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Evaluation of the Advancing Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Treatment Pipeline

by Simran Rehani 3 months ago in Science
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Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy

Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy (DEE) is a term used to describe a category of severe epilepsies that are marked by severe developmental delays or possibly the loss of developmental skills in addition to seizures that are frequently drug-resistant. Cognitive processes are significantly impacted by seizures, interictal epileptiform activity, and the neurobiological basis of epilepsy in Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy. The onset of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy (DEEs), which are also linked to gene variations, typically occurs in infancy. The time of brain maturation during which the seizures occur, which in turn depends on other factors, such as underlying pathology, genetic susceptibility factors, and seizure triggers, has an impact on cognitive function to some extent (e.g., febrile illness). While seizures are not always a direct cause of cognitive impairments, it is crucial to understand that seizures can potentially contribute to the development of cognitive impairments.

Neonatal-onset epileptic encephalopathy, infantile epileptic encephalopathy, and early childhood syndromes include early myoclonic encephalopathy, Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome (severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), epilepsy with continuous spike-and-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS).

Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Market Insights

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) market dynamics are likely to evolve over the next few years as a result of advancements in diagnosis techniques, increased disease awareness, increased global healthcare spending, and the anticipated introduction of novel medicines. Important companies including Lundbeck, Marinus Pharmaceuticals, Novartis, Aquestive Therapeutics, Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Eisai Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, Meda Pharmaceuticals, Roche, Questcor Pharmaceuticals, and Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, as well as Xenon Pharmaceuticals, Longboard Pharmaceuticals, Stoke Therapeutics, Takeda/Ovid Therapeutics, SK Life Science, Neurocrine Biosciences, Praxis Precision Medicines, and Jazz Pharmaceuticals.

Current Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Treatment Landscape

The technique for treating epileptic encephalopathy is similar to that of treating pediatric epilepsy. Based on the epilepsy syndrome type, the most suitable anti-epileptic therapy is chosen. Despite the widespread usage of anti-seizure drugs, some types of seizures are typically challenging to manage. It serves as the main method of controlling epileptic seizures and is almost typically the initial class of treatment drugs. Prednisone or Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) steroid medication has proven beneficial for some kids. When medications are ineffective, patients may also be advised to try the ketogenic diet or a vagus nerve stimulator.

The first oral prescription cannabis formulation produced by GW Pharmaceuticals is called Epidiolex (Cannabidiol), which was created by Jazz Pharmaceuticals. It was formerly known as GWP42003-P and is also referred to as Epidyolex in Europe. It belongs to a brand-new class of antiepileptic drugs that work through a distinct mechanism. For the treatment of LGS or Dravet syndrome-related seizures in patients 2 years of age and older, it has received approval in the US and Europe. Cannabidiol, the active component of Epidiolex, is the first medication approved by the FDA that contains a refined medicinal compound derived from marijuana (CBD).

The FDA has also approved Biocodex's Diacomit (Stiripentol) for the treatment of Dravet syndrome-related seizures in patients 2 years of age and older receiving clobazam. It is an innovative anti-epileptic medication developed by Biocodex and authorized in August 2018.

Unmet Needs in Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Treatment Domain

The diagnosis of rare epileptic syndromes including LGS, Dravet Syndrome, and CDKL5 deficient disorder can be difficult as the condition progresses since they are exceedingly complicated and heterogeneous disorders with various etiologies. Additionally, there are no established guidelines for the detection and management of comorbidities in rare epilepsies. Although they only treat the symptoms of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy and do not deal with the disease's fundamental etiology, anti-seizure medications are now the gold standard of care. For the majority of kinds of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, there are also no approved treatments, and off-label usage is linked to subpar outcomes in terms of safety and tolerability. Additionally, approved medications like Fintepla and Ztalmy may have substantial treatment costs.

Way Ahead

The recent FDA approval of Ztalmy, the first legal treatment for CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder, in the United States has helped the market for Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy develop. Only a few therapies are available in the Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy market at the moment. Further R&D development will be used to bridge the gap in licensed drugs caused by the dearth of numerous approved therapeutics. New medications with better seizure control could have a positive effect on DEE treatment options and patient quality of life. Epidiolex and Fintepla continue to grow their prescriber bases and attract new prescribers as a result of their strong adoption. Pharmaceutical companies don't seem to have fully examined the Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy market as of yet, giving the industry a large opportunity to seize the prospective market space.

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Simran Rehani

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