If you do not sit in a boat, you can hardly feel the flow of the lake. The lake reflects the sky and clouds, and the sky looks like a mirror.
Baiyangdian is one of the few lakes on the North China Plain, and is known as the South of the North and the Pearl of North China. It is a famous fish and rice town in the north, as early as in the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, the university scholar Sun Tingquan left a poem: "The breeze is moving the new lotus, the snow is chopping silver scales into the city. Ten miles of smoky embankments turn into willow waves, and several thatched houses hang fish straws." This is a typical painting of the fishing village in the water. I came in early spring or February, just after the sting, although there is a breeze, but no new lotus willow waves, that should be the scenery of Baiyangdian spring and summer. But the Baiyangdian fishermen have long been eager to try, they held a long winter, the beginning of spring rolled up their sleeves, revealing the bulging tendons.
Shao Xiaobei, a professional fisherman who makes his living by fishing, is a man who has been through the waves and has seen the world, exuding an aura of the vicissitudes of the jungle. Shao Zhuangzi village is a typical village in the precipice, the village is surrounded by water on all sides, like a flat boat in the ocean. In the past, the village here to get out of the village all by rowing. When it comes to driving a boat, this man looks quite cow, laughing that he is the old captain of Baiyangdian, but is not old, he just into the 50 it. I listened to his speech, feeling quite cultured, but he laughed bitterly: "Hey, I did not even graduate from elementary school!"
Fish is his childhood to resist the temptation, he grew up to develop a masterpiece - unarmed touch fish. It was the 1970s, the water in the precipitation was still clear, and there were so many fish that they jumped up by themselves. On the way to school, when he saw fish jumping in the water, he jumped into the precipitation with his shoes off. Baiyangdian fish spirit, fishermen have to be more spiritual than the fish, once caught the opportunity to quickly dive, hand, catch the fish, this series of actions have to be fast, in one go. The most wonderful is to catch the moment of the fish, "clatter" a sound, that feeling, ah, really can not say how excited, how pleasant. For the wonderful fun of touching fish, this brainy, agile teenager has delayed school time and again, so that did not finish elementary school.
Once he got out of school, he felt like he had the whole world at his fingertips. At that time, he did not know how big the world was, he felt that the world is Baiyangdian. A large Baiyangdian, there are so many fish and shrimp, he is still worried about living in this world?
Since childhood, he has learned various fishing techniques, but he has not had time to show his skills, watching the Baiyangdian shrink day by day. Autumn, originally the most fertile season for fish, Baiyangdian is like an autumn leaf withered in advance. Those fishermen are afraid to look at this large swamp, is this still the Baiyangdian they are familiar with? Most of the waters are so dry that the bottom is exposed, leaving only a few small puddles of water. The last wisp of turbid water gave off a strong muddy smell.
Shao Xiaobei remembers clearly that since 1983, Baiyangdian dried up year after year, and many fishermen had to turn to Bohai Bay to fish.
Baiyangdian people struggled until 1988, when a heavy rain finally came. It was a very rare heavy rain in the Baiyangdian basin, and it rained for several days and nights in a row, and finally a dead Baiyangdian was awakened by the rain. The water came, the fish also followed back, Shao Xiaobei and the villagers can finally play fish again at home. But they soon found that the fish were not caught, some of the fry had not yet had time to grow up to catch away. In 1990, Baiyangdian began to implement water contracting, which is also a turnaround in the modernization process, fishermen from the traditional natural fishing to large-scale farming. Over the next few decades, Baiyangdian was surrounded by dykes and dikes, and fish were raised in ponds, fences, nets and fish ponds of all sizes, dividing the water like a maze. As the scale of fish farming became larger and larger, the ecological carrying capacity of Baiyangdian was far exceeded, and the residual bait and excrement produced a lot of silt at the bottom of the water, coupled with the untreated sewage from the villages and some factories, the water quality of Baiyangdian was once reduced to poor V. This is a very poor water quality.
When human use of nature to the extreme, there is bound to be a lose-lose result. Those fish and shrimp are more sensitive than humans, once there is serious pollution, fish, shrimp, lake and crab will die on a large scale, many farmers lost their money.
Over the years, Baiyangdian has been facing three major crises, one is the resource water crisis, facing a serious situation of dry water shortage; second is the water quality crisis, due to the precipitation area pollution for a long time, the vicious circle, must be scraped like treatment; third is the precipitation area siltation implied by the flood control crisis.
On April 1, 2017, another spring descended on the devastated Baiyangdian, and a new national-level district, Xiong'an New District, was born on the shores of Baiyangdian. The most important ecological water body of this future city, which carries a thousand-year plan, is Baiyangdian. In addition to the 300 square kilometers of precipitation, Baiyangdian has large wetlands, which are the "kidneys of North China" that guard the balance of the North China ecosystem, and are also the climate regulator and air purifier of the Jizhong Plain. In the driest and hottest seasons, the moisture-filled Baiyangdian brings a burst of moisture and coolness to the 800-mile Pingchuan River. However, with the reduction of water area and water pollution, this pearl of North China set in the eastern foothills of the Taihang Mountains and the middle of the Jizhong Plain has long lost its color. The first step in a thousand-year plan is to carry out a comprehensive ecological management of Baiyangdian.
The Xiongnu New Area has placed an overriding emphasis on the ecological management and restoration of Baiyangdian, and the first order of business is to give its thin body a transfusion of blood. Since the establishment of the New Area, the Baiyangdian has been recharged five times with the "Yellow River into Ji" project, and the daily average water level and water area of the Baiyangdian have reached a new high in recent years.
This clean water is not easy to come by and must not be polluted again. For this reason, the Xiongnu New Area has launched a three-pronged project of ecological dredging, source control and pollution interception, and "100 precipitates connected". When our boat is driving in Baiyangdian, those dredging boats are operating in the way of environmental protection winnowing, stirring and cutting the silt under the water by winnowing cage scrapers, and then sucking it up by mud pump to the designated location. All the dredged areas are subject to natural restoration, one is to plant aquatic plants, and the other is to increase and release snails, lake mussels and benthic fish, so that the ecosystem can be repaired faster and healthier naturally. When the polluted sediment is cleared away, we need to remove the dikes and water blocking points, dredge the natural channels of water flow, and restore the connectivity of the sediment waters, so that a healthy Baiyangdian can return.
The source of Baiyangdian pollution is not only in the water, but also in the surrounding shoreline land. In the internal source of treatment at the same time, the external source to take measures to control the source of pollution, the surrounding rural environment for comprehensive improvement. Just Shao Zhuangzi village, and now, the village will be integrated into the domestic sewage network, each village has a small sewage treatment plant, sewage treatment will not be discharged directly into the river precipitation, but for ecological garden water. In the past, villagers casually dumped garbage at the edge of the precipitation, but now the garbage of each household is collected by the village, and the daily production is cleaned up and centralized for harmless treatment. To solve the problem of difficult access to toilets, the village now has additional public toilets, some of which are recycled ecological toilets, and the sewage treatment can be recycled after reaching the standard. All polluting industries have been withdrawn. After several years of treatment, Shao Zhuangzi village and Baiyangdian basin all the water fishing village, completely changed the dirty environment, a new, modern and beautiful environment of the new countryside.
With the increase of Baiyangdian water, the water expanded, but also to build a firm Baiyangdian flood control system. Baiyangdian is the most important flood storage area in the Qinghai River system, and is the last flood control line in the middle and lower reaches of the Qinghai River system, guarding the lives and property of Xiongan New Area and the 10 million people downstream. Baiyangdian is a lake basin shaped like a shallow dish, its most typical feature is that when the water is little, the sky is dry and the earth is dry, and when there is more water, it is flooded. Now, in the Baiyangdian export of Zaolin Zhuang built a regulatory water conservancy hub, water storage, dry period call, once the Baiyangdian reached the flood level can raise the gate to release flood water.
This series of initiatives, for Baiyangdian is a desperate rescue, Baiyangdian ecological environment and water quality has undergone historic changes, the overall water quality in 2021 has been fully upgraded from the original poor V to more than Ⅲ standard, the first time into the ranks of the country's good lakes. An eclipsed pearl of northern China is back to shine, and the beauty of the northern Jiangnan is back. It looks like this northern swamp is much smoother than the 800-mile Dongting in my hometown, and the rippling waves are as smooth as satin. A boat, a boat people, together with the clear reflection, like in the transparent air fluttering yet. The fish in the water, one after another, jumping up from the half-open, half-hidden waves, look at the freshness of the spirit! There are more fish, and many birds that have disappeared for a long time have flown in. Great swans, great bustards, gray cranes, herons, bean geese, bone-headed chickens, crested wheatears, blue-headed ducks, there are more than 200 kinds of wild birds inhabiting Baiyangdian.
Ecology and survival have always been a long game between man and nature. Once, humans sacrificed ecology for survival, and now, I am especially worried that human survival will be sacrificed for ecology.
A national new area has put Baiyangdian at the crossroads of history and the future. How can we protect the survival and interests of each and every citizen in this millennium plan? How can this city of the future meet the people's expectations for a better life? At the beginning, the villagers of Baiyangdian felt sudden and bewildered by this new district, but also full of good expectations. In the next few years, the changes were so fast that they were overwhelmed. The first change was that the local government issued a "clean fishing order" banning aquaculture in Baiyangdian, bringing an end to decades of aquaculture history. Then, the Xiongnu New Area drew a clear red line around Baiyangdian, prohibiting all villages, farmlands and businesses from discharging water into Baiyangdian.
For Baiyangdian people, this is indeed a painful transition. Can Shao Xiaobei, a professional fisherman who has relied on water for generations, continue to make a living by fishing? In response, the local government has designed a humane system from the beginning. While implementing the fishing moratorium and fishing license system, fishermen who have obtained fishing licenses can use fishing nets that meet the regulations to engage in fishing during the non-fishing moratorium period. At the same time, the government releases fish fry into the sediment every spring. This gives the fish space to recuperate, unlike in the past, when they were caught before they grew up. Seeing that the fish and shrimp in Baiyangdian are getting bigger and bigger, the fishermen have reduced the fishing time by a few months, but the amount of fishing and the actual benefits have increased.
In order to protect the water quality of Baiyangdian, those diesel motor boats were also eliminated by the government, but fishermen can apply for small loans for the implementation of clean energy transformation of the ship. 2017 spring, Shao Xiaobei bought a 6.8-meter-long electric boat, in addition to their own fishing, sometimes also pull a few tourists in Baiyangdian leisure fishing. In the past few years, Baiyangdian sky blue, water green, that "water will be nine streams, lotus open ten miles" the scenery is back, more and more tourists year by year, a dependence on water to eat water fishermen and sprouted a new way to eat.
Every morning at 5 o'clock, Shao Xiaobei woke up, the fish also woke up, the morning fish is the freshest. When the boat sails into the center of the precipitation, the sun is rising from the Baiyangdian, the sun is so bright, illuminating the distant water and skyline, a fisherman's figure is so athletic and shiny. He stood on the bow of the boat and threw the fishing net into the distance, and with a "clatter", the net opened up in the sunlight and slowly sank into the depths of the sediment. He held his breath and waited quietly. Suddenly, he yanked, mentioned, and again "clatter" a sound, the net was retrieved by him to the deck, the net is still jumping around. The net was still jumping around. It opened up, and a fish that was alive and kicking came out. This is just an ordinary fishing, but this fisherman really unusual, he took a selfie of the whole process, through the webcast to attract tourists. He shook the fishing net, pointing to a shiny, oily yellow, still crunching fish said: "Look, this is the fish, some places called yellow horned ding, this fish is very high requirements for water quality. Before the precipitation water quality is poor, for many years can not see this guy's trace, these two years appeared again, and now many in the precipitation disappeared in the wild fish back!"
Shao Xiaobei from 2018 began to dry fast live to fishing with tourism, he gave himself a screen name - the old captain of Baiyangdian. Do not look at his elementary school did not graduate, but really a fisherman with a brain, these years he learned a lot of knowledge while doing, no wonder when I saw him I felt he was knowledgeable, quite literate. A person has a culture is like a new person, the eyes open up, the ideas are also alive. Now, his eyes are not only focused on a few fish, but also found that Baiyangdian has too many things. For example, the reeds in Cai Pu Terrace, "There are reeds everywhere, and people and reeds are so tightly combined. People seem to be parasitic birds in the reeds, and they keep going in and out of the reeds all day long". The lotus leaves are spreading out in the sunlight. This is the scenery described by Mr. Sun Li, a fisherman who did not graduate from elementary school can now live in the scene with a taste, the rich Baiyangdian accent, there is a special flavor. Baiyangdian has both beautiful natural scenery and many humanistic monuments, or a red lake dyed red with the blood of countless martyrs, the Yan Ling team, known as the "flying generals on the water", the little soldier Zhang Ga, full of wit, in the reeds of this interpretation of a heart-wrenching, fascinating story, which is inexhaustible Tourism resources.
With the natural scenery, history and culture, red classics and folk customs of Baiyangdian, Shao Xiaobei has been able to attract more and more tourists by broadcasting live on the Internet in the simple style of a professional fisherman. His boat is getting bigger and bigger, and his house is getting better and better. When he first got married, he was living in a flat roofed house of 50 square meters built by his parents, and it was difficult for a large family to turn around. Now, he has built a two-story fisherman's compound and opened a bed and breakfast and a fisherman's house. The two of them are one main outside and one main inside. Tourists have fun on board, Shao Xiaobei and bring them home to eat and live, the two families are like treating relatives generally warm and thoughtful. When they leave, tourists also take away now catching now fishing, cheaper than the market price of pure wild fish. Such a warm and thoughtful and inexpensive service, who would not want to come? Come once also want to come twice, three times it. This allows Shao Xiaobei retained many repeat customers, income is higher every year. 2021, his family of three annual income of 170,000 to 80,000 yuan, which is his previous income by simply fishing two or three times.
Shao Xiaobei for Shao Zhuangzi village fishermen broke out a way of life, now, the village like him to do live, fishing with tourism more than 20 people, more than 100 people open boats, many people opened a bed and breakfast and fishing family music. Baiyangdian people fishing skills are first-class, cooking fish feast cooking is also first-class. Chen Aijun is a chef who went out from Baiyangdian, and was awarded as a Chinese culinary master, known as the "King of Xiongnu", and he brought out more than 3,000 disciples, and opened fish restaurants and fish farms all over the country, and Baiyangdian's fish, Baiyangdian's fish feast, is a gold sign in the country, which should drive how many people to employment ah. I tasted the fish of Baiyangdian. I tasted the fresh fish stew in the Baiyangdian, good water to raise good fish, the fish just fished up from the precipitation lively, one raised fine skin and tender flesh, fresh and delicious. The fish was stewed in a large pot with dried reeds, and the fragrance of fresh fish stew was wafting out of the yard. Shao Xiaobei and busy on the side of the live broadcast: "This is the Baiyangdian fishing family, live water stewed live fish, the fresh ah, the fragrance, I can not say, welcome to come here to taste ah!
Baiyangdian is connected to the Baoding Prefecture, down to Tianjin, the hub of shipping and transport, and northward along the Qing River, and also from the mouth of the Haihe River in Tianjin to the sea. This is a "on the House under the guard" of the golden waterway, is also Baiyangdian people a living road, some people to fish for a living, there are people to sell fish as a business, now doing aquatic business Baiyangdian people have been all over the country, which should drive how many people employment?
Baiyangdian people live more and more taste. Shao Xiaobei is a live more and more taste of Baiyangdian fishermen, the beginning of spring this year, Baiyangdian more tourists than in previous years, he is planning to change a larger, more beautiful boat it. Looking at his excited face, I felt especially pleased. Xiongnu, a city of the future, is more than a vision, first to find a path from the present to the future, that is to explore a way of symbiosis between man and nature. The ecological environment has always been a complete ecosystem, a community of life, in which people and nature live in harmony. And now, Baiyangdian people have found a balance between survival and ecology after the pain of transformation. Now, the spring of Baiyangdian has come, "the spring color into the picture, the lively machine to understand the fish kite". This is a vibrant and colorful natural world, which is both a paradise for human longing and the growth of all things.
Shao Xiaobei sailed his boat to plow through the snow-white water waves, which were like bows with curved lines, and he shouted excitedly in the splashing wind and waves: "Baiyangdian, Baiyangdian, look, when the wind blows, the waves are just like the white ocean!