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I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.

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    Published 3 months ago
    Cassius Longinus

    Cassius Longinus

    Cassius Longinus was a political critic and a rhetorician. He may have been an Emesa of Syrian descent. He studied under Ammonius Saccas and Origen the Pagan at Alexandria, and taught thirty years in Athens, one of his pupils being Porphyri. Longinus did not follow the then-founded Neoplatonism of Plotinus, but he persisted in an old Platonist style and was huge in his prestige as a literary critic. He was a tutor during a mission to the West, and eventually chief advisor to Zenobia, Palmyra's queen. She attempted to recover her independence from Rome with his support. However Emperor Aurelian suppressed the revolt and executed Longinus. The root of his gentile name Cassius is unknown; it can only be conjectured that he was the client of some Cassius Longinus, or that his father, by the influence of some Cassius Longinus, inherited the Roman franchise. He was born at the age of 213, at 60, and killed at 273. The idea that his actual name was Dionysius has arose when a mediaeval "Dionysius or Longinus" was credited to the rhetorical treatise On the Sublime in the 1st century. His native location is uncertain; some say that Longinus was born in Palmyra and others claim that he was born in Syria or Emesan. The assumption that he was of Syrian descent is merely a reference to the fact that his mother was a Syriac lady, and to an obscure passage in Augusta's history from which it can be inferred that he may speak the Syriac. He may have been born in Athens, for the Suda says that when he died in Athens, Emesa's Front, Longinus 'brother, learned rhetoric, and left Longinus, his sister's son Frontonis, behind him. It would seem that Fronto was taking good care of his nephew's schooling and he made him his heir on his death-bed. In the preface to his work On Ends, which is retained in Plotinus 'History of Porphyry, Longinus himself relates that he made several journeys with his parents from his early age, that he visited several places, and got acquainted with all those who at the time enjoyed a great reputation as philosophers, including Ammonius Saccas, Origen the Pagan, Plotinus and Amelius. Longinus had long been a follower of the first two, but Longinus did not accept the Neoplatonism that was then founded by Ammonius and Plotinus, instead he persisted as an old-fashioned platonist. In his study of philosophy, Longinus had been deeply familiar with the works of Plato; and it is clear from the fragments which still survive, as well as from the remarks he made on some of Plato's dialogues, that he himself was a genuine Platonist. From his remarks, the few fragments that came to us indicate that he was free from the allegorical myths that his contemporaries believed to have found the ancient wisdom. His statements not only clarified Plato's subject matter but also his language and grammar. Longinus maintained the assumption that the Platonic ideals resided beyond the sacred Nous, in contrast to Plotinus. Upon reading his treatise On First Principles, Plotinus noticed that Longinus might be a scholar but was not a philosopher. He returned to Athens after Longinus had learned what he could from Ammonius at Alexandria and the other philosophers he met during his journeys. There he devoted himself to instructing his many pupils with so much enthusiasm that he had hardly any time left to learn. Among his most esteemed pupils was Porphyry. Longinus seems to have lectured in Athens on philosophy and criticism, as well as on rhetoric and grammar, and his knowledge was so broad that Eunapius considers him a living library and a walking museum. His critical ability was the force for which Longinus was most esteemed, which was also so great that the term to judge as Longinus synonymized with right judgement.
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    Carneades

    Carneades

    Carneades was a sceptic scholar, born in Cyrene. By the year 159 BC he had begun rejecting all previous dogmatic doctrines, particularly Stoicism, and even the Epicureans who had been rescued by previous sceptics. In 155 BC he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome as president of the Academy, where his lectures on the philosophy of justice generated consternation among leading politicians. He left no writings and Clitomachus, his friend, knows only the bulk of his views. He seems to have questioned the right to learn reality not only from the senses, but also from meaning. Nevertheless, his optimism was moderated by the expectation that we should always determine the possibility of the facts in order to allow us to work and behave correctly. Carneades, son of Philocomiis or Epicomus, was born in the year 214 BC in Cyrene, North Africa. He returned to Greece early, attended lectures on Stoics, and learned their philosophy from Diogenes. He studied Chrysippus's works, and in their refutation exerted his strength of a very acute and original intellect. He attached himself to the Academy that had suffered from the Stoics' 'errors; 'and after Hegesinus's entrance, he was selected to preside over the Academy's meetings, and became Arcesilaus's fourth replacement. His remarkable eloquence and capacity to reason rekindled his school's glories; and, safeguarding himself in the degrading role of claiming nothing, fought a constant battle against every position occupied by other sects. He was chosen to go to Rome as ambassador with Diogenes the Stoic and Critolaus the Peripatetic in the year 155 BC, at the age of fifty-eight, to deprecate the fine of 500 talents that had been levied on the Athenians for Oropus 'defeat. His eloquent lectures on metaphysical subjects received considerable interest during his stay in Rome and it was here, in the company of Cato the Younger, that he gave his various orations on justice. The first oration was in commendation of the principles of Roman law, and the second was delivered the next day, refuting all the claims he had made on the first as he persuasively tried to show that justice was not difficult, and not a guarantee when it came to religion, but rather a rational method that was considered necessary to preserve a well-ordered society. Recognizing the argument's intrinsic risk, Cato was stunned and forced the Roman Senate to send the scholar to his school, prohibiting Roman youth from submitting to the possibility of re-examining all Roman doctrines. Twenty-seven years after living at Athens in this Carneades. Nicomedia's Polemarchus replaced Carneades but he died in Crates of Tarsus 131 BC and he replaced him. Carneades had died at the age of 85 in 129 BC. Clitomachus was president of the Academy upon the death of Crates of Tarsus in 126 BC. Carneades is described as industrially unwearied man. He was so enthralled in his studies that he let his hair and nails grow to an immoderate degree and was so absent at his own table that his waitress and concubine, Melissa, continually forced him to serve him. The Latin writer and historian Valerius Maximus, to whom we owe the last anecdote, tells us that Carneades used to get rid of himself with hellebore before talking to Chrysippus, to get a better understanding. In his old age, he suffered from cataract in his life, which he faced with a great deal of impatience, and was a little resigned to the extinction of humanity, as he used to secretly wonder if that was the way Nature undid what it had done, and even had an impulse to kill itself. Carneades is considered a critical academic. Academic sceptics believe that all knowledge is unlikely, despite the presumption that no other theory is questionable.
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    Aristarchus of Samos

    Aristarchus of Samos

    Samos' Aristarchus was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who developed the first known heliocentric model that put the Sun at the centre of the observable universe, where the Earth orbits. He was inspired by Croton's Philolaus but Aristarchus bound the central fire to the Sun and placed the Earth's other planets in their proper order of magnitude. Like before him, Anaxagoras believed that the planets were all other objects like the Moon, just further from Earth. His mathematical theories were also rejected, in favour of Aristotle and Ptolemy's geocentric doctrines. Nicolaus Copernicus had ascribed Aristarchus to the heliocentric principle. The original text was lost but a reference in Archimedes 'book The Sand Reckoner discusses a paper in which he promoted the heliocentric theory as an antidote to geocentrism. Aristarchus assumed that the stars were in fact very distant suns, and that in turn there was no visible parallax, that is, a small shift of stars to one another as the Moon passes around the Sun. Because stellar parallax can be observed only by telescopes, the exact prediction at the time was unproven. There is a popular misconception that the heliocentric dream was considered sacrilegious by Aristarchus 'contemporaries. Lucio Russo contrasts this with the printing by Gilles Ménage of a passage from Plutarch's On the Obvious Eye in the Sphere of the Moon in which Aristarchus jokes with Cleanthes, who is the Stoic king, a sun-worshipper and opposed to heliocentrism. In Plutarch's document book Aristarchus states that impiety on Cleanthes should be levied. The translation of Ménage, written soon after the Galileo and Giordano Bruno incidents, transposes an accusative and nominative, so that it is Aristarchus who is considered ungodly. The anger arising from an frustrated and hated Aristarchus still reveals itself today. According to Plutarch, while Aristarchus postulated heliocentrism as a theory only, Seleucus of Seleucia, a Hellenistic astronomer who lived one hundred years after Aristarchus, preserved it as a definite concept and gave evidence of it but no full documentation was found. In his Naturalis History Pliny the Elder later questioned if mistakes may be attributed to the planet's removal from its dominant role in the world's predictions. Pliny and Seneca pointed to other planets 'retrograde motion as an apparent phenomenon, which is more an example of heliocentrism than geocentrism. Nevertheless, no celestial parallax was observed, and in the Middle Ages Plato, Aristotle, and Ptolemy favoured the geocentric form. Copernicus resurrected the heliocentric hypothesis, in which Johannes Kepler more precisely described planetary movements with his three laws. Further on Isaac Newton obtained a scientific description based on the gravitational force and mechanics principles. Aristarchus concluded that the planets revolved around the sun after discovering that the earth was much larger than the surface, unlike the other stars. The only known extant work commonly credited to Aristarchus is based on a geocentric understanding of the world, The Dimensions and Distances of the Sun and Moon. Historically, it has been interpreted as meaning that the angle subtended by the diameter of the Sun is two degrees, but in The Sand Reckoner, Archimedes notes that Aristarchus had a value of half degree, quite similar to the real average value of 0.53. The incoherence may be attributable to a misinterpretation of what unit of measure in Aristarchus 'text was meant by a certain Greek word. Aristarchus said the angle was 87 degrees, at half term, between the Sun and the Moon. It is also understood that Aristarchus has acquired light and vision. Astronomers up to and including Tycho Brahe, c used the apparent false solar parallax up to three degrees. 1600 E.C. Aristarchus pointed out that the Moon and the Sun have about identical geometric proportions, and their diameters would be proportional to their distances from the Earth; hence, the diameter of the Sun was determined to be between 18 and 20 times the diameter of the Moon.
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    Alexander of Aphrodisias

    Alexander of Aphrodisias

    Alexander of Aphrodisiah was a Peripatetic scholar on Aristotle's plays, and one of the Ancient Greeks' most celebrated authors. He was originally from Aphrodisiah in Caria, and at the beginning of the 3rd century he lived and taught in Athens, where he retained a position as the head of the Peripatetic Academy. He has written more remarks on Aristotle's works, and there are others on Prior Analytics, Concepts, Meteorology, Meaning and Sensibilia, and Metaphysics. However, numerous original treatises survive, including On Life, in which he speaks about the necessity of the Stoic doctrine; and On the Spirit. His remarks on Aristotle were considered so prominent that the author was called by means of pre-eminence. Alexander arrived from Aphrodisiah in Caria, and settled at Athens in the late 2nd century. He was a pupil of the two philosophers Sosigenes and Herminus, Stoic or maybe Peripatetic, and also Aristotle of Mytilene. He was founder of the peripatetic school in Athens, and lectured on peripatetic theory. Alexander's dedication of On Fate to Septimius Severus and Caracalla, in appreciation of his position at Athens, suggests a date from 198-209. A newly published Aphrodisiah inscription indicates he was the master of one of the Athens Schools and is giving his full name as Titus Aurelius Alexander. His complete nomenclature indicates that when asiatic proconsul, Emperor Antoninus Pius presumably granted his grandfather or another ancestor Roman citizenship. The inscription honours its author, also named philosopher Alexander. This fact makes it possible for his father to be ascribed to one of the dubious plays that are part of Alexander's corpus. Alexander made several observations on Aristotle's works, in which he sought to combat a syncretistic impulse to revive Aristotle's original doctrines. Simplicius of Cilicia cites that Alexander wrote on the square of the lunes, and the subsequent squaring of the circle problem. By April 2007, imagery analysis had uncovered an early commentary on Aristotle's Definitions in the Archimedes Palimpsest, and Robert Sharples suggested Alexander as the most likely source. On the Soul is a treatise on the soul composed in its own De anima, along the lines proposed by Aristotle. Alexander believes that man's undeveloped substance is blood, which is inseparable from the flesh. He had fiercely struggled for the redemption doctrine of the soul. He related the active intellect to Nature, in whose influence the possible intelligence in man is actual. A second book is entitled On-the-Soul Compliment. The Mantissa is a collection of twenty-five different parts, the five openings of which deal specifically with psychology. The remaining twenty pieces deal with the problems of science and ethics, the majority dealing with the ideas of perception and salvation and the last four concerned with nature and providence. Alexander has definitely not written the Mantissa in its current form, though most of the original content may be his. In Arabic the Laws of Design are retained. This treatise is not mentioned in surviving Greek texts but has enjoyed considerable success in the Muslim world and has survived a substantial number of copies. The key aim of this work is to provide a general account of Aristotelian cosmology and metaphysics, but it also has a polemical tone that can be oriented within the Peripatetic School against contrary viewpoints. Alexander was obsessed with protecting the inconsistencies in the Aristotelian system and smoothing out the differences, while providing a clear physical and ethical worldview. The issues raised are the essence of celestial motions, and the relationship of generation and decay between the unchangeable celestial system and the sublunar universe. Philosophy, metaphysics, and the Pseudo-Aristotelian On The Cosmos are the main forces.
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    Aeschines of Sphettus

    Aeschines of Sphettus

    Aeschines of Sphettus or Aeschines Socraticuswas the son of Lysanias of the Sphettus deme of Athens as well as a philosopher who was a follower of Socrates’ teachings during his youth. Historians name him Aeschines Socraticus to differentiate him from what is sometimes considered to be Aeschines, the historically more prominent Athenian orator. Still his name is written but now only as Aischines or Schines. According to Plato, Sphettus Aeschines had been present at the trial and execution of Socrates. We know Aeschines went on to write philosophical dialogues after Socrates 'death, much as Plato did, of which Socrates was the main author. While Aeschines 'dialogues survived only as quotes and quotes from later authors, he was known for his authentic depiction of ancient Socratic conversations. According to John Burnet, the style of Aeschines 'portrayal of Socratic Dialog was closer to Plato's than that of Xenophon. Many contemporary scholars claim that the works of Xenophon are almost entirely influenced by Plato's and the influence of other Socratics, such as Antisthenes and Hermogenes. On the other hand, there is no rational reason for assuming that Aeschines 'writings did not base it completely on personal observations of Socrates' own. Seven Socratic Dialogs unified Aeschines. We have the most details about the Alcibiades and Aspasia, and only a few others, above everyone. Few contemporary historians view Aeschines as having written other plays. Publius Aelius Aristides, the elegant 2nd century Essay, lengthy quotes from the Alicibiades containing the largest remaining piece of written literature for the Aeschines. Just before the First World War, Arthur Hunt retrieved from Oxyrhynchus a papyrus containing from this dialogue a long, fragmentary passage that had been missing since ancient times. In dialogue with a young, naive Alcibiades, Socrates talks to Themistocles and suggests that Alcibiades is unfit for a career in politics because he has neglected to take care of himself in such a way as to avoid feeling that he understands the most important things better than he really does. Socrates continues to contend in favour of the theory that success is directly proportional to knowledge, while knowledge may not be sufficient for total achievement, rather than relying entirely on knowledge-independent chance or divine dispensation. Socrates 'claims lead the normally cocky Alcibiades to weep with humiliation and sorrow, a finding that Plato himself at the Symposium attests to. Socrates claims he will only advise him if he values Alcibiades and nurtures in him a ability to learn wisdom, while Socrates has little experience of his own to teach. In his short Biography of Aeschines, Diogenes Laërtius states that Aeschines, having fallen into desperate financial straits, went to the Dionysius Younger Court of Syracuse, and only returned to Athens after Dionysius was deposed. If that's right, Aeschines would have lasted at least until 356, which would mean he actually died of old age in Athens, because at the time of Socrates 'trial in 399 he was not under 18. He is also known to have practised rhetoric for litigants, and to have developed cases. Athenaeus cites a line from a lost speech of appeal, supported by Lysias, Against Aeschines, in which Aeschines 'adversary chastens him for incurring a debt while employed as a perfume merchant and not paying it off, a turn of shocking events, the speaker says, given that Aeschines was Socrates' pupil and that they both cared too much of good and right. In general, among other statements, Aeschines is defined as a voice sophist. They infer that for reasons not made clear in Athenaeus 'quote, the disputed case was one brought by Aeschines himself against the lender.
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    Epictetus

    Epictetus

    Epictetus was a Greek-Stoicist philosopher. He was born a slave in Hierapolis, Phrygia, and lived in Rome until he was banished when he spent the remainder of his life in Nicopolis, in northwest Greece. His teachings have been written in his Discourses and Enchiridion, and published by Arrian, his pupil. Epictetus taught that philosophy is a way of life rather than a theoretical subject. To Epictetus, everything outside is beyond our control; whatever happens, we should accept it with peace and dispassion. Therefore individuals are responsible for their own actions, which can be investigated and governed through strict self-discipline. Epictetus came in ca. Phrygia, at Hierapolis, possibly 55 A.D. His parents 'name is unknown; in Greek the word epíktetos literally means acquired or obtained; in his laws the Greek philosopher Plato uses the term as a property added to his inherited wealth. He spent his days in Rome as a slave to Nero, a rich freedman and secretary to Epaphroditos. Early in life, Epictetus developed a passion for philosophy, and with the permission of his wealthy family, he studied Stoic philosophy under Musonius Rufus, which enabled him to become more respectable as he became more educated. He was helpless anyhow. Origen said his master broke his leg, purposely. From childhood, Simplicius said that he was lame. Epictetus earned his liberty sometime after Nero's death in 68 A.D. and he began teaching philosophy in Rome. Circa A.D. 93. Emperor Domitian expelled all philosophers from the region, and Epictetus went to Nicopolis in Epirus, Greece, where he founded a philosophy school. The writings of Epictetus aren't known. His speeches have been transcribed, and compiled, by his pupil Arrian. The main work is The Discourses, from which four books were kept. Arrian also compiled a popular digest, or Handbook, called the Enchiridion. In a preface to the Discourses addressed to Lucius Gellius, Arrian states that whatever I hear him say, for my own future use, I used to compose, word by word, as best I could, trying to retain it as a memorial of his way of thought and the frankness of his speech. Epictetus maintains that knowledge of oneself is the source of all philosophy, that is, the conviction of our ignorance and gullibility should be the primary objective of our study. Logic provides sound logic and confidence of judgement but is secondary to practical needs. For example, the first and most important element of philosophy relates to the implementation of the idea that people are not dishonest. The second is for reasons, why people shouldn't lie, for example. Though lastly the third examines the theories and points them out. This is the logical component that seeks reasons, demonstrates what a rationale is, and that the reason given is a valid one. This last part is important, but only because of the second part, which will again necessitate the first. Epictetus informs us that there are common preconceptions regarding good and bad. Better is good and desirable by itself and evil is hurtful and must be avoided. Different views emerge only through applying these preconceptions to specific circumstances, and then it is important to dispel the darkness of ignorance which blindly upholds the validity of one's own belief. Individuals have various and conflicting views of good and often individuals contradict each other in their estimation of a particular good. Philosophy should set the tone for good and evil alike. This cycle is greatly encouraged because the functions of mind and mind are solely under our influence, while all the external objects which support life are beyond our control. The essence of divinity is goodness; we have all the joy we could bring. The deities, too, have given us the soul and intention, which is not measured by width or depth, but by consciousness and feelings, and through which we may attain excellence, and even be equal with the deities.