Futurism logo

A Thinking Machine

by Ian Massey 7 months ago in artificial intelligence
Report Story

Artificial Intelligence

Thanks to wallpaperbat.com for the image

A Thinking Machine or otherwise known as Artificial Intelligence. Has been a long founding idea that was developed around 1955. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines." Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is an academic field of study which studies the goal of creating intelligence, whether in emulating human-like intelligence or not. Major AI researchers and textbooks define this field as "the study and design of intelligent agents", where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. Such as an Algorithm with inputs and outputs.

AI research is highly technical and specialized, and is deeply divided into sub-fields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: sub-fields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Some sub-fields focus on the solution of specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches, the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications.

The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is still among the field's long term goals. Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are a large number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others. The AI field is interdisciplinary, in which a number of sciences and professions converge, including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial psychology.

The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens - "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the subject of tremendous optimism but has also suffered stunning setbacks. Today it has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most challenging problems in computer science, social media and other aspects of daily life.

So over the past 60 years or so. The idea of Artificially Enhancing Computers to mimic the Human Brain. Has become not only a field of research, but also a form of Computer Psychology. In order to understand the way a Computer can think and process data like the Human Brain. We will need to take a look at The Human brain and the mechanics of how the Neurological System of the brain works. In the same moment We have to understand and look at the Thinking Machine (a computer or the like) as the Human Brain.  

Sectors of the Brain

The Human Brain consists of many properties that are common to all vertebrate brains, including a basic division into three parts called the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, with interconnected fluid-filled ventricles, and a set of generic vertebrate brain structures including the medulla oblongata and pons of the brainstem, the cerebellum, optic tectum, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, olfactory bulb, and many others.

However, I want to look at these in an individual point of view. There are three parts of the brain, the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. This I believe will be the basic connection to radically rethinking the brain in to a computational brain.

If we we look at the human brain there are three sections. If we look at the Basic form of the human brain you have the Shell (skull) and beneath that you have three thin layers of membranes called meninges. Within all that protection you have the human brain. The core of all existence. 

If we look at a computer you have the Shell (computer casing) then you have the core part of the computer called the Motherboard aka Baseboard. The Motherboard also has three sections. You have the microprocessor, memory and drive controllers. These are the main functions of the computer brain. Lets take a closer look at both the human brain and the computer brain.

What is the Forebrain?

In the human brain you have the forebrain. It consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The Forebrain is also known as the Cerebral Cortex.

Cerebral Cortex

Well the cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action.

The thalamus is a large, dual lobed mass of grey matter buried under the cerebral cortex. It is involved in sensory perception and regulation of motor functions.

The hypothalamus is a section of the brain responsible for hormone production. The hormones produced by this area of the brain govern body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleep, circadian rhythm, moods, sex drive, and the release of other hormones in the body.

These three are just in the Forebrain. Now if you have noted each part has certain functions that perform different tasks. Even though this part of the limbic system (which we will get into later) there are still many parts of the Human Brain not covered. However for now we will look at the cortex.

Now the Computer brain is the same if not very similar.

The Computer brain consist of the microprocessor, memory, and drive controllers. Lets take a look at each one.

The microprocessor  performs commands and instructions and controls the operation of the computer. 

The memory or the RAM in your system is mounted on the motherboard. This is memory that must be powered on to retain its contents.

The drive controllers control the interface of your system to your hard drives. The controllers let your hard drives work by controlling their operation. On most systems, they are included on the motherboard, however you may add additional controllers for faster or other types of drives.

The cerebrum and the microprocessor are close to being the same. This shows that both components bring actions to both systems. The human brain and the computer brain systems.

The thalamus and the RAM (memory) both control the motor skills. Both within the human brain and the computer brain systems. The Thalamus receives numerous inputs most of our 5 senses. Once the thalamus receives them it is sent through the synapses, then directed to the relevant cortical area. This is a good example, If you see a dog. You only see a visual shape. However the input of that shape is sent to the thalamus and then it is processed through cortical areas until the output is achieved. We then know its shape corresponds to a dog. Even if we was to lose all memory of how to say the word dog. It is still imbedded in our brain as a file. This is critical in cases with patients with Alzheimer's. Some patients with Alzheimer's forget certain memories for years. Patients remember because of a file embedded in their brain. This is why Alzheimer's Patients will be given objects to help them remember. Some patients will remember for a short time, then others will forget after remembering. A good example with this scenario is the movie "The Notebook".

This is the same way the Ram of a computer works. Even though its a storage and retrieval system. It still has to process numerous inputs to gain the output. This is very similar to the De Morgan Law. Our brain does all these processes to gain an output. Just like a computer has to have a process system. These systems are often, if not always noted to be the same as Neural Networks. A Neural Network  consists of a group neurons to carry out the processes. Just like the brain has a group of neurons to carry out the processes so that we can enjoy our every day life.

Hypothalamus with Pituitary Gland

The hypothalamus and drive controllers both control the equivalence of emotions, as in Hormones. Not to say that computers have hormones (atleast at times we think they are hormonal.... pun intended if you got that one. If not think about what you want a computer to do. then it does not do it, but to make you frustrated.) However the computational hormones or emotions would be equivalent to the computer going into hibernation or sleep mode. e.g., " When a woman goes through monthly changes her hormones kick in. Just as a computer theoretically goes through weekly, monthly or quarterly updates. Its computer hormones kicks in, theoretically speaking. " This is the equivalence of the basic emotional output of the two. the Example may not be point blank on, but it gets the point across.

So in the two separate systems we see how the cerebrum and the motherboard have the same parts of both brains in common. So we can look at the Computational Sequences and the Human Brain as one in the same. This is just a small representational view of the two in comparison.

In the next article we will talk about how the midbrain and the Operating System coincide to balance the systems.

*****Note From The Author*****

I want to thank all my readers for supporting my research and content. I have studied several years on Artificial Intelligence. I also write short stories as well as Novels. This is the first post on Vocal. I hope that Vocal will be a source for new readers. I thank you all and happy reading.

artificial intelligence

About the author

Ian Massey

Ian Massey is a Southern Gentleman from Huntsville, Alabama. He has written numerous poems, short stories and essays. In his free time to hone his skills. When he is not writing his materials. You can find him out exploring new areas.

Reader insights

Be the first to share your insights about this piece.

How does it work?

Add your insights

Comments

There are no comments for this story

Be the first to respond and start the conversation.

Sign in to comment

    Find us on social media

    Miscellaneous links

    • Explore
    • Contact
    • Privacy Policy
    • Terms of Use
    • Support

    © 2022 Creatd, Inc. All Rights Reserved.