Biography of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan (1162-1227) was a Mongol emperor who unified a nomadic people who were divided into dozens of tribes and clans. He conquered a vast and powerful Mongol empire.
Genghis Khan was born in a region bounded by nearly impassable mountains and the barrier of the Gobi Desert in Mongolia, Central Asia, in the year 1162.
Heir to Iasugai, descendant of the “children of light” and head of the Borjin clan, family of the most ancient nobility of the Mongol people, he was named Temujin.
He grew up among other children in the shade of the tents, hunting small animals, fishing and cleaning horses.
At that time the Mongol tribes were ruled by a few families that sometimes lived peacefully, sometimes dedicated themselves to fighting. One tribe subjugated another, stole their flocks and other goods, and even their women.
At the age of nine, Genghis Khan became engaged to Borte, daughter of the chief of the Konguirat, a powerful allied tribe, and remained with the bride's family, according to Mongol customs.
The Leader Of Your Clan
One day, with the untimely death of his father, poisoned at a banquet offered by a Tatar tribe, Temujin returns to his tribe and, at only 13 years old, becomes the new leader of the Borjins.
He receives the whip and the clan standard, but sees around him only women and children, for his father's warriors do not accept the leadership of a boy.
One day, his small camp is attacked and Temujin has to leave the lands where his ancestors lived. On Mount Burkan Kal, he brings his family together. His possessions amount to nine horses and two sheep.
Temujin is pursued. One day, eight horses are stolen from him, but he gets on what he has left, finds a childhood friend and together they recover the animals. He then establishes a treaty of mutual alliance between his clans.
After four years of chasing and fighting through the mountains, Temujin, now 17 and with resources, sets out to claim his bride.
In the camp of the konguirat he is welcomed with parties. She receives as a dowry, a beautiful cloak of black sable, which is worth more than all the possessions of her clan. The wife brings with her many tents, servants and slaves.
One day, returning from a hunt, the young man finds the tents empty and partially burned. The Merkites sacked the camp. His wife is among the kidnapped women.
Genghis Khan makes alliances with other tribes, gets the best warriors and sets out to fight. Revenge is carefully prepared.
When he finds his wife, after a victorious attack, she is pregnant. On the way back, Borte gives birth to a boy “Gutsci” (the unexpected). Temujin accepts him as his rightful heir.
Temujin's victory attracts the sympathy of the chiefs of the most powerful tribes and prepares future alliances. His mother marries a shaman, priest-sorcerer of nomadic tribes and confidant of the gods.
Paramount Chief Of Mongols
With great skill, Genghis Khan faces an ongoing struggle, and news of his heroic deeds spreads.
Its mystical origin and the skills with which it treats the vanquished, forgiving their offenses, spread quickly across the steppes and desert.
In a continuous struggle for the hegemony of the tribes, he defeats the fearsome Tatars, gaining the sympathy of the Chin dynasty, which reigned in China and was constantly threatened by the Tatars.
Dominating, little by little, all the Mongol tribes, Temujin decides to legalize his power. He changes his name to “Genghis” (perfect warrior). In 1189 he is recognized as "Khan" (supreme chief).
Genghis Khan wanted to create a vast and powerful Mongolian state and felt he was carrying out a divine mission. He said about himself:
“One sun in the sky, one sovereign over the earth.”
To that end, he transformed the military force of the Mongols into a true national army, structuring it under his personal command.
He gathered the law codes of the different tribes into one, constituting the “Jasak”, and decided that the time had come for expansion.
The Mongol Empire
In 1211, the Mongols invade the Chinese empire of the kin, who resisted inside the fortified cities. In 2014, he leaves China carrying the imperial treasures.
In 1215, claiming that the Chinese had broken the peace treaty, Genghis Khan destroyed Peking and left his generals there, who completed the capture of the country.
In 1218 he turned against Turkestan, empire of the Kara-Khitai. Between one conquest and another, Genghis Khan founded the city of “Karakorum”, which would become the capital of his immense possessions.
Until then, Genghis Khan had limited his ambitions to East Asia, but in 1219 he began crossing the great Himalayan mountain ranges that isolated the peoples of Central and East Asia from the civilizations of West Asia.
The Mongol army attacked Persia and other major Muslim centers. In 1221, he conquered Kabul, Afghanistan. Victorious, Genghis Khan returns to Mongolia, leaving the command to two generals.
In the task of continuing their march westward for two years, they bring terror to Georgia and the southern steppes of Russia, and up to Crimea.
Then it invades Bulgaria and reaches the Adriatic Sea, which washes the eastern coasts of Italy. Further north they reached Poland.
Genghis Khan's target is South Asia. He then goes into battle against the remnants of the Hsia realm, but is struck down and dies.
Genghis Khan died in South Asia, probably on August 18, 1227. He was buried at an unknown location in Mongolia. His 4 sons divided the empire according to his will.
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