trouble, trouble. Complaining is the stupidest thing and the least worthwhile. The more you complain, the harder your life gets; The less you complain, the better your life will be. Your life, your life, will be more exciting if you stop complaining and find ways to change yourself. There is no life without difficulties. Life will be blessed, no big deal, no big deal to start over. In the face of life, in the face of life, we lack nothing, nothing is needed, we just need to have the courage to start again. In fact, there are no obstacles in life, only unexpected, unexpected people, everything will be solved. Difficult is difficult, bitter is bitter, tired is tired, but eventually will become the past. He who lives will be blessed. He who has tasted the most bitter, tasted the most sweet, carried the most tired, smelled the most cool and experienced hardships will succeed. All the suffering, is the best test for us! The day does not know the night, and the night always longs for the arrival of the dawn. When you're at rock bottom, when you fail, when you're down, you want to get back up, there's light, there's dawn, but it's never that easy. Before the dawn, before the dawn, there is always a dark moment, no one can hide, no one can escape, we have to accept and face. Groping in the dark, moving forward in the dark, experiencing yourself in the dark, don't be afraid, go ahead bravely, hang in there, endure, hang in there, carry on, the dawn will come forever. Prepare for the worst, and you will have the best result in life. Don't live wrong, don't always expect the best future, but get disappointed results. The disappointment of life, all because they live too ideal. In life, failure, when you are down, you want to get back up, there is light, there is dawn, but it is never that easy. Before the dawn, before the dawn, there is always a dark moment, no one can hide, no one can escape, we have to accept and face. Groping in the dark, moving forward in the dark, experiencing yourself in the dark, don't be afraid, go ahead bravely, hang in there, endure, hang in there, carry on, the dawn will come forever. Prepare for the worst, and you will have the best result in life. Don't live wrong, don't always expect the best future, but get disappointed results. The disappointment of life, all because they live too ideal. In life, failure, when you are down, you want to get back up, there is light, there is dawn, but it is never that easy. Before the dawn, before the dawn, there is always a dark moment, no one can hide, no one can escape, we have to accept and face. Groping in the dark, moving forward in the dark, experiencing yourself in the dark, don't be afraid, go ahead bravely, hang in there, endure, hang in there, carry on, the dawn will come forever. Prepare for the worst, and you will have the best result in life. Don't live wrong, don't always expect the best future, but get disappointed results. The disappointment of life, all because they live too ideal. In life, before the dawn appears, there is always a dark and dark moment when no one can hide and no one can escape, and we must accept it but also face it bravely. Groping in the dark, moving forward in the dark, experiencing yourself in the dark, don't be afraid, go ahead bravely, hang in there, endure, hang in there, carry on, the dawn will come forever. Prepare for the worst, and you will have the best result in life. Don't live wrong, don't always expect the best future, but get disappointed results. The disappointment of life, all because they live too ideal. In life, before the dawn appears, there is always a dark and dark moment when no one can hide and no one can escape, and we must accept it but also face it bravely. Groping in the dark, moving forward in the dark, experiencing yourself in the dark, don't be afraid, go ahead bravely, hang in there, endure, hang in there, carry on, the dawn will come forever. Prepare for the worst, and you will have the best result in life. Don't live wrong, don't always expect the best future, but get disappointed results. The disappointment of life, all because they live too ideal. In life, the best results come from preparing for the worst. Don't be wrong. Don't always expect the best and be disappointed. The disappointment of life, all because they live too ideal. In life, the best results come from preparing for the worst. Don't be wrong. Don't always expect the best and be disappointed. The disappointment of life, all because they live too ideal.
8 famous Psychological Effects that You Can Learn to Benefit For a Lifetime
You know what? Every day, from morning till night, a person has to make at least 30,000 choices. You might be surprised at how much of it there is, since 90 percent of it is done unconsciously by inertia. And behind the powerful inertia, in fact, is determined by our mentality. Therefore, American mind professor Ryan. In his book Mindset, Gottfriesen says, "Mindsets are the filter of our psychological energy and the psychological basis on which one works, lives and views the world." Person's life, is to pay for the mentality. And the premise of controlling the state of mind is to understand the internal law. Today, I'm going to share 8 psychological effects with you. May you learn to recognize your state of mind and not let inertia control your life. What would you do if you were accidentally bitten by a crocodile? Most people subconsciously want to pull their feet out with their hands. But as a result, crocodiles not only lose their feet, but also their hands. The longer you wait, the more bites you end up getting. This is the crocodile effect, there are too many similar situations in life - the more persistent, the more pit. Little take-out, knowing that there are quality problems, reluctant to eat, but have a stomach; Waiting for a bus in the cold wind, holding a bus will come to the state of mind, the result is cold. Big investment in a project, found unreliable, hard scalp plus warehouse, lost money; Waste time, energy and other opportunities by doing work that you do not think is right for you; Getting into a bad marriage, fighting all the time, ruining your kids, exhausting yourself. These moments in life are accompanied by "crocodiles" that we can't see. But the real drag on us is not "crocodile", but can not put down the "foot", can not put down the "unwilling". In economics, there is a corresponding concept called "sunk cost", which is an investment of time, money, energy, etc., that has been made and cannot be recovered. In fact, know timely stop loss, not to give up, but a protection mechanism. Put down "sunk costs" and you might get it all back. Harvard professor James Once bet his friend Carlson that he could get him to raise a bird in a short time. Carlson, who doesn't want a bird, wasn't impressed. But soon, James gave Carlson an elaborate birdcage, and things began to change. After that, every time a visitor came to Carlson's house and saw the cage, he would ask, "Professor, when did your bird die?" After repeated explanations, Carlson was so angry that he bought a bird. It's called the birdcage effect when our outer space, our inner energy, is occupied by clutter and trivia, and we gradually lose a sense of control over our lives. Every day, this phenomenon is everywhere. Dusty clothes in the cupboard, a look of embarrassment and annoyance; Top up at the barbershop and regret it as soon as you leave. Most of the things bought to replenish the bill are useless; Too many wechat groups, "hundred years" did not send messages inside; All of this is annoying, tiring and constraining. So Danshari is a rare kind of wisdom. It's called subtraction, to add to life. Only by getting what we need and reducing complexity can we live a more comfortable life without being trapped in a birdcage. Why it's so hard to get back to work after a long vacation; Every time you decide to start exercising, you can't make it through the first few weeks. Intend to memorize every day, the result is three days fishing two days sun net? Behind these phenomena, in fact, are hidden "flywheel effect". We may not have seen the flywheel, but we are all familiar with bicycles. Anyone who has ridden a bike knows that, even on flat roads, you need to pedal hard at the start of the ride to get the wheels moving. But when we step for a while and we reach a point, we don't press as hard; Just put the heel on the pedal with a little pressure to continue riding. This is called the flywheel effect -- getting started is the hardest. We didn't reach our goal because we didn't pass the "pedal to the wheel" phase. But this effect not only reveals the root of the problem, but also offers a solution: act quickly and in concert; In the end, quantitative change leads to qualitative change. When you're in a bad mood, you look for an exit. Thus, negative emotions are more contagious than positive ones. According to Murphy's Law, the "kick cat effect" is a classic contagion of negative emotions: a father gets upset when his boss criticizes him at work. When he got home, he found the child jumping on the sofa. He got angry and called the child a piece of his mind. Feeling discontented and wronged, the child turned to vent to the cat at home and kicked the cat severely. The cat ran out of the house and into the road. A truck passed by and the driver couldn't get out of the way. He caused the accident by bumping into a child playing beside him. The kick the cat effect tells us that bad feelings can spread like dominoes. Let it out, it's a vicious cycle. The best way to prevent the kick cat effect is not to suppress emotions, but to manage them. When your temper comes up, calm down for three minutes, go into the open and yell... Only by managing your emotions well can you avoid becoming the initiator and disseminator of "kicking the cat". As the name suggests, the placebo effect is when patients think they are getting better after taking the drug. In 1955, Dr. Bick made an interesting observation: after a battle, when the painkillers ran out, many of the wounded were still in pain and crying for them. In desperation, the nurse injected them with saline and told them it was a powerful analgesic. Something wonderful happened. After the injection of saline, the wounded soldier's pain really began to ease. Freud wrote in psychoanalysis that the placebo effect is essentially a subconscious self-suggestion. Do not underestimate the power of positive suggestions, in the face of difficult difficulties, optimistic attitude, is a good medicine. O. Henry wrote the last Leaf, a story about the power of a positive mental attitude. A woman named Johnsy was very ill, and the doctor told her there was little hope of a cure. From her hospital bed, she often counted the few leaves left on the withered vine outside the window. And make sure that when the last leaf falls, it's time to go. But strangely, the last leaf on the tree refused to fall. Johnsy was encouraged to live. With the help of the doctor, she finally beat the disease and recovered. At that time, she realized that the vine leaves had fallen long ago. If the leaves did not fall, her friend was telling her about her pessimistic idea and asked an old painter to paint it. Murphy's theorem has such a sentence: "there is no desperate environment, only a desperate state of mind. Life is bright and dark, when we are in the dark, to believe that the light will come. They say you do what you're afraid of. In psychology, this phenomenon is known as the Wallenda effect. Wallenda is a high-wire walking artist who has been practicing without accident for years. At 73, he decided to retire and put on a farewell show. Before the performance, because the performance is so important, he keeps reminding himself: there is no wrong, no failure! Excessive tension, let him in a simple movement error, accidentally fell from the height, paid the price of life. After the tragedy, his wife said: "I knew something would happen this time because he always talks before he goes on the field. Every time he performed successfully, he always thought about the tightrope itself, rather than all that might happen. Come on." People's pressure often comes from too much value gain and loss and results. Study hard, the more you want to change your fate through the college entrance examination, the easier it is to play disorderly; The more prepared you are, the more likely you are to interview... Worry about gain and loss, is a kind of psychological consumption. Look forward, will take a difficult route; Too much care, doomed to physical and mental exhaustion. Master Hong yi said: "Life, wide heart inch, wide road zhang, read and down, everything at ease." When we let go of gains and losses and focus on the present moment, our work and life will be smooth. The French writer La Fontaine wrote this fable: the north wind and the south wind challenge each other to see who can take off the traveler's coat. The north wind tried to blow the clothes off the passers-by. As the wind blew, people wrapped their coats more tightly to protect them from the cold. And the south wind slowly blowing, in the warm wind, let a person feel warm, take off his coat. The south wind effect corresponds to a sentence in Tao Te Ching: "The world is soft, and the world is strong." Softness does not mean withdrawal or cowardice. "Flexibility" and "flexibility" in dealing with people is a power that can turn a sword into a plow. Only through humanized management can excellent managers enhance the autonomy of employees and the centripetal force of the team. Emotionally intelligent parents learn to listen attentively and speak well to help their children grow up in a healthy environment of love and trust. Warmth is a power that goes deep into people's hearts. Psychologist David Rosenthal once conducted the Pygmalion experiment in class. His team went to an ordinary primary school and told school leaders to conduct a "future trend test". Then they randomly selected a group of students, made a list and sent it to the teachers, telling them that these were the most promising students in the school. Teachers began to have high hopes for these students and paid special attention to them. After eight months, the psychologists were pleasantly surprised to find that the selected students' grades had improved significantly. There's a term in psychology called "self-fulfilling prophecy" : other people's perceptions or impressions of us change into attitudes about us; This feedback affects our beliefs, reflected in our behavior and performance, and ultimately confirms what others think of us. In real life, this self-fulfilling prophecy plays out every day. The most typical example is that many girls who did well in science in junior high school are easily influenced by the prejudice that "girls are weak in logic and not suitable for science" when they enter high school. When their science scores dropped, the feedback they got was not encouragement, but "it." They looked over the bars, one saw mud, the other saw stars. The biggest gap between people is not wealth, status, IQ, but mentality. Because life is like a mirror, you have what kind of mentality, have what kind of life. English writer Charles Dickens once said, "A sound mind is more powerful than a hundred pieces of wisdom." I hope you and I can understand ourselves, have a healthy attitude and embrace a happier life through these 8 psychological effects.
Investment Psychology: How to become a Master of Investment Emotion?
With the ups and downs of the stock market, whether your heart is experiencing the change from great joy to greed, from great sorrow to fear, when to enter the market, whether to wander in the loss of meat to leave? Do you make investment decisions rationally, or do you follow human intuition? Today we are going to discuss the psychology of investing and learn how to manage emotions together. The Tao of Warren Buffett says that of all human behavior, the relationship between people and money is perhaps the most special, especially when it comes to the stock market, which by definition is all traders, collectively, and is literally pushed around by psychological forces. In the modern investment theory, psychology does not have a special important position, the traditional view of investors psychological barriers not investors to make the right decision, according to the effective market theory, when the information is released, a large number of rational investors would immediately respond, make share price immediately adjust accordingly, stock price reaction is rapid, let no one can profit from it. But in recent years there has been evidence that "psychological and emotional factors influence financial decisions". People began to think about finance in terms of behavior, an approach that combined economics and psychology and was called behavioral finance. We understand the psychology of investing by deconstructing the Buffett approach. Widely regarded as the father of financial analysis, Graham explained stock market swings triggered by investor sentiment in two books, "Security Analysis" and "The Intelligent Investor." He argues that investors' worst enemy is not the stock market but themselves. An investor may be good at math, finance, accounting, etc., but if he can't control his emotions, he can't profit from investing. One of the three key tenets of Graham's approach, Buffett said, is to treat the stock market as a true investor. So what are the psychological and emotional factors that influence financial decisions? Let's list them briefly: overconfidence confidence in itself is not a bad thing, but overconfidence is something else. Overconfident investors not only make bad decisions on their own, but in combination have a huge impact on markets. Many investors overestimate their abilities and knowledge, affirm and rely on information they believe to be true and ignore contrary information, or evaluate readily available information rather than seek to understand information they know little about. Many investors and fund managers often have a sense of superiority, believing that they have better sources of information and know things that others don't, so they can beat others. This overconfidence can cause them to underperform. If all players do this, the result is hype. Research by Richard Taylor, one of the leading figures in behavioural finance, shows that people attach too much importance to random events and think they are catching up with new trends, especially when investors tend to look at the latest information and extrapolate from it. Behaviorists believe that people overreact to bad news and slow to react to good news, a phenomenon known as overreaction bias. If short-term reports are bad, for example, people will overreact quickly and without thinking, and share prices will inevitably suffer. Especially today, with the development of communications technology, investors can connect to the stock market 24 hours a day and check stock performance anytime and anywhere. So is it a good thing that investors ignore the whims of share prices? Taylor's take: "Invest in stocks and don't open the envelope." Loss aversion Loss aversion was first described 35 years ago by Nobel Prize winners Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, Stanford University psychology professors. Before this, game theory and economic behavior of the author John von neumann and oskar morgenstern, according to "decision-making utility theory" put forward by people think everyone in their own best interests as the foundation, on this basis, choice, decision making, Numbers don't attach importance to the wealth, wealth is the value of incremental part is the profit and loss, they in math shows that for the same amount, People experience losses and gains differently, and losses are two times as painful as gains are two and a half times as pleasant. In a 50-50 game, even if the odds are equal, most people won't take a chance unless the potential gain is twice the potential loss. This is called asymmetric loss aversion, and the idea that falling is stronger than rising is one of the foundations of human psychology. Applied to the stock market, the effect of loss aversion on investors is obvious. We hold on to the wrong stocks for too long, vaguely hoping that one day we can wait for a turnaround and avoid facing our failures by not selling the stocks we are stuck with. But doing so actually creates another potential loss, and by not selling the wrong investment, you forgo another opportunity that could have been rearranged to make a profit. Mental Accounts "Mental Accounts" explores how our views on the future of money change as circumstances change. We tend to keep money in different "accounts" in our minds, and that determines how we view them. Here the author gives a simple example. Imagine that you must pay $20 for a nanny, you thought it was in the wallet, but couldn't find it, after open you took 20 dollars on the ATM to pay a babysitter, and then the next morning, the day before yesterday you suddenly found in his pocket that 20, you will think it's the 20 windfall, even if they come from your bank account, You've worked hard, but now that you have $20 in your hand, you don't feel any pressure to do anything you want. The concept of mental accounts explains why people are reluctant to sell their bad stocks, because in their minds, as long as they don't sell, paper losses are just paper losses, not actual losses, which helps us understand the problems of stocks. Risk tolerance, people are more willing to take risks. Short-sighted loss aversion Warren Buffett once said the best time for the stock market to open is one day of the year. In fact, it has to do with short-sighted loss aversion. When analyzing historical returns, it was found that major long-term gains occurred in only 7% of all months, i.e., in the remaining 93% months, there were no gains at all. In other words, the more times you look at the results, the more losses you see. If you look at the results once a day, you'll see half the losses, but if you look at the results once a month, the losses are much less traumatic. In other words, there are two factors that influence the storm of investor sentiment: loss aversion and valuation frequency. So, how often do you look for the best results? The answer is a year. Only when the observation period was one year did investors' affective utility factor become positive. Loss aversion is human nature and cannot be changed, but you can choose how often to check your net worth, at least in terms of the principles you set. The lemmings paradox is the consistency of investors, whether it makes sense or not. Lemmings are small rodents with high reproductive rates and low mortality rates. Every three or five years, lemmings make unexplained marches in the dark until they reach the sea and swim in the water until they die of exhaustion. Many people behave like lemmings when it comes to investing, including professional managers, who work in a system that evaluates results based on fixed criteria and have little incentive to make stupid, maverick decisions. But if you play by the rules, you'll fail. Going your own way is the only way to succeed. Emotional trap management buffett is the world's greatest investor, it is important to him overcome his myopic loss aversion, related to the structure of the company, Berkshire hathaway is a wholly owned subsidiary, also have some stock investment, so he can be observed that the value of the firm growth and the relationship between the two hold the price of the stock, do not need to watch stock every day, He doesn't need stock prices to justify his investment. Take Coca-Cola, for example. Coke's stock outperformed the broader market in the decade 1989-1998, but on an annual basis only six times in those decades. People who own Coke stock sell it when it underperforms the market, but Buffett first analyzes whether coke's fundamentals are still sound and then holds on. "Most of the time," Graham reminds us, "stock prices are not justified. They go to extremes because of the deep-rooted psychology of speculation or gambling that many people have, such as hope, fear and greed. People have to be prepared, not just intellectually, but psychologically and financially, for the stock market to go up or down." "When people are greedy or fearful, they often buy and sell stocks at stupid prices," Mr. Buffett said. In the short term, sentiment matters more to share prices than company fundamentals. Munger once said that when they graduated from school, they found a lot of irrationality in the real world. With the exception of Buffett and Munger, until recently the mainstream investment community has focused on the interaction between finance and psychology, the essence of investment decisions being human psychological processes.