This is the beginning of the second half the semester notes for HSV 201 Introduction to Human Services, which is the name of the textbook that the material came. It is written as from a notebook that I studied. It is a series of definitions of terms and lists that the professor gave us in class. This study sheet article shows how diversity is shown in general through some statistics that were given by the professor.
*Culture- must be experienced in different ways of discrimination witnessed in life. Beliefs held respect/oppression.
We have to seek to understand their perspective in situations - show empathy of other culture. Do not force own values on culture to your clients. Their are many variations and diversities in a culture. Again, DO NOT STEREOTYPE!
*IN/OUT Groups ------ 'the homogenuity effect' the same grouped together negative feelings seen. In the 'IN' group you belong a part of / In the 'OUT' -if we don't belong - different from me. We want to be viewed unique from one another.
*Cultural Competence- fluency with cultures different from your own. Learn and research other cultures (ethnic, religious, racial) different root causes will be present. Will become a barrier (external) if don't do this. In 2050 in the United States 53% non-Latino Whites there will be significant changes in American culture and groups.
*Culture- is a group who share history, language, traditions, and networks. Share a worldview "melting pot" assimulated into the dominant culture; lose own distinct characteristics; "salad bowl" permitted to remain with cultural attributes. Distinctive and share attributes and cultures.
*ethnocentricism- stereotyping and prejudice; *stereotypes- beliefs that associates a whole group of people with only certain traits. positive and negative attributes. *prejudice-empower negative feelings have toward person's in a certain group. *discrimination- behaviors initiating against people of a certain group.
1. In a 'in' group versus an 'out' group a sense of belonging, identity in multiple ways (athlete or heritage). Do not feel membership; don't belong. 'Out' group - homogenity effect - there are similarities believe of out group similarities then your 'in' group. Why? a.) We don't notice subtle differences in our group not a lot of personal contact. Think of a group as a whole. People groups are different.
2. We tend not encounter a representative sample of an out-group. Will form an opinion on one person.
*confirmation bias- tendency search for information that will confirm what is true. Will encounter sub-types for exceptions. Will make assumptions in social culture.
*attributions- we explain explanations- causation for behaviors.
*situational- we explain as external environmental factors.
*dispositional/personal- internal effects - to self we tend to explain behavior that will support our beliefs are self-fulfilling prophecy- will be about what expectations will be done. (Example- "You're just like your father!" and repeating history in their present life of discrimination. Stereotypes will build concepts - mental short cuts used. Logical and useful guard against discrimination. How does this develop feelings of prejudice.
*Realistic conflict theory- limited resources lead to conflicts between groups. Leads to discrimination and prejudice. Increase rules- tense and conflicts exist over mutually exclusive goals. Can be handed down by families and modeled to younger generations.
*Robbers Cave Experiment- (Musulfla Chariff- researcher) Two summer camps for teenage boys with abusive interactions. 12 year old, well-adjusted and divided into two groups involved to develop group cohesiveness activities. Started to engage competitiveness between two positive reinforcement given hostility. Started to develop intensity. Increases- leader gives a party- tells each group to arrive at party at different times- some early and some late. The people who arrive early had good food and had fun. The people who arrive late received leftovers and they felt exploited and cheated and violent tendencies formed and accomplished. Could peace be brought back? To work on goals to achieve things with cooperation.
*superordinate goals- shared goals overrode their differences cooperative between them. isolation/competition = enemies; shared predicament/goals=reconciliation.
Prejudice by product of two groups for limited resources like money, power, status over scarce resources. Shows situational factors increases or decreases prejudice. Prejudice result inner group competition. Encourage cooperation works on super-ordinate goals.
Bring In and Out Groups together
1. establish a common goal
2. need to know equal status
3. requires informal personal contact
4. multiple contacts
5. on-going interactions
6. create social norms of equality
Sources of Prejudice
*Social Identity Theory- suggest people favor own group over others to maintain a favorable positive image of self; to promote self-esteem; improved when threatened will be more prejudiced towards others. The positive gains positive - expression in group favorites promotes self-esteem. 'In' group is better than 'out' group.
*modern racism- on the outside appears unprejudical. Inward we remain and keep our stereotypes.
*bi-cultural theory- influenced by minority and dominant culture. *minority- families - ethic community; dominate
U.S. social institutions; media allowed to associate with both participants.
*cultural pluralism- people of differing ethnicity can help own culture and common language and join in and have security.
*cultural sensitivity- aware and sensitive to the differences.
1. remember your views/behaviors based on erronous ideas information on dominate culture.
2. understand other cultures have unique perspectives be quite different from own.
3. create a welcoming environment- physical environment not exclusive bias to one just culture.
4. helping strategies to a must consideration of worldviews of your clients.
You must seek how client forms their ideas. Their personal constructs and how they fit with each other.
5. must be knowledgeable in different cultures - the similarities and differences - even saying "hello" in native language shows interests in them.
6. recognize that all humans have capacity of thought, feelings and behaviors. Focus on strengths of client. Clients know their weaknesses already.
*network theory- focused on restoring networks, strengthening family and friends - bring people that are close to the clients -- (AA, NA) sponsors - self help groups. Tell them to look for support in own neighborhoods, sports, religion. Effects- body language even your watching at your watch they will look at theirs- watch eye contact in certain cultures; leans to distractions of culture.
*institutional racism- beliefs and actions of large numbers of people who support of organizations and society norms built in institutions one belongs even if you are not racist. One race allows how much more leeway then others.
There is a great deal of variety in culture - do not generalize in dealing in groups and traits. United States cultural groups - W. Europe - Euro-centric culture - Whites from S. America does not want Hispanic/Latino/a appearances or do Asian-Americans or Disabled challenged persons.
Next article - People with Disabilities