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How long does it take to go to Mars?

Which planet is the best to go to?

By Robert JackPublished 2 years ago 4 min read

In the vast universe, the Earth is as small as dust, of course, mankind is not willing to stay on Earth, a few decades ago mankind has personally on the moon, the next step should be to go to a more distant planet sneak, to which planet is good?

Although the orbit of Venus is the closest to the Earth, the atmospheric pressure on the surface of Venus is 92 times higher than that of the Earth, and the temperature is close to 500 degrees Celsius, such a harsh natural environment, even human probes can not last long, let alone humans, so humans can only look at the Earth a little further away from the planet - - Mars. -Mars.

Among all the known rocky planets in the solar system, the most similar to the natural environment of the Earth is Mars, the probe data show that Mars also has an atmosphere, there are also four seasons a year, and even the rotation cycle is similar to the Earth.

Although the atmosphere of Mars is very thin and has almost no oxygen, the average surface temperature is also much lower than the Earth's, but under the protection of space suits, humans can still go for a walk around Mars. So if humans want to go to Mars, how long will it take? Let's first look at how far Mars is from Earth.

In the process of revolving around the sun, the distance between Mars and Earth is not fixed, the farthest distance is about 400 million kilometers, and the nearest is only about 55 million kilometers, so it is best for humans to land on Mars when it is closest to Earth, but this time is not common, about once every 26 months, which is also known as the "launch window This is also known as the "launch window".

In theory, the spacecraft along a straight line to Mars takes the shortest time, however, we all know that in the many probes launched by humans to Mars, none of them are flying in this way, that probe to Mars why not fly a straight line?

Simply put, the Earth has been revolving around the Sun at an average speed of about 29.8 km / s, and the spacecraft launched from the Earth, which itself has such a speed, which means that if the spacecraft wants to fly straight to Mars, it must be a huge power to "offset" the Earth's rotation speed, and "offset" the Earth's rotation speed, the spacecraft must use its power to directly combat the sun's gravity, in terms of the current human propulsion system, this simply can not be done.

We do not need to "offset" the Earth's rotation speed, after the spacecraft enters the near-Earth orbit, it only needs to add some extra speed to the Earth's rotation speed, and it can "lift" the apogee of its orbit to the Mars In this case, as long as the "advance" is calculated, the mission of flying from Earth to Mars can be completed.

There are currently three alternative routes to Mars, of which routes A, B, and C are called "Hohmann transfer orbit", "Fast joint mission" (Fast joint mission), and "Opposition mission" (Opposition mission).

Among these three routes, the "Opposition mission" requires the least energy, because it is a spacecraft that goes around Venus and uses its "gravitational slingshot" to accelerate itself, but it is also the most time-consuming, and it takes more than a year to fly to Mars on this route. It would take more than a year to fly to Mars, which is not suitable for manned flight.

The other two routes are also called "Earth-Fire Transfer Orbits", of which the "Homan Transfer Orbit" is the most fuel-efficient. However, this route also takes a longer time, about 250 days to reach Mars.

If the propulsion system of the spacecraft can provide higher speed increments, then it can be used for "fast coincidence navigation", and the greater the speed increment increase, the shorter the flight time to Mars. time to Mars is about 180 days.

If human beings want to go to Mars, they should try to shorten the time to Mars, so they should use "fast coincidence navigation", and with the current technology of human beings, chemical rockets are still the preferred propulsion system, and the specific impulse of chemical rockets can only reach 400 seconds at most, which means that the power that chemical rockets can provide is very limited. The specific impulse of chemical rockets can only reach 400 seconds at most, which means the power that chemical rockets can provide is very limited.

(Note: "Specific impulse" is a physical parameter to measure the efficiency of a rocket engine, which refers to the amount of impulse produced per unit of propellant, in seconds. (kg of propellant can continue to produce more than 400 seconds of the thrust of the size of 1 kg)

On this basis, it is also necessary to consider the relatively large payload of manned spacecraft, so scientists have given an estimate that, in terms of current human technology, it will take at least 200 days for a manned spacecraft to fly to Mars. As you can see, 200 days is still a very long time for humans, and this is an important reason why humans are slow to get to Mars themselves.

Science

About the Creator

Robert Jack

One of the secrets of emotional stability for adults is to keep the expectations of others to a minimum.

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    Robert JackWritten by Robert Jack

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