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I am a thrill seeker and am always in the lookout for great trails and peaks that offer breathtaking views. Traveling is a passion and I am grateful to have wandered for so long and meet some amazing people along the way.

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    Dio Chrysostom

    Dio Chrysostom

    Diogene was a Greek philosopher, and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy, also known as Diogenes the Cynic. He was born in 412 or 404 BC in Sinope, an Ionian settlement on the Black Sea, and died in Corinth, in 323 BC. Diogenes had been a controversial figure. His father minted coins for a living, and when he took to currency debasement, Diogenes was exiled from Sinope. He returned to Athens after being expelled and refused some of the region's traditional practises. In the case of Heracles he modelled himself and assumed that goodness was seen more in fact than in philosophy. He used his simplistic lifestyle and actions in condemning what he perceived as a crooked, dysfunctional culture, and its societal ideals and institutions. Whenever he could, he had a reputation for sleeping and eating in a very untraditional way and he kept himself toughened against nature. He declared himself a cosmopolitan and a citizen of the world, rather than only declaring allegiance to one position. There are some tales about the feet about his doggy Antisthenes, and being his loyal hound. The search for an honest man, preserved by Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione at the National Gallery of Art. Diogenes found Misery a virtue. He pleaded for life, and mostly slept on the marketplace in a large ceramic pot, or pithos. He became known in metaphysics for his tricks, including holding a lamp during the day pretending to be after an honest man. He mocked Plato, challenged his Socrates understanding, and sabotaged his teachings, frequently disrupting the crowd by eating and drinking in the debates. Diogenes was also known for attacking Alexander the Great during his visit to Corinth in 336 BC, both in public and in his head. Diogenes was captured and sold into slavery by pirates, and finally settled in Corinth. There he passed on his Cynicism principle to Crates, who taught it to the Citium Zeno, who transformed it into the Academy of Stoicism, one of Greek philosophy's most lasting schools. Diogenes 'writings are not known but anecdotes give certain knowledge of his life. Nothing is known of Diogenes 'early life except that he had been a banker with his wife, Hicesias. It seems probable that Diogenes was also engraved in his father's banking aid service. At some point, Hicesias and Diogenes got caught up in a currency adulteration or debasement affair, and Diogenes was exiled from the city and lost his citizenship and all of his material belongings. That part of the storey seems to be corroborated by archaeology: significant quantities of defaced coins have been discovered in Sinope dating back to the middle of the 4th century BC, and many coins of the time bore the name of Hicesias as the official who minted them. Some counterfeit money had circulated in Sinope during this period. The coins were intentionally defaced to make them worthless as a legal tender. In the 4th century Sinope was contested between pro-Persian and pro-Greek forces, and perhaps behind the act were political reasons rather than financial ones. According to one edition, Diogenes went to seek her help at the Oracle in Delphi, and was told that the currency would deface. Following the Sinope fiasco Diogenes concluded that the oracle meant that instead of the real gold, he would have to deface the national currency. He flew to Greece and questioned existing traditions and beliefs for the intent of his life. He argued that people rely exclusively on traditional explanations, rather than being troubled by the real existence of evil. Within ancient Greek philosophy, this comparison between nature and tradition is a favourite theme, and one that Plato brings up in The Republic, in the Ring of Gyges storey. Diogenes is considered one of the founders of Cynicism along with Antisthenes and Crates of Thebes. Unlike most other Cynics, Diogenes 'theories had to be implicitly pursued. Diogenes 'works do not survive as it has written more than ten novels, a volume of letters and seven tragedies. Cynical ideas are inseparable from the art of Cynic; thus, what we know of Diogenes is found in a few dispersed classical texts in anecdotes of his life and attributed terms.
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    Diodorus Cronus

    Diodorus Cronus

    Diodorus Cronus was Greek philosopher and dialectician associate of the Megarian school. In reaction to Aristotle's discussion about possible contingents, he was most notable with philosophical developments, including his master argument created. Ameinias Iasus's son Diodorus was at Caria. He resided under the rule of Ptolemy I Soter at the court of Alexandria, who is said to have assigned him Cronus's surname because of his inability to answer any dialectical question proposed by Stilpo at once when the two philosophers dine with the king. Diodorus is said to have taken this remorse to heart so much that when he came back from the meal and wrote a treatise on the matter he died in despair. According to Strabo, however, Diodorus herself took the nickname Cronus from his friend, Apollonius Chronus. It is thought that Diodorus died in around 284 BC; his date of birth is uncertain. Sometimes he was considered to be ancient enough to influence Aristotle, but for this there is no compelling evidence. Diodorus was particularly lauded for his excellent ability in dialectics, for which he was called The Dialectic. It was also his title and also passed on to his five sons, Menexene, Argia, Theognis, Artemesia and Pantaclea, all of whom were known as dialectics. He included the dialectician Philo, and the founder of the Stoic School, Zeno de Citium. While inspired by the Megarian tradition, it is not clear how closely related Diodorus and his fellow dialectics were to that particular school of philosophy. They have only fragmentary details about Diodorus 'teachings, and not even his work titles are known. He seems to have established the dialectical art of the Megarian school in its entirety. He was concerned only with logical statements and conceptual propositions. Just as he rejected the divisibility of the basic notion of logic, he also insisted that space was indivisible for his physical doctrines, and therefore that motion was impossible. He also rejected the coming into being and all the multiplicity both in time and in space; yet he found the objects that take up space as a whole composed of an infinite number of indivisible particles. Diodorus used the example of the Sorites, and two others of the same kind are said to have been discovered, viz. Also ascribed to Eubulides, the Masked Man and The Horns. He further rejected the argument that words are vague, any ambiguity of interpretation being attributed purely to the mysterious speech of the speakers. Aristotle's experiments On Interpretation had wrestled with the issue of dependent capacity. Especially when one can interpret future contingents meaningfully as real or false now, when the future is open and if so how? In addition, Diodorus argued the probability was the same as necessary; thus the future would be as confident and determined as the past. We are told by Alexander of Aphrodisiah that Diodorus felt it would be possible to do it alone which either is occurring now or would happen at any future date. When we talk about the truth of an unrecorded history, we know well whether a given incident either happened or did not occur, but without understanding which of the two is true, and thus we conclude simply that the incident might have happened, and so the future either is pessimistic about the probability that a certain event may arise at some moment, or about the assumption that it may never arise, is optimistic: as the ca. Apparently it is unlikely to happen at any time. Epictetus went on to point out that the second and third proposition was used by Tarsus 'Panthoides, Cleanthes and Antipater to argue that the first argument was incorrect. On the other hand, Chrysippus agreed with Diodorus that anything actual as an occurrence is important in the past but rejected Diodorus 'opinion that what is actually would either be accurate or false. And he used both the first and third suggestions to show that the second suggestion was false.
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    Eudoxus of Cnidus

    Eudoxus of Cnidus

    Cnidus Eudoxus was Archytas and Plato ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student. Many of his plays are lost though some fragments are preserved by Hipparchus's commentary on Aratus 'poem on astronomy. Bithynia's Theodosius sphaerics may be based upon a work by Eudoxus. His name, Eudoxus, means good name or honour. This is identical to Benedictus, a Latin word. Cnidus 'father Eudoxus Aeschines loved to see stars at night. Eudoxus moved to Tarentum for the first time to study with Archytas, with whom he studied math. Although in Italy, Eudoxus had visited Sicily, where he practised medicine with Philiston. Around the age of 23, he travelled to Athens to study with Socrates 'disciples with doctor Theomedon, who others assumed he was his lover. He then attended several months of lectures by Plato and other philosophers but owing to a dispute they had a fall-out. Eudoxus was very poor, and was only able to afford a Piraeus apartment. He travelled the 7 miles in each direction each day to attend Plato's lectures. His friends gathered enough money to take him to Heliopolis, Egypt, to pursue his studies in astronomy and mathematics amid his poverty. He should have been there for seventeen months. He then travelled from northern Egypt to Cyzicus, situated on the South Coast of the Propontis, the Marmara River. In the south, he had transferred in Mausolus court. During his travels he has met many of his own pupils. At around 368 BC Eudoxus and his pupils returned to Athens. According to some accounts, during Plato's time in Syracuse around 367 he assumed control of the Academy, and taught Aristotle. He eventually came back to his native Cnidus where he worked on the assembly of the country. He set up an observatory while at Cnidus, and went on writing and teaching about theology, astronomy, and meteorology. He had one wife, three children being Aristagoras, Actis, Philtis, and Delphis. His fame in mathematical astronomy is due to the discovery of the celestial globe and early contributions to a planetary motion interpretation. His work on proportions offers insight into real numbers; he does a thorough analysis of constant quantities, not just whole numbers or even rational numbers. Once it was restored in the 16th century by Tartaglia and others, it became the basis for a century of systematic empirical research, until it was replaced by Richard Dedekind. In his honour, Craters are named on Mars and The Moon. He is named after an algebraic curve, too. Some considered Eudoxus the best of ancient Greek mathematicians, and in all of Antiquity second only to Archimedes. He established rigorously the method of the exhaustion of Antiphon, a predecessor to the integral calculus that Archimedes often used in the following century in a masterly way. By applying the method Eudoxus proved such mathematical claims as: regions of circles are to each other as the squares of their radii, volumes of spheres to each other as the cubes of their radii, the volume of a pyramid is one-third the volume of a prism with the same base and height and the volume of a cone is one-third that of the same triangle. Eudoxus proposed the concept of an unquantified mathematical magnitude to define and function with constant geometrical structures such as axes, angles, zones, and volumes by avoiding the use of numerical quantities. By so doing, he overturned a Pythagorean emphasis on numbers and algebra, relying more on the geometry concepts as the basis for practical mathematics. Many Pythagoreans, including the teacher Archytas of Eudoxus, had assumed that only arithmetic would provide a foundation for proof. Driven by the need to grasp and operate at incommensurable quantities, Eudoxus calculated, on the basis of explicit axioms, what may have been the first deductive method in mathematics. Eudoxus 'attention change caused a 2,000 year split in mathematics.
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    Empedocles

    Empedocles

    Empedocles was pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and was born in Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily, which was known as a local town. Empedocles’ theory is best thought of as deriving from the four fundamental elements' cosmogonic concept. He also suggested powers that would unite and divide the elements which he respectively called Love and Strife. Influenced by Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, Empedocles opposed the custom of exploiting and killing animals for food. He had developed a distinctive reincarnation hypothesis. In fact it is believed that the last Greek philosopher to document his thoughts in writing was him. Even then, more of his work survives, than any other pre-Socratic philosopher. The death of Empedocle was mythologized by ancient poets and has been the subject of numerous literary works since then, including modern literature students. Empedocles had been identified in Akragas as native of Sicily. He had come from a noble and wealthy family with a renowned background. No one knows about his past. His brother, also known as Empedokles, had secured a win in Olympia's horse-race. The Millions congress split up by Empedocles. He is reported to have been magnanimous in helping the poor; ruthless in persecuting the oligarchs 'overbearing actions; and also rejected the town's authority when provided to him. And there is a different dimension of his public persona. He believed to be a prophet, and to be revered in that way by his fellow-people. The fact is, Empedokles wasn't merely a statesman; he had the 'medicine-man' in him. According to Satyros, while his master performed witchcraft, Gorgias believed he was there. Via the Purifications fragments we shall see what it entails. Empedokles was a new faith preacher who pursued salvation and abstinence in order to liberate himself from the 'wheel of life.' At Akragas, orphicism seems to have been high in the days of Theron, and there are also some linguistic coincidences between the poetry of Empedokles and the Orphicsing Odes which Pindar addressed to him. Thus Timaios already understood the storey where Empedokles was removed for taking discourses from the Pythagorean order. Then there was among them a man of exceptional intelligence, extremely skilled in all manner of wise works, a man who had acquired the greatest riches of wisdom; for had he looked with all his eyes, he could possibly see all the things that were in the lives of ten, yea, twenty men. His excellent oratory, profound knowledge of nature, and the prestige of his magnificent skills, like preventing illnesses, and averting epidemics, brought forth many of his name's myths and storeys. He asserted spiritual powers through his poetry Purifications, including resisting darkness, healing old age and manipulating wind and rain. Empedocles was acquainted with the doctors Pausanias and Acron; with numerous Pythagoreans; and even, it is said, with Parmenides and Anaxagoras in association with them. The only pupil mentioned by Empedocles is sophist and rhetorician Gorgias. Timaeus and Dicachercheus spoke of Empedocles 'voyage to the Peloponnese, and of the respect paid to him there; others mentioned his stay in Athens, and in Thurii's newly founded colony, 446 BC; there are also remarkable accounts of him travelling far east to the lands of the Magi. Empedocles 'contemporary Life at Xanthus is lost. He dies at the age of 60 according to Aristotle, while other scholars have him who lives up to a hundred and nine years. Likewise, there are theories of his death which refers to a legend dating back to Heraclides. Ponticus portrayed him as removed from the Earth; whilst others saw him die in the fires of Mount Etna. That is how big his legend was.
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    Diotima of Mantinea

    Diotima of Mantinea

    Diotima of Mantinea was an ancient Greek prophetess and philosopher who claimed at Plato's Symposium. He died in 440 B.C.E. The idea of emotions, the idea of platonic love, all surface in dialogues that he left behind. The word Diotima means one who honours or is honoured by Zeus, and the root "mantis" is reminiscent of its Mantinean origin, implying a symbolic connexion. At the Symposium, she is believed to be a priestess or prophetess and is said to be from the Peloponnesian city of Mantinea, which at the time of the dialogue was allying against Athens, while one version of the text preferred her to be a mantic lady, or seeress, rather than a lady from Mantinea, in old readings. Because Plato is the only contemporary source, questions have been posed as to whether she was a true historical figure or simply a fictitious creation; nevertheless, it has been found that nearly all of the characters mentioned in Plato's dialogues relate to actual people living in ancient Athens. Plato was believed to have based Diotima on Aspasia, Pericles 'mentor, so fascinated by her intellect and humour, by the majority of scholars of the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, Aspasia appears in Plato's Menexenus dialogue, under her own name, and some scholars have persuasively suggested that Plato did not use fake names; thus, Diotima may be a historical figure. In the Symposium, Diotima sets forth ideas that differ from those of Socrates and Plato, thereby reflecting a certain metaphysical stance. Socrates claims to have known of her too. Every of these examples are used in Plato's dialogue, to argue for her life. A bronze relief from the first century found in Pompeii portrays Socrates and an unidentified female figure, along with a winged Eros; although some thought the sitting woman in the picture to be Diotima, others suggested that her presence would indicate that she is likely to be more likely to be Aphrodite or Aspasia. Writings of the 2nd to 5th century A.D. Speak of Diotima as a real human being, though Plato may be the only reason for that. It was not until the fifteenth century that the suggestion was created that she was a mythical construct, presumably on the assumption that she was a woman; however, this possible explanation was initially put forward because Diotima is not stated by contemporary or near-contemporary sources and because it could be interpreted as symbolic by its very name and meaning. One members of a group discuss the importance of love during Plato's Symposium. Socrates claims Diotima, who was a seer or priestess, taught 'the religion of devotion' during his youth. Socrates also notes that Diotima helped to fend off the plague in Athens. Diotima states in a dialogue which Socrates recounts at the symposium that Socrates compares the concept of love with the notion of the beloved. Happiness, she notes, is not entirely lovely or pleasant as previous speakers suggest in the dialogue. Diotima provides a genealogy of Love to Socrates, saying he is the product of wealth and deprivation. Loving drives the human to seek perfection, natural elegance or perfect bodies first. So as a lover grows in wisdom the sought after beauty is sacred, or sublime soul. For Diotima, the most fitting use of a human love is to direct one's mind into the truth of belief, or religion. The cherished beauty stimulates the soul and mind and guides one's commitment to metaphysical issues. Someone goes from recognising another's beauty, to appreciating Beauty separately from some entity, to understanding God, the source of Beauty, to enjoying God.
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    Epicurus

    Epicurus

    Epicurus was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage, who founded the highly influential school of philosophy, Epicureanism. He had been born to Athenian parents on the Greek island of Samos. Influenced by Democritus, Aristippus, Pyrrho and probably the Cynics, he turned against his day's Platonism and founded his own academy in Athens, known as Garden. Epicurus and his disciples were known to eat simple meals and explore a broad range of metaphysical themes. As a matter of principle he had freely allowed the women to attend the classroom. It is said that Epicurus originally wrote more than 300 works on different subjects, but the vast majority of those writings have been lost. Just three letters he wrote, along with a few fragments of his other works, the letters to Menoeceus, Pythocles, and Herodotus, and two quotation books, the Principle Doctrines and the Vatican Sayings, remained intact. Most knowledge of his teachings comes from later writers, notably the biographer Diogenes Laërtius, the Epicurean Roman poet Lucretius and the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus, as well as violent though mainly correct accounts from the Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus, and the statesman and Intellectual Skeptic Cicero. The aim of philosophy for Epicurus was to help people attain a healthy, prosperous existence marked by unity, and free from fear and painlessness. He believed that people would best accept the faith by living a life of self-sufficiency, surrounded by friends. He explained that the source of all human neurosis is fear of death and a desire for people to think that death would be terrible and traumatic, which he claimed would cause excessive distress, self-protective habits and hypocrisy. Death is the death of both body and spirit, according to Epicurus, and so should not be dreaded. Epicurus explained that although there are gods they have no experience in human affairs. He believed that people should act ethically not because the gods blame or praise people for their actions but because they would be burdened with guilt for amoral conduct and prevented from attaining ataraxia. Unlike Aristotle, Epicurus was an empiricist, suggesting he assumed the senses were the universe's only real source of information. Through the earlier philosopher Democritus he studied much about his philosophy and cosmology. Epicurus, like Democritus, taught that the universe is limitless and eternal, and that all matter consists of incredibly small, unseen objects known as atoms. All occurrences in the natural universe originate fundamentally from the motion and touch of atoms in empty space. Though famous from the beginning, the epicurean teachings were controversial. In the late years of the Roman Empire the epicureanism achieved its height of prominence. It died out in the late antiquity and fell under early Christian animosity. In the Middle Ages, Epicurus was popularly viewed as a patron saint of drunkards, whoremongers, and gluttons, though inaccurately. With the rediscovery of critical sources, his ideas slowly became more widely accepted in the fifteenth century. Epicurus was born in February 341 BC, in the Athenian town on the island of Samos Aegean. His parents were both Athens-born Neocles and Chaerestrate and his father was an Athenian citizen. During the last years of the Greek Classical Era the Epicurus grew. Plato died seven years before Epicurus was born, and seven years after when Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont into Persia. As a boy, a typical ancient Greek education should have been given to Epicurus. Epicurus is known to have been studying under the supervision of Pamphilus, a Samian platonist, possibly for about four years. Throughout his Letter to Menoeceus, he had extensive rhetorical knowledge, and surviving fragments of his other works. Upon Alexander the Great's death, Perdiccas expelled the Athenian inhabitants from Samos to Colophon, on the coast of what now is Turkey.