Coco Chanel, Michael Kors, Tory Burch, and more—explore who has influenced the world of fashion the most, and who might be the next big name.
Louis Vuitton - a short bio
Louis Vuitton Malletier is a French fashion house and luxury retail business founded by Louis Vuitton in 1854 and is commonly known as Louis Vuitton or shortened to LV. The company's LV monogram exists on many of the brands, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, suits, jewellery, jewellery, makeup, sunglasses and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world's largest international fashion houses; it sells its products through independent boutiques, high-end department store lease branches, and the e-commerce portal on its website. For six straight years Louis Vuitton was named the most popular luxury brand in the world. The 2012 value was US$ 25.9billion. The 2013 valuation of the company was US$ 28.4 billion, with a turnover of US$ 9.4 billion. The group works in 50 countries around the world, with over 460 outlets. Vuitton founded the Louis Vuitton label on Rue Neuve des Capucines in Paris, France, in 1854. Louis Vuitton started out at $10,567 as a purchase price. Louis Vuitton had discovered that the HJ Cave Osilite trunk can be easily lined. Vuitton made the trianon fabric into his flat-topped trunks in 1858, making them lightweight and airtight. Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used, usually to facilitate water drainage, and it was not possible to stack. It was Vuitton's Trianon's grey canvas flat trunk which allowed them to stack them with ease of transportation on top of another. Later on many other models of the luggage imitated Vuitton's feel and architecture. Starting from the 19th century, Louis Vuitton trunks were handmade. Contemporary fashion gives a snapshot of the development of the LV trunks: the craftsmen line up the leather and the canvas, tap one by one in the tiny nails and lock the five-letter solid pick-proof brass locks with an individual handmade key, designed to allow the traveller to use only one key for his or her whole luggage. The wooden frames of the rising tree are made of 30-year-old poplar, which had been left to dry for at least four years. Can trunk has a serial number that can take up to 60 hours to make, and a valve up to 15 hours to make. "All of the company's products use the brown Damier and Monogram Canvas fabrics, both of which were first introduced in the late 19th century. All of the company's pieces bear the eponymous LV initials. The company markets its product in its own stores around the world, which are made by it. The company also distributes the goods from LouisVuitton.com, its own online site. The company Louis Vuitton has a worldwide reputation and has included famous models, artists and celebrities including Jennifer Lopez, Keith Richards, Madonna, Sean Connery, Matthias Schoenaerts, Angelina Jolie, Gisele Bündchen, Mikhail Gorbachev and David Bowie in their advertising campaigns. Commonly, the company uses newspaper and poster print ads in cosmopolitan cities. The 1980's saw Razzia's popularity with Louis Vuitton Posters. She has traditionally focussed on chosen publications for the commercial advertisements provided from Annie Leibovitz. Nevertheless, the creative team's manager, Antoine Arnault, has recently opted for ads and cinema: the commercial fits the theme "Where does life take you?" dubbed in 13 different languages. It is the first commercial ad ever made by Vuitton and was directed by renowned French addirector Bruno Aveillan. In May 2017, media reported on alleged mistreatment of the famous Louis Vuitton model Ulrikke Høyer who was to appear at a cruise show in Kyoto Louis Vuitton. The 20-year-old model was told to be "too fat" and "too big" for her costume, measuring 91.5 cm around her hips upon arrival, and was ordered to drink only 24 hours of water. The model said that only her agent in France had told her that she had sent an email containing the text she came to Tokyo yesterday to do her final suit, and that she did not wear the same outfit anymore. She has a bow, her nose is more puffy and her back dress is open, so that you can see it is tight. "Ultimately she was excluded from the series, despite the guidelines. The model said she "received hundreds of messages from women" from the same casting director Louis Vuitton who suffered similar maltreatment. The casting director denied the allegations and described the instructions concerning the ingestion of water as a confusion, that the model was told to restrict the consumption of liquids to tea.
Lululemon - a short bio
Lululemon Athletica, lululemon athletica, is a sportswear company headquartered in Vancouver, Delaware. Lululemon was founded in 1998 as a manufacturer of yoga pants and other yoga wear, and has since grown to sell its products online and in 460 stores around the world. The company has expanded to sell a variety of workout garments including athletic tops, dresses, and jeans, as well as accessories for casual apparel and yoga. Chip Wilson formed Lululemon in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1998, and launched their first pair of yoga pants that year. In July 2007 the company's initial public offering was raising $327.6 million from the selling of 18.2 million shares. Christine Day, a former Co-President of Starbucks, became Chief Executive Officer in 2008. In 2014 Lululemon opened its first European store, a flagship store situated in Covent Garden, London. In February 2015, Wilson announced that he would resign from the board and that he will be replaced by the former lead officer of the board, Michael Casey. In 2018 Laurent Potdevin resigned as CEO due to the company's management misconduct. Lululemon offers clothes including tops, exercise trousers, dresses, sweaters, jackets and undergarments, beauty accessories, ties, yoga mats and water bottles. The first fabric, Luon, that had a higher than average cotton microfiber content, was trademarked in 2005 by Lululemon. After then the company has produced several various types of fabrics, including lightweight and moisture-wicking designs. In 2017, Lululemon and Athletic Propulsion Labs started selling women's and men's apparel in 23 shops in North America. In 2019 the company launched a luxury streetwear brand called Lab in a number of its stores. Initially popular for female yoga wear, by 2019 Lululemon had expanded by recruiting more male customers, tailoring its products and marketing campaigns accordingly, with the goal of increasing brand awareness among males. The corporation was known to use "holistic strategic tactics" to make people believe they are part of a bigger community by buying Lululemon clothing. Lululemon uses social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, as one of the main ways to advertise the brand and its products. In November 2007, the New York Times reported that Lululemon made false claims about its Vitasea clothing product; the company claimed that the seaweed apparel provided anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, hydrating and detoxifying properties, but laboratory tests did not indicate any significant differences in mineral levels between ordinary T-shirt cotton and Vitasea fabric. Lululemon was ultimately forced to remove all health claims from the seaweed-based products distributed in Canada, following a order from a Federal regulatory agency, the Competition Bureau of Canada. In 2013, some customers complained that the product was of poor quality, with some pieces "too sheer," holes appearing, and disintegrating after a few uses. Lululemon recalled some of the shop's cotton bags that were manufactured from polypropylene in China in December 2010, based on reports of elevated levels of lead. Lululemon recalled their incorrectly transparent and "too thin" black yoga pants in 2013; their financial success was influenced by the recall, which amounted to about 17 per cent of the women's pants sold in their stores. The resulting financial loss and damage to the business resulted in forced resignation of the company's Chief Executive Officer, Sheree Waterson and its CEO, Christine Day. Creator Chip Wilson made a variety of provocative and inflammatory remarks. Wilson ridiculed the organisation's name in Japanese language in an interview given in 2004. He said the company was not producing clothing for women of a larger size in 2013, because it was too costly. In an effort to justify for excessive pilling in the brand's clothes, he blamed some customers for wearing Lululemon's garments improperly or for having body forms inconsistent with his garments. In a 2013 Bloomberg TV interview, he said that the brand's apparel was unsuitable for many women's bodies. Time called "tall abusive" remarks These words may have contributed to Wilson's resignation as president. In June 2016, Wilson released an open letter to shareholders claiming the company had "lost its way" and given up market share to Nike and Under Armour after being refused the chance to participate at the company's annual meetings. Since then Wilson has used its website "Elevate Lululemon" to target the brand and the management.
New Balance - a short bio
New Balance is an American footwear and sportswear company that has been popular since 1906. The name was initially partnered with the service business New Balance Arch. The name is now affiliated with New Balance Sports, Inc., an American international organisation and its subsidiary New Balance, Inc., a investment firm owned by Jim Davis that controls New Balance Sports, Inc. New Balance Fitness, Inc. and New Balance, Inc. are also located at the same city at Boston, Massachusetts. New Balance is one of the world's leading athletic footwear and clothing producers, and has a manufacturing footprint for the American market in the United States and the United Kingdom, where they make some of their most common products, such as the 990 series, as opposed to their rivals, which mostly sell solely in the United States and Europe. New Balance sneakers therefore tend to be more costly than many other suppliers. To offset this price gap, New Balance seeks to distinguish its products with innovative innovations, such as blended gel pads, heel counters and a wider range of sizes, particularly for very small or very large widths. Since 1992 the company has made gross revenues of around $69 billion. In 1906, an Irish immigrant, William J. Riley formed the Boston area New Balance Arch Support Firm, making arch supports, and other attachments intended to enhance shoe performance. His first invention, a lightweight arch brace, was designed to offer better balance and stability in the foot, with three brace points. It is assumed that after watching chickens in his yard Riley came up with the term "Modern Harmony," and demonstrated how his arch supports worked after holding a chicken foot on his office desk. He demonstrated to the customers that the three-pronged foot of the chicken brought in total harmony. Riley employed Arthur Hall to act as a salesman in 1927. Hall became a partner with the company in 1934. The organisation announced its entrance into the global football business in February 2015. New Balance launched its soccer operation in 2012 with its affiliate Warrior Sports, punctuated by a $40 million-a-year endorsement contract with Liverpool, then made the switch to rebrand based on the parent brand's worldwide presence. New Balance released a "New Balance Statistical" skateboarding shoe brand in 2013, sold through Black Box Retail, a company created through professional skateboarder Jamie Thomas. A civil action litigation brought in 2011 against New Balance claims that the firm's toning clothing contains unproven advantages. In support of its reference of misleading advertisement, it cites a scientific report on toning shoes by the University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, which was sponsored and published by the American Council on Exercise. Investigators recorded that the wearing of the toning shoes resulted in no "statistically meaningful changes in either workout response or muscle activation." There was no statistically meaningful difference between participants wearing different "colour socks" and regular sneakers wearing monitors. The researchers concluded that there is clearly no evidence to support the arguments that these shoes would help wearers to workout more vigorously, eat more calories or improve muscle strength and tone. It has been noticed, however, that such shoes that attract a reasonable number of people who will normally not put on a regular pair of walking shoes and go out and walk. New Balance has expanded the number of athletes it sponsors significantly since 2013. Notable athletes represented by the agency include Olympian Stephanie Twell and sponsored the young emerging star Trayvon Bromell since 2015. New Combination also sponsors athletics teams including New Zealand and the national team Antigua and Barbuda. The business debuts on the stage of the Olympics, making up Ireland's Olympic Council and the Rio 2016 Chilean Olympic Committee. The organisation has previously worked with Matt Bonner of San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association, supplying him with sneakers for many years.
Nike - a short bio
Nike, Inc. is an independent American company that develops, makes, makes and sells worldwide clothes, shoes, products, accessories, and services. The company is in Beaverton, Oregon, in the metropolitan district of Portland. It is the world's largest seller of athletic shoes and apparel, and a major producer of fitness equipment, with revenues reaching US$ 24.1 billion in its 2012 fiscal year. As of 2012 it has recruited more than 44,000 people worldwide. In 2014, the company itself was valued at $19 billion, making it the most profitable company amongst sports firms. As of 2017 the Nike mark is valued at $29.6bn. Nike ranked No. 89 by total revenue in the Fortune 500 2018 list of the US's biggest businesses. The corporation was founded as Blue Ribbon Sports by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight on 25 January 1964, and formally became Nike, Inc. on 30 May 1971. The company derives its name from victorious Greek goddess Nike. While manufacturing sportswear and supplies, the company operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsors several internationally high-profile competitors and sports squads with the well-known "Just Do It" slogans and the Swoosh logo. Nike markets a wide range of running apparel. The first pieces were running shoes for indoors. Today they make shoes, jerseys, trousers, cleats, baselayers, etc. for a wide variety of sports, including track and field, football, ice hockey, rugby, soccer, lacrosse, basketball, and cricketing. Because of its relation to sport success, the Nike brand with its distinct V-shaped logo quickly became considered a status symbol in contemporary urban fashion and hip-hop culture. Numerous Nike apparel items became staples of standard American youth wear starting in the 1980s, particularly track pants, shell tops, baseball caps, Air Jordans, Air Force 1s, and Air Max running shoes with thick, air-cushioned rubber soles and matching brown, orange, black, white, or red trim. Nike's regional headquarters are surrounded by Beaverton City, but are situated within the unincorporated Washington County. The city tried actively to seize Nike's offices, contributing to Nike's lawsuit, and the company's advocacy that ultimately culminated in the Oregon Senate Bill 887 of 2005. Under the rule, Beaverton is expressly barred from unlawfully annexing the land owned by Adidas and Columbia Sportswear in Washington County for 35 years, while Electro Science Industries and Tektronix have been granted equal rights for 30 years. Nike plans to build a 3.2 million-square-foot expansion at its Beaverton World Headquarters. The development will seek LEED Platinum status, which will be highlighted by abundant sunlight and a grey water recycling centre. Nike has agreements with over 700 outlets globally with franchises in 45 non-US markets. Most of the plants are in Asia, including Indonesia, China, Taiwan, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Philippines, Malaysia and others. Nike hesitates to disclose information of the business entities he works with. Nevertheless, in its Corporate Ethics Policy, Adidas has released details of its contract plants, leading to heavy criticism by certain organisations, such as CorpWatch. According to the sustainability organisation Clean Air-Cool Earth with headquarters in New Hampshire, Adidas was placed in a ranking of environmentally friendly enterprises in 2007 among the top three groups. Nike has also been praised for her initiative Nike Grind by groups such as Earth Counts. One commercial launched by Adidas for Earth Day 2008 was a advertisement starring basketball player Steve Nash wearing Nike's Trash Talk Suit, made from leather parts in February 2008, and recycled leather scraps from factory flooring. The Trash Talk Fabric also featured a sole made from a cloth recycling device constructed from ground up rubber. Nike says this is the first-value basketball shoe produced from waste processing but it only generated 5,000 pairs for sale.
Uniqlo - a short bio
Uniqlo Co., Ltd. is Japanese casual clothing designer, designer, and retailer. Fast Retailing Co., Ltd is a wholly-owned Company subsidiary. In March 1949 Ogori Shōji, a company based in Yamaguchi, was founded in Ube, Yamaguchi. It opened in May 1984 in Fukuro-machi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima a casual unisex clothes shop under the name ' Rare Style Shop. ' The product was initially to be listed as a simplified "custom clothing" contraction But, workers in charge of registration misread the "C" as "Q" during administrative work in Hong Kong to register the label in 1988, and this is how the brand name was born. Tadashi Yanai later changed shop branding to "uniqlo" in Japan. In September 1991, the brand name was changed from "Ogori Shōji" to "Fast Retailing" and by April 1994 there were more than 100 Uniqlo stores operating in Japan. The corporation announced that there were 2249 Uniqlo stores operating worldwide as of 30 November 2019. In 1997, Fast Retailing adopted a range of strategies from American retailer The Gap, known as "SPA," meaning they would solely manufacture and sell their own products. We'd recruited supermarket business firm, CIA, Inc. The Brand Architect Company, to lead the agency in carrying out this strategy, including guidance on merchandise, graphic merchandising and design, brand architecture, and a new logo created by Richard Seireeni's Los Angeles office and the Brand Architect Company's Sy Chen. Uniqlo had begun exporting their retail manufacturing to factories in China where the labour was cheap, a well-established policy for the market. Japan was already in the middle of a contraction and low-cost goods have proven popular. Their promotional campaigns, uniform codes, and creative retail designs have also proven popular. In November 1998, they opened their first urban Uniqlo store in Tokyo's trendy Harajuku neighbourhood, and sales spread quickly to major cities throughout Japan. Stock turnover and total sales reached a record peak in 2001, with over 500 supermarket outlets in Japan. Uniqlo was removed from the parent company because it wanted to grow globally, and Fast Retailing Apparel Co., Ltd was founded in China. In 2002 they opened their first Shanghai Chinese Uniqlo store along with four foreign stores in London, England. On 2 September 2009, Quick Retailing announced that the organisation's annual business sales of US$ 61.2 billion and pre-tax income of US$ 12.2 billion from activities It means that the company continues to become the world's largest specialty retailer for private label clothes with a consistent growth pace of 20 per cent a year. The organization's global demand target breaks down to one trillion yen in China, one trillion in other Asian countries and one trillion in Europe and the U.S. Uniqlo kicked off their first Australian store in Melbourne in April 2014. It moved to Queensland in 2015, ending up in Brisbane's two stores. Uniqlo launched a store at Melbourne's Chadstone Shopping Centre, Australia, the Southern hemisphere's biggest shopping centre, after it was redeveloped in October 2016. In reality there are 22 stores in Australia, among them in Melbourne and Perth. There is also a Uniqlo store located at Eastland Shopping Center in Ringwood. Uniqlo opened its first Canadian store at the Toronto Eaton Center on 30 September 2016, followed by a second location at the Yorkdale Shopping Centre, on 20 October 2016. The store covers 28,000 and 24,000 square feet, and is five times the size of the Muji store that opened in 2014 in Toronto. Three new stores opened in 2018 at the Vaughan Mills, CF Markville and Ontario's Square One Shopping Centre. Uniqlo has just 13 shops in London as from 2019. Ambitious expansion plans were abandoned in the early 2000s, including the closing of 16 shops in 2003 including those in Manchester, Coventry and Leicester. Uniqlo also opened a brand new store on Manchester's Market Street in April 2019. In January 2015 a series of human rights abuses were identified at Uniqlo vendors in China. Uniqlo promised to root out the threats.
The North Face - a short bio
The North Face is an American company in outdoor leisure products. The North Face manufacturers outdoor gear for clothes, boots, and. Headquartered in Alameda, California, the firm co-locates with its corporate affiliate, JanSport. The business headquarters will be relocating to Denver, Colorado by the summer of 2020. The North Face, created by Douglas Tompkins and his wife, Susie Tompkins, opened in 1966 as a climbing gear retail store in San Francisco. This was purchased by Kenneth "Hap" Klopp 2 years later. Through a stylised Half Dome painting in Yosemite National Park, the North Face derives the business logo. VF Corporation acquired The North Face in a $25.4 million deal in 2000, and became a wholly-owned affiliate. The North Face filed a lawsuit at the United States Federal Court in December 2008 for the Eastern District of Missouri against The South Ass, its creator James A. Winkelmann Jr., and a company that controlled the product's sales and development. In the legal case, the North Face pleaded infringement of the licence, and filed for injunctive relief. On 1 April 2010, the parties reached a closed settlement agreement, after the court called for mediation in the case. Nonetheless, in October 2012, Winkelmann argued in court that he and his father had broken the settlement agreement with The North Face and agreed to pay US$ 65,000, a amount that would be lowered by US$ 1,000 for each month of compliance. Via 1997, consumers of North Face apparel had expanded to New York City rappers and others seeking specialist footwear for camping, biking, and other outdoor sports but remained still a small portion of the company's business. In 2005 wearers of the North Face clothing became stealing items in Prince George County, Maryland. A similar trend appeared in South Korea in the early 2010s, where it became a prestige symbol, leading to bullying of children or stealing of their North Face clothes. In May 2019, Leo Burnett Tailor Designed, a pr agency for The North Face Brazil, revealed that they had unexpectedly replaced photos of popular outdoor destinations on Wikipedia with photographs advertising North Face brands in an attempt to make those objects figure more prominently in the results of search engines. Following widespread media coverage and criticism from the Wikimedia Foundation, The North Face apologised for the commercial, stopped it and removed the promotional campaign. Neighborhood North Beach in San Francisco, at an height of around 150 feet above sea level. In 1966, two climbing lovers wanted to follow their passions here, and opened up a small retail store for mountaineering. The little shop shortly afterwards became known as The North Face, a retailer of high performance climbing and backpacking equipment. In 1968, The North Face relocated to the other side of San Francisco Bay, the unbridled possibilities provided by the Berkeley district, and started manufacturing and creating its own line of professional mountaineering equipment and accessories. Via the 1960s the North Face company sought a follower of avid outdoor competitors and began planning expeditions to some of the farthest but virtually unknown corners of the country. This started a proud tradition that continues to be in full effect today and constantly reinforces Never Stop Knowing, the motto of The North Face. In the early 1980s the North Face entered the far limits of the ski region, adding extreme skiwear to the range of items. Those were the days of pastels, neons, hair colouring and mohawks; today's free-spirited snowsports competitors were laid the foundation for. At the end of the decade, the North Face became the first US store to sell a wide range of high-performance outerwear, skiwear, sleeping bags, packs and tents. The 1990s marked the beginning of a era in which The North Face broadened the natural world it provides for the enjoyment of athletes. With the introduction of Tekware, a groundbreaking range developed to give optimum comfort and purpose to mountain climbers, backpackers, hikers, trail runners and outdoor enthusiasts, the decade saw our sportswear industry debut. The North Face half-dome design started to appear on ultramarathon courses, high country trails and large walls with increasing regularity. Then, as the clock turned into a new century, The North Face launched its own line of trekking then trail-running accessories to fully meet the head-to-toe desires of those who are already hunting for the next frontier.
Rolex - a short bio
Rolex SA is A luxury watch manufacturing company based in Geneva, Switzerland. Originally founded by Hans Wilsdorf and Alfred Davis in London, England in 1905 as Wilsdorf and Davis, the company registered Rolex as the brand name for its watches in 1908 and became Rolex Watch Co. Co. in 1915. After World War I, the firm moved its corporate base to Geneva, Switzerland to escape high taxes from a post-war reconstruction Britain, and in 1920 Hans Wilsdorf incorporated Montres Rolex SA as the new business name in Geneva, which later became Rolex SA. Since 1960, the company has been owned by a private family trust, the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation. Wilsdorf and Davis, the firm that would later become Rolex S.A., were founded in London, England in 1905 by Alfred Davis and his brother-in-law Hans Wilsdorf At the time, the major business activities of Wilsdorf and Davis included importing Hermann Aegler's Swiss movements into England and installing them in Dennison's and other watch cases. These early wristwatches were sold to a number of jewellers who then placed their own names on the dial. The early Wilsdorf and Davis watches were usually labelled "W&D" within the caseback. One of the company's slogans is "A Crown for Every Success" Rolex produced primarily automatic watches, but was also involved in producing the first quartz watch moves. Although Rolex produced comparatively few quartz models for its Oyster series, the engineers at the company were influential in the production and implementation of the drug during the late 1960s and early 1970s. In 1968, Rolex collaborated with a group of 16 Swiss watchmakers to create the Beta 21 quartz mechanism used in the Rolex Quartz Date 5100 along with other producers including the Omega Electroquartz clocks. Rolex created the 5035/5055 "clean-slate" programme in about five years of research, design, and production that would ultimately drive the Rolex Oysterquartz. Rolex first used the ceramic bezel "Cerachrom" on the GMT-Master II, material-wise, in 2005, and has since launched ceramic bezel inserts across the range of professional sports watches. It's available on the Submariner, Sea Dweller, Deepsea, GMT Master II and Daytona models. Like the aluminium bezel it substituted, the ceramic bezel coating does not wear off to UV light from fire and is very scratch-resistant. Rolex watches are mostly handmade, and these are mostly sold on the market and online illegally. The price of imitation Rolex watches varies: some use the easiest of movements while some use an ETA manoeuvre. Nonetheless, all of these falsified watches can quickly be identified by jewellers and other experts. In total, Rolex has three watch lines: Regular, Expert and Cellini Oyster. The key bracelets for the Oyster line are called Jubilee, Oyster, King and Pearlmaster. The watch bands of the series are usually either stainless steel, black gold, white gold, or gold rose. The retail price for the stainless steel range ' Pilots ' begins from GBP 5,600 in the UK. Diamond Inlay timepieces are more costly. Reyne Haines ' book "Vintage Wristwatches" from Antiques Roadshow reported a price estimate for Rolex vintage watches ranging from US$ 650 to US$ 75,000, while mentioning vintage Tudors between US$ 250 and US$ 9,000. Rolex has developed different models which are suitable for extreme deep-sea diving, canyoning, mountain climbing, polar exploration and aviation. The early recreational models were just the Rolex Submariner and the Rolex Sea Dweller. Co-invented with Swiss watchmaker Doxa, the latter watch has a helium exhaust valve to prevent the build-up of hydrogen gas after decompression. Rolex is the official tennis timekeeper for Wimbledon, the Australian Open, the US Open and the French Open, the four Grand Slams. He is the official golf timekeeper for two of the four majors, The Open Championship and U.S. Safe, as well as the PGA Tour and European Tour; the promoter organising the Senior Safe Championship for one of the five Senior Majors; and the Women's World Golf Rankings official organiser.
Cartier - a short bio
CARTIER International SNC, or simply Cartier, is a conglomerate of luxury French products which produces, produces, distributes and markets jewellery and watches. The undertaking was established by Louis-François Cartier in Paris in 1847, and remained under family control until 1964. The firm maintains its headquarters in Paris, since it was a wholly owned subsidiary of the Swiss Richemont Group. Cartier operates more than 200 stores in 125 countries, with three temples in London, New York, and Paris. Cartier was created by Louis-François Cartier in Paris, France in 1847, when he inherited the workshop of his master, Adolphe Picard. In 1874, Louis-François ' uncle, Alfred Cartier, took over the company but it was the sons of Alfred, Charles, Pierre and Jacques who created the brand name worldwide. Louis had a branch in Paris, then moved to the Rue de la Paix in 1899. He was responsible for some of the company's most popular products, including mystery clocks, fashionable wristwatches, and exotic orientalist Art Deco designs, including the vivid jewels of "Tutti Frutti" The World Wide Fund for Nature released an official report in December 2018 promising environmental scores for 15 major watch manufacturers and jewellers in Switzerland. Cartier was ranked No. 2 of the 15 manufacturers and, along with 3 other manufacturers including Vacheron Constantin and Jaeger-LeCoultre, obtained an overall environmental rating as "Upper Midrange," suggesting that the company has taken significant measures to resolve the environmental and climate change effects of its manufacturing activities. According to Cartier's official company report, the organisation is committed to conducting projects in an environmentally sustainable way and to reducing negative environmental consequences. In 1981 Alain Dominique Perrin became President of Cartier SAA and Cartier International. Next year, wife Micheline Kanoui of Joseph Kanoui became head of jewellery design and launched her first range called "Modern Joaillerie." In 1984, Perrin founded the Cartier pour l'Art Contemporain Foundation to bring Cartier into the 21st century by allying with living artists. In 1986 Perrin was appointed by the French Minister of Culture to head the "Plan sur le mécénat d'entreprise" Two years later Cartier retained a majority interest in Piaget and in Baume & Mercier. In 1989/1990, the Musée du Petit Palais arranged an exhibition of the collection Cartier, "l'Art de Cartier" In 1991, to coordinate the first trade show held on April 15, 1991, Perrin founded the Comité International de la Haute Horlogerie (Comité International de la Haute Horlogerie). This has grown into an annual meeting place in Geneva for professionals. The next year the second exhibition "l'Art de Cartier" took place at the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg. The "Vendôme Luxury Company" was established in 1993 to merg as a single company Cartier, Dunhill, Montblanc, Piaget, Baume & Mercier, Karl Lagerfeld, Chloé, Sulka, Hackett, and Seeger. In 1994, the Cartier Foundation moved to the Rive Gauche, and opened offices in a building designed by Jean Nouvel. The next year a big exhibition of the Cartier Antique Collection took place in Asia. In 1996, the Lausanne Hermitage Museum in Switzerland displayed "Splendors of the Jewellery," celebrating the one hundred and fifty years of Cartier's work. In 2012, Richemont bought Cartier from the South African Rupert family, and Elle Pagels, a 24-year-old granddaughter of Pierre Cartier. Within the jewellery and watchmaking industries there are general questions over the lack of transparency within industrial processes and the sourcing of essential raw resources such as gold, which is a big cause of environmental issues such as pollution, soil degradation and deforestation. The situation is especially poor in the developing world, which are big gold producers such as China, Russia and South Africa. It is estimated that the watch and jewellery industry uses more than 50% of the world's annual gold production, but most watch companies are reluctant or unable to show where their raw materials come from and whether products producers use environmentally friendly sourcing techniques.
Prada - a short bio
Prada A. S.p. Created in 1913 by Mario Prada, this Italian luxury fashion house specialises in leather handbags, travel accessories, shoes, ready-to-wear, perfumes and other beauty accessories. The company was founded in 1913 by Mario Prada and his brother Martino as a leather goods shop, Fratelli Prada, in Milan, Italy. Originally, the store sold pet goods, and made English steamer trunks and handbags. Mario Prada didn't believe women should have a role in industry, and so he barred the entry of female family members into his company. Ironically, the son of Mario had no involvement with the firm, so it was his daughter Luisa Prada who took the helm of Prada as her successor and controlled it for almost 20 years. Her youngest daughter, Miuccia Prada, left the organisation in 1970, and finally took over for her mother in 1978. Prada hosts sporadic runway shows on the worldwide fashion calendar, often held at one of the Milan brand venues. Prada also employed architects to design flagship stores at numerous locations, including Rem Koolhaas and Herzog & de Meuron among others. Prada's Milan Headquarters, opened in 2000, is located between via Bergamo and Via Fogazzaro in a former industrial city. Carsten Höller's art sculpture, which takes the form of a three-story metal slide, leads into the inner courtyard from Miuccia Prada's office. Luxottica-made eyewear, launched under the Prada and Miu Miu lines. The perfume was introduced simultaneously with the Puig name. The women's fragrances had been followed by men's fragrances. In 2005 a replica Prada boutique was built as an art installation, 26 miles away from Marfa, Texas. Called "Prada Marfa," the purpose of the structure was generally to disintegrate into its surroundings. Miuccia Prada also provided the 2005 Summer Season collection of accessories and bags. Unfortunately, the plant was looted after completion so reconstruction was necessary. As of 2014, Italian authorities have been investigating Prada for possible tax evasion following the announcement by the luxury goods company of undeclared taxable income. During the inquiry, Prada SpA Chairman Miuccia Prada, Chief Executive Officer Patrizio Bertelli and accountant Marco Salomoni were called for alleged undeclared or falsified tax declarations. Prada's chairwoman faces an investigation after it has been revealed that the company saved about £ 400 m in income from transferring business abroad. Corriere della Sera, an Italian newspaper announced on Friday that Prada and Bertelli had paid 420 million euros to the Italian tax office to end their tax ties. The company's procurement and sales spraes slowed in the 2000's. However, the organisation signed a loose deal with Azzedine Alaia. In 2000 skincare items in the United States, Japan and Europe were introduced in unit doses. A stock of cleaning lotion for 30 days was put on the market at retail price of US$ 100. The corporation agreed to list 30 per cent of the firm on the Milan Stock Exchange in June 2001 to help pay off debts of more than US$ 850 million. Nevertheless, the company declined following a slowdown in U.S. and Japan's luxury goods demand. In 2001, under pressure from his creditors, Bertelli sold half of Fendi's 25.5 per cent interest in Prada to LVMH. The selling received US$ 295 million. In the light of the settlement the investigation proceeded. As of 2016, the claimants have sought dismissal of the case because the debt was settled. On 14 December 2018, Prada was forced to pull a new range of accessories and shows from its stores following allegations that they contained "blackface pictures." When outrage exploded online when a New Yorker saw the character at the Prada's Soho store, Prada scrapped the pieces and condemned the designer in a viral Facebook post for using "Sambo like photos." Former Prada models include Daria Werbowy, Gemma Ward, Vanessa Axente, Suvi Koponen, Ali Stephens, Vlada Roslyakova and Sasha Pivovarova, who appeared in Prada's ad campaigns for six consecutive seasons since the Prada runway show was unveiled in fall 2005. Prada has also used several celebrities as models in their menswear shows and commercials, including Gary Oldman, Adrian Brody, Emile Hirschand, Norman Reedus.
The Woman Behind Legacy: An Empire is Born
Some might argue that an Empire can only be birthed from hard work and a Roman work ethic (we’ve all heard the phrase Rome wasn’t built in a day, so we work for it); while others claim or argue that an Empire can only be birthed by ones legacy that has been left behind and XXC is becoming the evidence of this hard-working Rome ethic by building a legacy that is one of a kind with her all-inclusive fashion show. The Legacy fashion show which began in 2015 and has been running for 5-years being help annually or biannually and we hope to see the fashion show become more than just a fashion show but a legacy that has been left behind and that is what the Legacy fashion show is about leaving a platform for creatives to come together even long after XXC has left her mark not only in the fashion industry but as well as entertainment industry.
Bellisimo! This Italian Woman Has Made It Her Mission To Make U.S. Mass Market Fashion Great Again
There is no doubt Federica Gravati has style. Being Italian, it runs in her blood. And living in Milan, she is at the epicenter of the country's fashion industry. Now she is about to bring some of her sophistication Stateside.
Unbelievable Fashion Success Stories
They may have become powerhouses of the fashion industry in later in their lives, but many of the most recognizable fashion designers come from far less glamorous beginnings. Here are some of their stories which could be inspiring to anyone new who is trying to dip their feet in this industry!